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Troy - Paris vs Menelaus
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus
Published: 2011/07/07
Channel: BS Gaming
Troy Movie - Extended Edition - Hector Talks With Menelaus
Troy Movie - Extended Edition - Hector Talks With Menelaus
Published: 2008/09/13
Channel: Jazmin Tully
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus HD!
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus HD!
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Free Angel
Troy -Hector kills Menelaus HD
Troy -Hector kills Menelaus HD
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: Zero Fucks
Troy (2/5) Movie CLIP - Hector Saves Paris (2004) HD
Troy (2/5) Movie CLIP - Hector Saves Paris (2004) HD
Published: 2011/05/27
Channel: Movieclips
Helen Meets Menelaus - "The Trojan Women"
Helen Meets Menelaus - "The Trojan Women"
Published: 2016/10/19
Channel: Veronique Laurent
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus [1080p Blu-Ray] ᴴᴰ
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus [1080p Blu-Ray] ᴴᴰ
Published: 2015/03/08
Channel: TW
Menelaus
Menelaus
Published: 2015/10/11
Channel: We the Living - Topic
Geometria ( Teorema de Ceva e Teorema de Menelaus ) Nível 3
Geometria ( Teorema de Ceva e Teorema de Menelaus ) Nível 3
Published: 2013/09/25
Channel: Polos Olímpicos de Treinamento Intensivo
Menelaus Theorem
Menelaus Theorem
Published: 2015/06/21
Channel: Mr. T's Math Videos
Geometria - Aula 63 - Teorema de Menelaus
Geometria - Aula 63 - Teorema de Menelaus
Published: 2014/11/10
Channel: Programa de Iniciação Cientifica da OBMEP
Paris vs Menelaus for the love of Helen
Paris vs Menelaus for the love of Helen
Published: 2012/06/14
Channel: Ελληνική Μυθολογία - Greek Mythology
Homer
Homer's Iliad Scene 5 Paris and Menelaus
Published: 2017/09/21
Channel: Jongha Hwang
THE FALL OF TROY | Helen, Paris & Menelaus | love triangle
THE FALL OF TROY | Helen, Paris & Menelaus | love triangle
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: Stojanovski
Paris vs Menelaus
Paris vs Menelaus
Published: 2016/04/01
Channel: Cyrus The Great
Menelaus
Menelaus
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: WikiWikiup
Menelaus
Menelaus' Example Problem
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: Puddle Math
Menelaus sung by Grace Gori, Mezzo-Soprano
Menelaus sung by Grace Gori, Mezzo-Soprano
Published: 2010/05/15
Channel: gorivoicestudios
Troy - Clip 2
Troy - Clip 2
Published: 2009/10/09
Channel: NWOAchilles
Aula Colégio Naval 2016 - teorema de menelaus - Matemática
Aula Colégio Naval 2016 - teorema de menelaus - Matemática
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: ProMilitares
Troy (2004) [[ Paris VS Menelaus ]] - [RE-SOUND]
Troy (2004) [[ Paris VS Menelaus ]] - [RE-SOUND]
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: EPIC FIGHTS - Tony
UnivHypGeom31: Menelaus, Ceva and the Laws of proportion
UnivHypGeom31: Menelaus, Ceva and the Laws of proportion
Published: 2011/12/13
Channel: njwildberger
Menelaus
Menelaus' Theorem
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Puddle Math
Paris vs. Menelaus (with Background Track)
Paris vs. Menelaus (with Background Track)
Published: 2015/01/23
Channel: RockoutG88
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus (with Film Score)
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus (with Film Score)
Published: 2013/09/08
Channel: MK300
Description of Proof of Menelaus
Description of Proof of Menelaus's Theorem
