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Medial Collateral Ligament injury , MCL Injuries - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Medial Collateral Ligament injury , MCL Injuries - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2015/08/28
Channel: nabil ebraheim
How to test the Medial Collateral ligament (MCL) of the Knee
How to test the Medial Collateral ligament (MCL) of the Knee
Published: 2015/05/04
Channel: John Gibbons
Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries
Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries
Published: 2013/04/05
Channel: Roy Dwyer
How to treat Knee pain - Medial Collateral Ligament sprain (MCL) / Meniscus with Kinesiology tape
How to treat Knee pain - Medial Collateral Ligament sprain (MCL) / Meniscus with Kinesiology tape
Published: 2012/03/06
Channel: John Gibbons
BEST EXERCISES FOR MCL INJURY REHABALITATION
BEST EXERCISES FOR MCL INJURY REHABALITATION
Published: 2016/02/16
Channel: Wippe Ⓥ
MCL Reconstruction Surgery
MCL Reconstruction Surgery
Published: 2015/07/28
Channel: Vail Knee
Knee & Medial Collateral Ligament Animation, ©Primal Pictures Ltd
Knee & Medial Collateral Ligament Animation, ©Primal Pictures Ltd
Published: 2009/12/09
Channel: AdvancedTrainings
Full Knee Examination - Part 1 - Medial collateral ligament / lateral collateral ligament
Full Knee Examination - Part 1 - Medial collateral ligament / lateral collateral ligament
Published: 2014/09/21
Channel: John Gibbons
Medial Collateral Ligament motion in flexion-extension
Medial Collateral Ligament motion in flexion-extension
Published: 2009/01/09
Channel: Roy Wung
Strengthening Exercises for Medial Collateral Ligament MCL knee Injury rehabilitation
Strengthening Exercises for Medial Collateral Ligament MCL knee Injury rehabilitation
Published: 2010/12/07
Channel: www.sportsinjuryclinic.net
The medial collateral ligament. Part 1: anatomy
The medial collateral ligament. Part 1: anatomy
Published: 2011/10/31
Channel: AnatomyPhysiotherapy
Examination Of The Medial Collateral Ligament MCL - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Examination Of The Medial Collateral Ligament MCL - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2015/08/14
Channel: nabil ebraheim
Do you need a knee brace for an MCL injury?
Do you need a knee brace for an MCL injury?
Published: 2016/03/21
Channel: Dr. David Geier
How to treat Medial knee Pain (MCL Sprain / Medial Meniscus) with Kinesiology Tape
How to treat Medial knee Pain (MCL Sprain / Medial Meniscus) with Kinesiology Tape
Published: 2013/11/05
Channel: John Gibbons
Knee- MCL and LCL Stress testing
Knee- MCL and LCL Stress testing
Published: 2014/10/26
Channel: University of Ottawa Musculoskeletal Education
Medial Collateral Ligament Sprain
Medial Collateral Ligament Sprain
Published: 2012/05/04
Channel: Myoproducts
Medial Collateral Ligament Trephination in the treatment of Medial Compartment Pathology
Medial Collateral Ligament Trephination in the treatment of Medial Compartment Pathology
Published: 2016/08/06
Channel: Dr. Christopher Dougherty
MCL injuries of the knee: Injury, diagnosis, treatment
MCL injuries of the knee: Injury, diagnosis, treatment
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Dr. David Geier
Medial Collateral Ligament MCL Knee Injury Assesment Techniques
Medial Collateral Ligament MCL Knee Injury Assesment Techniques
Published: 2010/12/07
Channel: www.sportsinjuryclinic.net
Knee Pain and LCL MCL repair with UFC fighter Brandon Harder | Trevor Bachmeyer | SmashweRx
Knee Pain and LCL MCL repair with UFC fighter Brandon Harder | Trevor Bachmeyer | SmashweRx
Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: SmashweRx
How to Read Knee MRI of MCL Injury | Complex Knee Surgeon | Colorado
How to Read Knee MRI of MCL Injury | Complex Knee Surgeon | Colorado
Published: 2015/07/30
Channel: Robert LaPrade
Dr Bach Discusses MCL Sprains
Dr Bach Discusses MCL Sprains
Published: 2011/01/27
Channel: MidwestOrthopaedics atRush
How To Treat an MCL Injury and Speed Recovery
How To Treat an MCL Injury and Speed Recovery
Published: 2017/02/07
Channel: Sinew Therapeutics
How to tape a knee - MCL / medial collateral ligament / medial pain / sprain - sports taping series
