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Troy - Paris vs Menelaus
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus
Published: 2011/07/07
Channel: BS Gaming
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus HD!
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus HD!
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: fOr ThE GeEkS
Troy Movie - Extended Edition - Hector Talks With Menelaus
Troy Movie - Extended Edition - Hector Talks With Menelaus
Published: 2008/09/13
Channel: Jazmin Tully
Geometria - Aula 63 - Teorema de Menelaus
Geometria - Aula 63 - Teorema de Menelaus
Published: 2014/11/10
Channel: Programa de Iniciação Cientifica da OBMEP
Troy -Hector kills Menelaus HD
Troy -Hector kills Menelaus HD
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: Zero Fucks
Helen Meets Menelaus - "The Trojan Women"
Helen Meets Menelaus - "The Trojan Women"
Published: 2016/10/19
Channel: Veronique Laurent
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus [1080p Blu-Ray] ᴴᴰ
Troy - Paris vs Menelaus [1080p Blu-Ray] ᴴᴰ
Published: 2015/03/08
Channel: TW
Troy (2/5) Movie CLIP - Hector Saves Paris (2004) HD
Troy (2/5) Movie CLIP - Hector Saves Paris (2004) HD
Published: 2011/05/27
Channel: Movieclips
THE FALL OF TROY | Helen, Paris & Menelaus | love triangle
THE FALL OF TROY | Helen, Paris & Menelaus | love triangle
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: Stojanovski
Menelaus Theorem
Menelaus Theorem
Published: 2015/06/21
Channel: Mr. T's Math Videos
Paris vs Menelaus
Paris vs Menelaus
Published: 2016/04/01
Channel: Cyrus The Great
The Menelaus and Ceva Theorem
The Menelaus and Ceva Theorem
Published: 2015/04/02
Channel: ultrascience
Aula Colégio Naval 2016 - teorema de menelaus - Matemática
Aula Colégio Naval 2016 - teorema de menelaus - Matemática
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: ProMilitares
Paris vs Menelaus for the love of Helen
Paris vs Menelaus for the love of Helen
Published: 2012/06/14
Channel: Ελληνική Μυθολογία - Greek Mythology
Troy (2004) [[ Paris VS Menelaus ]] - [RE-SOUND]
Troy (2004) [[ Paris VS Menelaus ]] - [RE-SOUND]
Published: 2016/09/10
Channel: tony jaa
Troy- Paris vs Menelaus (HD)
Troy- Paris vs Menelaus (HD)
Published: 2015/01/08
Channel: Zero Fucks
Example: Using Menelaus to Prove Points Collinear
Example: Using Menelaus to Prove Points Collinear
Published: 2015/06/21
Channel: Mr. T's Math Videos
Menelaus
Menelaus
Published: 2015/10/11
Channel: We the Living - Topic
UnivHypGeom31: Menelaus, Ceva and the Laws of proportion
UnivHypGeom31: Menelaus, Ceva and the Laws of proportion
Published: 2011/12/13
Channel: njwildberger
Vaughan Williams Four Last Songs No. 4 "Menelaus" - Glenda Maurice, Mezzo-Soprano
Vaughan Williams Four Last Songs No. 4 "Menelaus" - Glenda Maurice, Mezzo-Soprano
Published: 2012/10/03
Channel: Benjamin Schoening
The Math Problem (Paris, Helen of Troy & Menelaus)
The Math Problem (Paris, Helen of Troy & Menelaus)
Published: 2012/12/03
Channel: thefightingwriters
Geometria ( Teorema de Ceva e Teorema de Menelaus ) Nível 3
Geometria ( Teorema de Ceva e Teorema de Menelaus ) Nível 3
Published: 2013/09/25
Channel: Polos Olímpicos de Treinamento Intensivo
[TOÁN CẤP 3-TRẮC NGHIỆM HHKG 11] #5:Định lý Menelaus và ứng dụng tính tỷ số trong hhkg 11
[TOÁN CẤP 3-TRẮC NGHIỆM HHKG 11] #5:Định lý Menelaus và ứng dụng tính tỷ số trong hhkg 11
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: Toán cấp 3
Hector kills Menelaus - Troy
Hector kills Menelaus - Troy
Published: 2016/12/19
Channel: nmart27
Menelaus
Menelaus
Published: 2014/11/11
Channel: Claire-Louise Lucas - Topic
Menelaus is exiled. Act I La Belle Helene
Menelaus is exiled. Act I La Belle Helene
Published: 2014/07/16
Channel: John Pearson
Description of Proof of Menelaus
Description of Proof of Menelaus's Theorem
Published: 2013/10/25
Channel: Micah James
The Iliad 03 - Paris Challenges Menelaus Audiobook
The Iliad 03 - Paris Challenges Menelaus Audiobook
Published: 2011/12/27
Channel: audiobooksfree
Menelaus, Stewart, Seva, Carnot
Menelaus, Stewart, Seva, Carnot
Published: 2015/06/18
Channel: Geometri Teoremleri
Investigate Menelaus Ceva Theorems
Investigate Menelaus Ceva Theorems
Published: 2014/05/07
Channel: Tom Reardon
Four last songs, Menelaus
Four last songs, Menelaus
Published: 2015/10/08
Channel: Glenda Maurice - Topic
Menelaus and Paris
Menelaus and Paris
Published: 2014/05/20
Channel: Konstantina Kanellopoulou
MENELAUS-STEWART-CARNOT VE SEVA TEOREMLERİ
MENELAUS-STEWART-CARNOT VE SEVA TEOREMLERİ
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: Ders İzleyin
FuturePack Episode 16 - Menelaus!
FuturePack Episode 16 - Menelaus!
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: Java Vampire
8 - Seva Teoremi ve Menelaus teoremi / Üçgende Benzerlik ( YGS Geometri )
8 - Seva Teoremi ve Menelaus teoremi / Üçgende Benzerlik ( YGS Geometri )
Published: 2016/01/23
Channel: cevapkurdu
Lectia 844 - Teorema lui Menelaus folosita pentru a arata coliniaritatea unor puncte - Tema Clasa 7
Lectia 844 - Teorema lui Menelaus folosita pentru a arata coliniaritatea unor puncte - Tema Clasa 7
Published: 2016/02/02
Channel: prof. Ioan URSU
"Menelaus And Helen" by Rupert Brooke
"Menelaus And Helen" by Rupert Brooke
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Frank Blissett
Menelaus sung by Grace Gori, Mezzo-Soprano
Menelaus sung by Grace Gori, Mezzo-Soprano
Published: 2010/05/15
Channel: gorivoicestudios
How to say "menelaus"! (High Quality Voices)
How to say "menelaus"! (High Quality Voices)
Published: 2017/01/22
Channel: WordBox
Agamemnon and Menelaus Returns Home
Agamemnon and Menelaus Returns Home
Published: 2014/02/06
Channel: Hilary Wong
Troja Paris vs Menelaus
Troja Paris vs Menelaus
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: Constantin Becker
Troya - Paris vs Menelaus (Musicalización de escena)
Troya - Paris vs Menelaus (Musicalización de escena)
Published: 2015/04/29
Channel: Camilo Sandoval
Teorema de Menelaus (Colégio Naval) - Prof. Ms Adriano Carneiro
Teorema de Menelaus (Colégio Naval) - Prof. Ms Adriano Carneiro
Published: 2016/02/24
Channel: Adriano Carneiro Tavares
MENELAUS SEVA KARNOT
MENELAUS SEVA KARNOT
Published: 2012/05/04
Channel: Ersan Demirdalıç
4 Last Songs (Orch. A. Payne) : No. 4, Menelaus
4 Last Songs (Orch. A. Payne) : No. 4, Menelaus
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: Jennifer Johnston - Topic
2/2 1076 Criterii de coliniaritate in plan;Tr Menelaus Problema de coliniaritate in spatiu
2/2 1076 Criterii de coliniaritate in plan;Tr Menelaus Problema de coliniaritate in spatiu
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: prof. Ioan URSU
Menelaus Analog
Menelaus Analog
Published: 2015/09/01
Channel: Christopher Murray The Nebula Spinosaurus!
How to Pronounce Menelaus
How to Pronounce Menelaus
Published: 2015/02/25
Channel: Pronunciation Guide
Morpho menelaus coeruleus
Morpho menelaus coeruleus
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: Ivo Kindel
Bir MeneLaus Klasiği [LovaMT2]
Bir MeneLaus Klasiği [LovaMT2]
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: Melih Rıdvan Köksal
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Menelaus
King of Sparta
Menelaus
Marble bust of Menelaus
Predecessor Tyndareus
Wife Helen of Troy
Issue
Father Atreus
Mother Aerope