Published: 2013/10/25
Channel: Micah James
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus [Rescore] Scene Composed By Alex Leeming (Unofficial composition)
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus [Rescore] Scene Composed By Alex Leeming (Unofficial composition)
Published: 2017/07/04
Channel: Alexander Leeming
Hector kills Menelaus - Troy
Hector kills Menelaus - Troy
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: nmart27
Geometria ( Ceva Menelaus ) - Nível 2
Geometria ( Ceva Menelaus ) - Nível 2
Published: 2013/09/10
Channel: Polos Olímpicos de Treinamento Intensivo
Geometria plana 21 Teorema de Menelaus IME/ITA
Geometria plana 21 Teorema de Menelaus IME/ITA
Published: 2016/11/06
Channel: Professor Julinho do IME
The Menelaus and Ceva Theorem
The Menelaus and Ceva Theorem
Published: 2015/04/02
Channel: ultrascience
Troy"Paris Vs Menelaus"[FullHD|1080p]
Troy"Paris Vs Menelaus"[FullHD|1080p]
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: Screen Zone
Where Is Menelaus From?
Where Is Menelaus From?
Published: 2017/09/26
Channel: A Big Question II
Proof of Converse of Menelaus
Proof of Converse of Menelaus's Theorem
Published: 2013/10/25
Channel: Micah James
Vaughan Williams Four Last Songs No. 4 "Menelaus" - Glenda Maurice, Mezzo-Soprano
Vaughan Williams Four Last Songs No. 4 "Menelaus" - Glenda Maurice, Mezzo-Soprano
Published: 2012/10/03
Channel: Benjamin Schoening
MENELAUS-STEWART-CARNOT VE SEVA TEOREMLERİ
MENELAUS-STEWART-CARNOT VE SEVA TEOREMLERİ
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: Ders İzleyin
Trojan War - Agamemnon and Menelaus
Trojan War - Agamemnon and Menelaus
Published: 2013/10/14
Channel: johncastle496
Menelaus Dying.mov
Menelaus Dying.mov
Published: 2012/05/06
Channel: Emmet Cordrey
Futurepack 1.11 - Mushrooms for Menelaus
Futurepack 1.11 - Mushrooms for Menelaus
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: MCenderdragon san
Troya - Paris vs Menelaus (Musicalización de escena)
Troya - Paris vs Menelaus (Musicalización de escena)
Published: 2015/04/29
Channel: Camilo Sandoval
Menelaus
Menelaus' Theorem
Published: 2009/07/10
Channel: wolframmathematica
Troy- Paris vs Menelaus (HD)
Troy- Paris vs Menelaus (HD)
Published: 2015/01/08
Channel: Zero Fucks
Menelaus is exiled. Act I La Belle Helene
Menelaus is exiled. Act I La Belle Helene
Published: 2014/07/16
Channel: John Pearson
USS Menelaus Intro 3 (Nov. 2012)
USS Menelaus Intro 3 (Nov. 2012)
Published: 2012/11/21
Channel: Tedra de Arr
We The Living - Menelaus
We The Living - Menelaus
Published: 2009/01/11
Channel: minikahuna
"Menelaus And Helen" by Rupert Brooke
"Menelaus And Helen" by Rupert Brooke
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Frank Blissett
Four last songs, Menelaus
Four last songs, Menelaus
Published: 2015/10/08
Channel: Glenda Maurice - Topic
Agamemnon and Menelaus Returns Home
Agamemnon and Menelaus Returns Home
Published: 2014/02/06
Channel: Hilary Wong
Geometria - Aula 64 - Problema de áreas usando Menelaus
Geometria - Aula 64 - Problema de áreas usando Menelaus
Published: 2014/11/10
Channel: Programa de Iniciação Cientifica da OBMEP
Agamemnon and Menelaus Return Home
Agamemnon and Menelaus Return Home
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: THERESA HUANG
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Menelaus
King of Sparta
Menelaus
Marble bust of Menelaus
Predecessor Tyndareus
Ex-Wife Helen of Troy
Issue
Father Atreus
Mother Aerope