How to tape a knee - MCL / medial collateral ligament / medial pain / sprain - sports taping series
Published: 2015/05/03
Channel: Joey Hayes
Medial Ligament Injuries of the Knee (MCL)
Medial Ligament Injuries of the Knee (MCL)
Published: 2011/06/17
Channel: www.sportsinjuryclinic.net
Valgus StressTest for the knee to test the integrity of the medial collateral ligament (MCL)
Valgus StressTest for the knee to test the integrity of the medial collateral ligament (MCL)
Published: 2013/04/16
Channel: Mark Sleeper
Medial Collateral Ligament Stability Test
Medial Collateral Ligament Stability Test
Published: 2013/04/25
Channel: openmichigan
MCL Knee Reconstruction with Semitendonous Graft
MCL Knee Reconstruction with Semitendonous Graft
Published: 2013/05/08
Channel: OrthopedicDiscovery
Injury Report - MCL Sprain & Strain with Orthopedic Surgeon Dr. Torrance Walker
Injury Report - MCL Sprain & Strain with Orthopedic Surgeon Dr. Torrance Walker
Published: 2014/12/03
Channel: Forest Park
Valgus Stress Test | Medial Collateral Ligament
Valgus Stress Test | Medial Collateral Ligament
Published: 2015/03/16
Channel: Physiotutors
Taping the knee for a MCL injury
Taping the knee for a MCL injury
Published: 2015/08/21
Channel: Lifecare Video
ACL/MCL/PCL Reconstruction
ACL/MCL/PCL Reconstruction
Published: 2016/07/30
Channel: NewYorkOrtho
Surgical Technique Medial Collateral Ligament MCL   Acute Meniscotibial Repair
Surgical Technique Medial Collateral Ligament MCL Acute Meniscotibial Repair
Published: 2017/06/10
Channel: ortho tube
MCL rehabiliation
MCL rehabiliation
Published: 2013/10/16
Channel: Christopher Pettit
1st degree mcl sprain
1st degree mcl sprain
Published: 2015/04/03
Channel: Brendan Liakos
InternalBrace™ MCL Augmentation Repair
InternalBrace™ MCL Augmentation Repair
Published: 2015/02/19
Channel: What's New in Orthopaedics
Do This Exercise For Medial Knee Pain And MCL Sprain Prevention
Do This Exercise For Medial Knee Pain And MCL Sprain Prevention
Published: 2016/03/30
Channel: Fitness Oriented
Exercises for medial knee ligament injury - overview
Exercises for medial knee ligament injury - overview
Published: 2015/05/18
Channel: www.sportsinjuryclinic.net
How to test the MCL, Meniscus and hamstrings in a prone position
How to test the MCL, Meniscus and hamstrings in a prone position
Published: 2015/05/03
Channel: John Gibbons
Medial Collateral Ligament injury
Medial Collateral Ligament injury
Published: 2016/06/13
Channel: Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics
Will my ACL, MCL, or PCL (Knee Ligament) Tear Heal?? Surgery??
Will my ACL, MCL, or PCL (Knee Ligament) Tear Heal?? Surgery??
Published: 2017/01/18
Channel: physicaltherapyvideo
Grade II MCL and medial meniscus tear
Grade II MCL and medial meniscus tear
Published: 2015/03/05
Channel: Margaret Peterson
Knee MCL Taping
Knee MCL Taping
Published: 2013/09/27
Channel: North Queensland Physiotherapy Centre
Valgus Stress Test of the Knee⎟Medial Collateral Ligament
Valgus Stress Test of the Knee⎟Medial Collateral Ligament
Published: 2015/11/30
Channel: Physiotutors
Knee Ligament Palpation
Knee Ligament Palpation
Published: 2007/12/15
Channel: massageceu
MCL Knee Injury (Medial Collateral Ligament)
MCL Knee Injury (Medial Collateral Ligament)
Published: 2013/04/11
Channel: The Dr. Bob Show
My ACL, MCL, and PCL Tear Recovery - Week 1
My ACL, MCL, and PCL Tear Recovery - Week 1
Published: 2016/03/30
Channel: Bl5H0P
Knee Ligament Injuries: How They Happen! (MCL, LCL, PCL, & ACL Tears)
Knee Ligament Injuries: How They Happen! (MCL, LCL, PCL, & ACL Tears)
Published: 2016/10/28
Channel: Fitness Oriented
How to Tape Medial Collateral Ligament MCL with Kinesio Tape | Strapping Tape
How to Tape Medial Collateral Ligament MCL with Kinesio Tape | Strapping Tape
Published: 2013/04/30
Channel: Fergus Tilt
Knee Collateral Ligament Tests
Knee Collateral Ligament Tests
Published: 2010/01/11
Channel: Sheena Livingstone
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Medial collateral ligament
Knee diagram.svg
Diagram of the right knee. (Medial collateral ligament labeled at center right.)
Details
From medial epicondyle of the femur
To medial condyle of tibia
Identifiers
Latin Ligamentum collaterale tibiale
MeSH A02.513.514.162.600
Dorlands
/Elsevier
l_09/12491979
TA A03.6.08.012
FMA 44600
Anatomical terminology