In Greek mythology, Menelaus (/ˌmɛnɪˈləs/; Greek: Μενέλαος, Menelaos, from μένος "vigor, rage, power" and λαός "people" "wrath of the people") was a king of Mycenaean (pre-Dorian) Sparta, the husband of Helen of Troy, and a central figure in the Trojan War. He was the son of Atreus and Aerope, brother of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and, according to the Iliad, leader of the Spartan contingent of the Greek army during the War. Prominent in both the Iliad and Odyssey, Menelaus was also popular in Greek vase painting and Greek tragedy, the latter more as a hero of the Trojan War than as a member of the doomed House of Atreus.

Ascension and reign[edit]

Although early authors, such as Aeschylus refer in passing to Menelaus’ early life, detailed sources are quite late, post-dating 5th-century BC Greek tragedy.[1] According to these sources, Menelaus' father, Atreus, had been feuding with his brother Thyestes over the throne of Mycenae. After a back-and-forth struggle that featured adultery, incest and cannibalism, Thyestes gained the throne after his son Aegisthus murdered Atreus. As a result, Atreus’ sons, Menelaus and Agamemnon, went into exile. They first stayed with King Polyphides of Sicyon, and later with King Oeneus of Calydon. But when they thought the time was ripe to dethrone Mycenae’s hostile ruler, they returned. Assisted by King Tyndareus of Sparta, they drove Thyestes away, and Agamemnon took the throne for himself.