In Greek mythology, Menelaus (/ˌmɛnɪˈləs/; Greek: Μενέλαος, Menelaos, from μένος "vigor, rage, power" and λαός "people," "wrath of the people") was a king of Mycenaean (pre-Dorian) Sparta, the husband of Helen of Troy, and the son of Atreus and Aerope. According to the Iliad, Menelaus was a central figure in the Trojan War, leading the Spartan contingent of the Greek army, under his elder brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae. Prominent in both the Iliad and Odyssey, Menelaus was also popular in Greek vase painting and Greek tragedy, the latter more as a hero of the Trojan War than as a member of the doomed House of Atreus.


Ascension and reign[edit]

Although early authors, such as Aeschylus refer in passing to Menelaus’ early life, detailed sources are quite late, post-dating 5th-century BC Greek tragedy.[1] According to these sources, Menelaus' father, Atreus, had been feuding with his brother Thyestes over the throne of Mycenae. After a back-and-forth struggle that featured adultery, incest and cannibalism, Thyestes gained the throne after his son Aegisthus murdered Atreus. As a result, Atreus’ sons, Menelaus and Agamemnon, went into exile. They first stayed with King Polyphides of Sicyon, and later with King Oeneus of Calydon. But when they thought the time was ripe to dethrone Mycenae’s hostile ruler, they returned. Assisted by King Tyndareus of Sparta, they drove Thyestes away, and Agamemnon took the throne for himself.

When it was time for Tyndareus’ step-daughter Helen to marry, many kings and princes came to seek her hand. Among the contenders were Odysseus, Menestheus, Ajax the Great, Patroclus, and Idomeneus. Most offered opulent gifts. Tyndareus would accept none of the gifts, nor would he send any of the suitors away for fear of offending them and giving grounds for a quarrel. Odysseus promised to solve the problem in a satisfactory manner if Tyndareus would support him in his courting of Tyndareus’s niece Penelope, the daughter of Icarius. Tyndareus readily agreed, and Odysseus proposed that, before the decision was made, all the suitors should swear a most solemn oath to defend the chosen husband in any quarrel. Then it was decreed that straws were to be drawn for Helen’s hand. The suitor who won was Menelaus (Tyndareus, not to displease the powerful Agamemnon offered him another of his daughters, Clytaemnestra).[2] The rest of the suitors swore their oaths, and Helen and Menelaus were married, Menelaus becoming a ruler of Sparta with Helen after Tyndareus and Leda abdicated the thrones. Menelaus and Helen had a daughter Hermione as supported, for example, by Sappho,[3] whilst some variations of the myth suggest they had three sons as well: Aithiolas, Maraphius, and Pleisthenes.

Their palace (ἀνάκτορον) has been discovered (the excavations started in 1926 and continued until 1995) in Pellana, Laconia, to the north-west of modern (and classical) Sparta.[4] Other archaeologists consider that Pellana is too far away from other Mycenaean centres to have been the "capital of Menelaus".[5]

Trojan War[edit]

Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, c. 450–440 BC, found in Gnathia (now Egnazia, Italy).

According to legend, in a return for awarding her a golden apple inscribed "to the fairest," Aphrodite promised Paris the most beautiful woman in all the world.[6] After concluding a diplomatic mission to Sparta during the latter part of which Menelaus was absent to attend the funeral of his maternal grandfather Catreus in Crete, Paris ran off to Troy with Helen despite his brother Hector's prohibition. Invoking the oath of Tyndareus, Menelaus and Agamemnon raised a fleet of a thousand ships and went to Troy to secure Helen's return; the Trojans refused, providing a casus belli for the Trojan War.

