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PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS | Membranophones
PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS | Membranophones
Published: 2013/03/19
Channel: Jasmin Kim Abesamis
membranophone.wmv
membranophone.wmv
Published: 2011/08/30
Channel: jlmdclassroom
How to make a Membranophone
How to make a Membranophone
Published: 2017/02/07
Channel: Daniel Burke
Membranophone Building - DIY Wind Instrument
Membranophone Building - DIY Wind Instrument
Published: 2017/01/06
Channel: tachionics
Membranophone
Membranophone
Published: 2015/11/18
Channel: Audiopedia
Etude #2 for tenor range multi membranophone
Etude #2 for tenor range multi membranophone
Published: 2007/09/10
Channel: Devin Lowe
Water-Bottle Membranophone - Exploratorium Teacher Institute Science Snackbook
Water-Bottle Membranophone - Exploratorium Teacher Institute Science Snackbook
Published: 2010/01/28
Channel: Exploratorium Teacher Institute
Membranophone
Membranophone
Published: 2012/06/18
Channel: Theresa Schmidleitner
Dhak :A Huge Membranophone Instrument from India
Dhak :A Huge Membranophone Instrument from India
Published: 2014/07/26
Channel: PCS TV India
Drawing A Man Playing a Dhak(a Membranophone)
Drawing A Man Playing a Dhak(a Membranophone)
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: Diaper Drawings
Membranophone
Membranophone
Published: 2017/05/25
Channel: Central Scrutinizer
Membranophone; everytime, everywhere and everyone
Membranophone; everytime, everywhere and everyone
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: Calm Run
Travis Johnson at Apartment Music 8 improvisation balloons membranophone
Travis Johnson at Apartment Music 8 improvisation balloons membranophone
Published: 2011/05/05
Channel: Hal McGee
Membranophone Meaning
Membranophone Meaning
Published: 2015/05/01
Channel: ADictionary
Membranophone.m4v (sydney)
Membranophone.m4v (sydney)
Published: 2011/11/22
Channel: fcmsbandband
Membranophone
Membranophone
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: nuk84
Membranophones
Membranophones
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: Info 2Enable
Membranophone
Membranophone
Published: 2017/04/10
Channel: Malcolm Newell
Membranophone - Words Unlimited
Membranophone - Words Unlimited
Published: 2015/06/09
Channel: Peter Fonteece
"Uchiwa Daiko". Tambor de marco. membranófono. Membranophone, frame drum.
"Uchiwa Daiko". Tambor de marco. membranófono. Membranophone, frame drum.
Published: 2016/01/24
Channel: Pepe Moltó
Membranophone
Membranophone
Published: 2017/05/04
Channel: Lindsay White
Membranophone - Words Unlimited
Membranophone - Words Unlimited
Published: 2015/06/09
Channel: Art2Gold
Gallinácea, juguete zoosonoro, membranófono, sonorous toy, membranophone. By Pepe Moltó.
Gallinácea, juguete zoosonoro, membranófono, sonorous toy, membranophone. By Pepe Moltó.
Published: 2014/08/20
Channel: Pepe Moltó
Membranophones
Membranophones
Published: 2008/04/27
Channel: Tony Santora
The courage - Ours membranophone screen
The courage - Ours membranophone screen
Published: 2011/05/25
Channel: Jgouelufdg129
Cantarrana,  juguete zoosonoro, membranófono; sonorous toy, membranophone, by Pepe Moltó
Cantarrana, juguete zoosonoro, membranófono; sonorous toy, membranophone, by Pepe Moltó
Published: 2014/08/20
Channel: Pepe Moltó
How to say "membranophone"! (High Quality Voices)
How to say "membranophone"! (High Quality Voices)
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: WordBox
How To Pronounce Membranophone
How To Pronounce Membranophone
Published: 2017/11/10
Channel: Emma Saying
How to Pronounce Membranophone
How to Pronounce Membranophone
Published: 2014/03/23
Channel: Emma Saying
African Instruments : Membranophones (Drums)
African Instruments : Membranophones (Drums)
Published: 2017/09/14
Channel: TheeAfroNerd
We Are Number One but with Membranophones
We Are Number One but with Membranophones
Published: 2017/01/06
Channel: tachionics
Peter Houk Plays the Vitreous Membranophones
Peter Houk Plays the Vitreous Membranophones
Published: 2013/05/13
Channel: MIT Alumni Association Video Archive
How to say
How to say 'membranophone' in Spanish?
Published: 2017/11/13
Channel: How to say in Spanish?
Brain Cage-  D.M.T. (Divine Mind Trap) / The Dastardly Membranophone Test
Brain Cage- D.M.T. (Divine Mind Trap) / The Dastardly Membranophone Test
Published: 2013/12/02
Channel: Laurence Desbruslais
Associate in Nursing honest  error (THE courage membranophone Cover)
Associate in Nursing honest error (THE courage membranophone Cover)
Published: 2011/05/25
Channel: Jgouelufdg129
How to Pronounce Membranophone
How to Pronounce Membranophone
Published: 2016/12/24
Channel: Dictionary Voice
MEMBRANOPHONES - "8:00 AM"
MEMBRANOPHONES - "8:00 AM"
Published: 2014/09/04
Channel: James Cunningham
Gateway Membranophones
Gateway Membranophones
Published: 2013/09/12
Channel: James Cunningham
Membranophones: Basel Drum - Tanz Des Leu (Trad.)
Membranophones: Basel Drum - Tanz Des Leu (Trad.)
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: Various Artists - Topic
How to Pronounce Membranophone
How to Pronounce Membranophone
Published: 2015/05/30
Channel: Pronunciation Guide
Membranophones: Basel Drum - Tanz Des Vogel Gryff (Trad.)
Membranophones: Basel Drum - Tanz Des Vogel Gryff (Trad.)
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: Various Artists - Topic
Membranophones 2
Membranophones 2
Published: 2008/04/29
Channel: Tony Santora
Membranophones
Membranophones
Published: 2016/12/18
Channel: rabhi kenza
Week 14  Membranophones
Week 14 Membranophones
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: Info 2Enable
Virtual Tabla VST, South Asian Membranophone Percussion from Syntheway Indian Ethnic Percussion VST
Virtual Tabla VST, South Asian Membranophone Percussion from Syntheway Indian Ethnic Percussion VST
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: Syntheway Virtual Musical Instruments
Jesse Albuquerque-Drum Membranophones
Jesse Albuquerque-Drum Membranophones
Published: 2010/11/06
Channel: Jesse Albuquerque
Membranophones: Basel Drum - Tanz Des Wilde Ma
Membranophones: Basel Drum - Tanz Des Wilde Ma
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: (Basler Trommel) Trommeltänze der drei Maskenfiguren am Vogel Gryff (... - Topic
How to say
How to say 'membranophone' in French?
Published: 2017/11/14
Channel: How to say in French?
Membranophones: Big Bass Drum - Bourbaki-Marsch (Trad.)
Membranophones: Big Bass Drum - Bourbaki-Marsch (Trad.)
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: Katzenmusik, Lärmumzug am Schmutzigen Donnerstag (Blechmusik und zahl... - Topic
Membranophones: Military Drum - La Rousse (Trad. Aus Dem Val D
Membranophones: Military Drum - La Rousse (Trad. Aus Dem Val D'anniviers)
Published: 2014/09/29
Channel: Various Artists - Topic
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A membranophone is any musical instrument which produces sound primarily by way of a vibrating stretched membrane. It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification.