The medial collateral ligament (MCL), or tibial collateral ligament (TCL), is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. It is on the medial (inner) side of the knee joint in humans and other primates. Its primary function is to resist valgus forces on the knee.

Structure[edit]

It is a broad, flat, membranous band, situated slightly posterior on the medial side of the knee joint. It is attached proximally to the medial epicondyle of the femur immediately below the adductor tubercle; below to the medial condyle of the tibia and medial surface of its body. It resists forces that would push the knee medially, which would otherwise produce valgus deformity.

The fibers of the posterior part of the ligament are short and incline backward as they descend; they are inserted into the tibia above the groove for the semimembranosus muscle.

The anterior part of the ligament is a flattened band, about 10 centimeters long, which inclines forward as it descends.

It is inserted into the medial surface of the body of the tibia about 2.5 centimeters below the level of the condyle.

Crossing on top of the lower part of the MCL is the pes anserinus, the joined tendons of the sartorius, gracilis, and semitendinosus muscles; a bursa is interposed between the two.

The MCL's deep surface covers the inferior medial genicular vessels and nerve and the anterior portion of the tendon of the semimembranosus muscle, with which it is connected by a few fibers; it is intimately adherent to the medial meniscus.

Development[edit]

Embryologically and phylogenically, the ligament represents the distal portion of the tendon of adductor magnus muscle. In lower animals, adductor magnus inserts into the tibia. Because of this, the ligament occasionally contains muscle fibres. This is an atavistic variation.

Clinical significance[edit]

Injury[edit]

A MCL injury can be very painful and is caused by a valgus stress to a slightly bent knee, often when landing, bending or on high impact. It may be difficult to apply pressure on the injured leg for at least a few days.

The most common knee structure damaged in skiing is the medial collateral ligament, although the carve turn has diminished the incidence somewhat.[1] MCL strains and tears are also fairly common in American football. The center and the guards are the most common victims of this type of injury due to the grip trend on their cleats, although sometimes it can be caused by a helmet striking the knee. The number of football players who get this injury has increased in recent years. Companies are currently trying to develop better cleats that will prevent the injury. MCL is also crucially affected in breaststroke and many professional swimmers suffer from chronic MCL pains.

Treatment[edit]

Depending on the grade of the injury, the lowest grade (grade 1) can take between 2 and 10 weeks for the injury to fully heal. Recovery times for grades 2 and 3 can take several weeks to several months.

Treatment of a partial tear or stretch injury is usually conservative. Physical Therapy should be a first choice option for treatment and diagnosis of injuries to this structure. This includes measures to control inflammation as well as bracing. Kannus has shown good clinical results with conservative care of grade II sprains, but poor results in grade III sprains.[2] As a result, more severe grade III and IV injuries to the MCL that lead to ongoing instability may require arthroscopic surgery. However, the medical literature considers surgery for most MCL injuries to be controversial.[3] Isolated MCL sprains are common.

For higher grade tears of the MCL with ongoing instability, the MCL can be sutured or replaced. Other non-surgical approaches for more severe MCL injuries may include prolotherapy, which has been shown by Reeves in a small RCT to reduce translation on KT-1000 arthrometer versus placebo.[4] The future of non-surgical care for a non-healing MCL injury with laxity (partial ligament tear) is likely bioengineering. Fan et al. (2008) have demonstrated that knee ligament reconstruction is possible using mesenchymal stem cells and a silk scaffold.[5]

Additional Images[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "KNEE INJURIES". www.ski-injury.com. Retrieved October 13, 2013. [unreliable medical source?]
  2. ^ Kannus, P (1988). "Long-term results of conservatively treated medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee joint". Clinical orthopaedics and related research (226): 103–12. PMID 3335084. doi:10.1097/00003086-198801000-00015. 
  3. ^ Indelicato, P. A. (1995). "Isolated Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries in the Knee". The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. 3 (1): 9–14. PMID 10790648. 
  4. ^ Reeves, K. D.; Hassanein, K (2000). "Randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study of dextrose prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis with or without ACL laxity". Alternative therapies in health and medicine. 6 (2): 68–74, 77–80. PMID 10710805. [unreliable medical source?] Results should be contrasted with meta-analysis such as the one by Rabago et al: Rabago, D; Best, T. M.; Beamsley, M; Patterson, J (2005). "A systematic review of prolotherapy for chronic musculoskeletal pain". Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 15 (5): 376–80. PMID 16162983. Lay summaryPubMed Health (April 30, 2007). 
  5. ^ Fan, Hongbin; Liu, Haifeng; Wong, Eugene J.W.; Toh, Siew L.; Goh, James C.H. (2008). "In vivo study of anterior cruciate ligament regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells and silk scaffold". Biomaterials. 29 (23): 3324–37. PMID 18462787. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.04.012. 

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

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