Homer's Iliad is the most expansive source for Menelaus’s exploits during the Trojan War. In Book 3, Menelaus challenges Paris to a duel for Helen’s return. Menelaus soundly beats Paris, but before he can kill him and claim victory, Aphrodite spirits Paris away inside the walls of Troy. In Book 4, while the Greeks and Trojans squabble over the duel’s winner, Athena inspires the Trojan Pandarus to shoot Menelaus with his bow and arrow. However, Athena never intended for Menelaus to die and she protects him from the arrow of Pandarus.[7] Menelaus is wounded in the abdomen, and the fighting resumes. Later, in Book 17, Homer gives Menelaus an extended aristeia as the hero retrieves the corpse of Patroclus from the battlefield.

According to Hyginus, Menelaus killed eight men in the war, and was one of the Greeks hidden inside the Trojan Horse. During the sack of Troy, Menelaus killed Deiphobus, who had married Helen after the death of Paris.

There are four versions of Menelaus’ and Helen’s reunion on the night of the sack of Troy:

  • Menelaus sought out Helen in the conquered city. Raging at her infidelity, he raised his sword to kill her, but as he saw her weeping at his feet, begging for her life, Menelaus' wrath instantly left him. He took pity on her and decided to take her back as wife.
  • Menelaus resolved to kill Helen but her irresistible beauty prompted him to drop his sword and take her back to his ship “to punish her at Sparta”, as he claimed.[8]
  • According to the Bibliotheca, Menelaus raised his sword in front of the temple in the central square of Troy to kill her, but his wrath went away when he saw her rending her clothes in anguish, revealing her naked breasts.
  • A similar version by Stesichorus in “Ilion’s Conquest” narrated that Menelaus surrendered her to his soldiers to stone her to death, but when she ripped the front of her robes, the Achaean warriors were stunned by her beauty and the stones fell harmlessly from their hands.

After the war[edit]

Menelaus and Meriones lifting Patroclus' corpse on a cart while Odysseus looks on; alabaster urn, Etruscan artwork from Volterra, 2nd century BC

Book 4 of the Odyssey provides an account of Menelaus’ return from Troy and his homelife in Sparta. When visited by Odysseus’ son Telemachus, Menelaus recounts his voyage home. As happened to many Greeks, Menelaus' homebound fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt where they were becalmed, unable to sail away. They trapped Proteus, and forced him to reveal how to make the voyage home. After their homecoming, Menelaus and Helen’s marriage is strained; Menelaus continually revisits the losses of the Trojan War, particularly as he and Helen have no male heir. Menelaus is fond of Megapenthes and Nicostratus, his sons by other women. According to Euripides’ Helen, Menelaus is reunited with Helen after death, on the Isle of the Blessed.[9]

Menelaus in vase painting[edit]

Menelaus appears in Greek vase painting in the 6th to 4th centuries BC, such as: Menelaus’s reception of Paris at Sparta; his retrieval of Patroclus’s corpse; and his reunion with Helen.[10]

Menelaus in Greek tragedy[edit]

Menelaus appears as a character in a number of 5th-century Greek tragedies: SophoclesAjax, and EuripidesAndromache, Helen, Orestes, Iphigenia at Aulis, and The Trojan Women.

Menelaus in other media[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The chief sources for Menelaus' life before the Trojan War are Hyginus' Fabulae and the Epitome of the Bibliotheca.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Sappho, fr. 16. See an analysis of the poem by Gumpert, Grafting Helen, 92
  4. ^ Palace of Helen
  5. ^ Mee & Spawforth (2001), p. 229
  6. ^ See the Judgment of Paris.
  7. ^ Homer; Lattimore, Richmond; Martin, Richard (2011). The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 116–17. ISBN 9780226470498. 
  8. ^ Andromache, 629–31.
  9. ^ Line 1675.
  10. ^ Woodford 1993.
  11. ^ Vampire: The Masquerade – Chicago by Night, pp. 62–64
  12. ^ "'Troy: Fall Of A City': Bella Dayne, Louis Hunter & More Join BBC/Netflix Epic". Deadline. March 30, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017. 

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Menelaus at Wikimedia Commons
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Tyndareus
(second reign)
King of Sparta Succeeded by
Orestes

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