Most membranophones are drums. Hornbostel-Sachs divides drums into three main types: struck drums, where the skin is hit with a stick, the hand, or something else; string drums, where a knotted string attached to the drum's skin is pulled, passing its vibrations onto the skin; and friction drums, where some sort of rubbing motion causes the skin to vibrate (a common type has a stick passing through a hole in the skin which is pulled back and forth).

In addition to drums, there is another kind of membranophone, called the singing membranophone, of which the best known type is the kazoo. These instruments modify a sound produced by something else, commonly the human voice, by having a skin vibrate with it.


Hornbostel-Sachs[edit]

The Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification divides membranophones in a numeric taxonomy based on how the sound is produced:

  • 21: by hitting the drumskin with a hand or object (most common form, including the timpani and snare drum)
  • 22: by pulling a knotted string attached to the drumskin (common in Indian drums, and can be considered an example of a chordophone as well)
  • 23: by rubbing the drumskin with a hand or object (common in Irish traditional music, an example is the bodhran)
  • 24: by modifying sounds through a vibrating membrane (unusual form, including the kazoo) [1]

Shape and technique[edit]

Membranophones can also be divided into large divisions based on shape and manner of sound production:[2]

Mirlitons, as the kazoo in the picture, are a special class of membranophone, and is the only class that does not consist of true drums
  • Tubular drums include a wide range of drum shapes, like waisted, long, footed, cylindrical, conical and barrel
  • Mirlitons, Kazoos and Swazzles vibrate in sympathy with sounds travelling across a membrane. These are the only membranophones that are not truly drums.

SIL International maintains a classification system based largely on shape:[3]

  • Cylindrical drums are straight-sided, and generally two-headed. A buzzing, percussive string is sometimes used. Examples include the bass drum and the Iranian dohol.
  • Conical drums are sloped on the sides, and are usually one-headed. Examples include the Indian tabla and the Venezuelan chimbangueles.
A timpani is a kind of kettle drum
A cuica is a kind of friction drum
  • Barrel drums are normally one-headed, and may be open at the bottom. They bulge in the middle. Examples include the Dhak from eastern parts of India, bendre, made by the Mossi of Burkina Faso out of a large calabash, and the trong chau of Vietnam.
  • Hourglass drums (or waisted drums) are hourglass-shaped and generally two-headed. The drumheads are laced onto the body, and the laces may be squeezed during performance to alter the drum's pitch. Examples include folk drums in India (like the damaru) and much of Africa, as well as some talking drums.
  • Goblet drums (or chalice drums) are one-headed and goblet shaped, and are usually open at the bottom. Examples include the Arab darabukka, and a range of similar instruments from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Africa, Southeastern Europe and the Middle East.
  • Footed drums are single-headed and are held above the ground by feet. The space between the drum and the ground provides extra resonance. Examples include a range of East African and Polynesian drums.
  • Long drums are a diverse category, characterized by extreme length. Examples include the single-headed hollow tree trunk drums of Africa and the ornately carved and dyed gufalo of the Nuna in Burkina Faso.
  • Kettle drums (or pot drums or vessel drums) are frequently played in pairs, and have a vessel or pot body, are one-headed and usually tuned to a specific note. Examples include the timpani and tabla.
  • Frame drums are composed of one or more membranes stretched across a frame. Examples include the tambourine and bodhran.
  • Friction drums produce sound through friction, such as by rubbing a hand or object against the drumskin. Examples include the Brazilian cuica and the Spanish zambomba.
  • Mirlitons, Kazoos and Swazzles produce sound by blowing air across a membrane.

Traditional classifications[edit]

The traditional Chinese method of classifying instruments by composite material renders the following categories of drums:[4]

  • Jin: Metal drums, along with bells and gongs
  • Ge: Leather-headed drums
  • Mu: Wood drums and blocks
  • Tu: Clay drums, as well as some kinds of clay ocarinas

Traditional Japanese and Korean instrument classification schemes use essentially the same scheme.[5]

The traditional classification of Indian instruments include two categories of membranophones.[6]

  • Ghan: Percussion without membranes, such as chimes, bells and gongs
  • Avanaddh: Percussion with membranes, such as drums with skin heads

Other categories[edit]

The predrum category consists of simple drum-like percussion instruments. These include the ground drum, which, in its most common §—Form, consists of an animal skin stretched over a hole in the ground, and the pot drum, made from a simple pot.[7]

Water drums are also sometimes treated as a distinct category of membranophone. Common in Native American music and the music of Africa, water drums are characterized by a unique sound caused by filling the drum with some amount of water.[8]

The talking drum is an important category of West African membranophone, characterized by the use of varying tones to "talk". Talking drums are used to communicate across distances.[9]

Military drums or war drums are drums in various forms that have been used in the military.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Glossary#Membranophone". Essentials of Music. Retrieved January 22, 2007. 
  2. ^ Catherine Schmidt-Jones. "Classifying Musical Instruments: Membranophones". Connexions. Retrieved January 22, 2007. 
  3. ^ "534m Membranophones". SIL. Archived from the original on July 10, 2006. Retrieved January 4, 2007. 
  4. ^ Gregory Youtz. "Silk and Bamboo" (pdf). Chapter 8. Retrieved January 24, 2007. 
  5. ^ Richard Hooker (1996). "The Earliest Japanese Music". World Civilizations. Archived from the original on January 13, 2007. Retrieved February 4, 2007. 
  6. ^ David Courtney (2006). "Indian Musical Instruments". Chandra and David's Indian Musical Instruments. Retrieved February 4, 2007. 
  7. ^ Virginia Tech Department of Music. "Modern Instruments and their Families: Symphonic Classifications in Western Music". Music Dictionary. Retrieved January 22, 2007. 
  8. ^ Claire King. "Tuning the Water Drum". From Cradleboard to Motherboard. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved January 22, 2007. 
  9. ^ "Drum Telegraphy". TIME. 21 September 1942. Retrieved 7 November 2006. 


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