When it was time for Tyndareus’ step-daughter Helen to marry, many kings and princes came to seek her hand. Among the contenders were Odysseus, Menestheus, Ajax the Great, Patroclus, and Idomeneus. Most offered opulent gifts. Tyndareus would accept none of the gifts, nor would he send any of the suitors away for fear of offending them and giving grounds for a quarrel. Odysseus promised to solve the problem in a satisfactory manner if Tyndareus would support him in his courting of Tyndareus’s niece Penelope, the daughter of Icarius. Tyndareus readily agreed, and Odysseus proposed that, before the decision was made, all the suitors should swear a most solemn oath to defend the chosen husband in any quarrel. Then it was decreed that straws were to be drawn for Helen’s hand. The suitor who won was Menelaus (Tyndareus, not to displease the powerful Agamemnon offered him another of his daughters, Clytaemnestra).[2] The rest of the suitors swore their oaths, and Helen and Menelaus were married, Menelaus becoming a ruler of Sparta with Helen after Tyndareus and Leda abdicated the thrones. Menelaus and Helen had a daughter Hermione as supported, for example, by Sappho,[3] whilst some variations of the myth suggest they had three sons as well: Aithiolas, Maraphius, and Pleisthenes.

Their palace (ἀνάκτορον) has been discovered (the excavations started in 1926 and continued until 1995) in Pellana, Laconia, to the north-west of modern (and classical) Sparta.[4] Other archaeologists consider that Pellana is too far away from other Mycenaean centres to have been the "capital of Menelaus".[5]

Trojan War[edit]

Menelaus regains Helen, detail of an Attic red-figure crater, c. 450–440 BC, found in Gnathia (now Egnazia, Italy).

In a return for awarding her a golden apple inscribed "to the fairest," Aphrodite promised Paris the most beautiful woman in all the world.[6] After concluding a diplomatic mission to Sparta during the latter part of which Menelaus was absent to attend the funeral of his maternal grandfather Catreus in Crete, Paris ran off to Troy with Helen in tow despite his brother Hector forbidding her to depart with them. Invoking the oath of Tyndareus, Menelaus and Agamemnon raised a fleet of one thousand ships according to legend and went to Troy to secure Helen's return; the Trojans were recalcitrant, providing a casus belli for the Trojan War.

Homer's Iliad is the most expansive source for Menelaus’s exploits during the Trojan War. In Book 3, Menelaus challenges Paris to a duel for Helen’s return. Menelaus soundly beats Paris, but before he can kill him and claim victory, Aphrodite spirits Paris away inside the walls of Troy. In Book 4, while the Greeks and Trojans squabble over the duel’s winner, Athena inspires the Trojan Pandarus to shoot Menelaus with his bow and arrow. However, Athena never intended for Menelaus to die and she protects him from the arrow of Pandarus.[7] Menelaus is wounded in the abdomen, and the fighting resumes. Later, in Book 17, Homer gives Menelaus an extended aristeia as the hero retrieves the corpse of Patroclus from the battlefield.

According to Hyginus, Menelaus killed eight men in the war, and was one of the Greeks hidden inside the Trojan Horse. During the sack of Troy, Menelaus killed Deiphobus, who had married Helen after the death of Paris.

There are four versions of Menelaus’ and Helen’s reunion on the night of the sack of Troy:

  • Angry at Helen, Menelaus looked for and found her. In a fit of rage, he decided to kill her for leaving him for Paris, but when he raised his sword, she started to weep at her former husband's feet, begging for her life. In a split second, Menelaus' wrath went away instantly. He took pity on her, and decided to take her back as wife.
  • Menelaus resolved to kill Helen but her striking beauty prompted him to drop his sword and take her back to his ship “to punish her at Sparta”, as he claimed.[8]
  • According to the Bibliotheca, Menelaus raised his sword in front of the temple in the central square of Troy to kill her but his wrath went away when he saw her tearing her clothes in sorrow (to reveal her breasts).
  • A similar version by Stesichorus in “Ilion’s Conquest” narrated that Menelaus surrendered her indeed to his soldiers to stone her to death; however, when she ripped the front of her robes, the Achaean warriors were stunned by her beauty and the stones fell harmlessly from their hands.

After the war[edit]

Menelaus and Meriones lifting Patroclus' corpse on a cart while Odysseus looks on; alabaster urn, Etruscan artwork from Volterra, 2nd century BC

Book 4 of the Odyssey provides an account of Menelaus’ return from Troy and his homelife in Sparta. When visited by Odysseus’ son Telemachus, Menelaus recounts his voyage home. As happened to many Greeks, Menelaus' homebound fleet was blown by storms to Crete and Egypt where they were unable to sail away because the wind was calm. They trapped Proteus, who then told them how to make the voyage home. After their homecoming, Menelaus and Helen’s marriage is strained; Menelaus continually revisits the human cost of the Trojan War, particularly in light of the fact that he and Helen have no male heir. Menelaus is fond of Megapenthes and Nicostratus, his sons by other women. According to Euripides’ Helen, after Menelaus dies, he is reunited with Helen on the Isle of the Blessed.[9]

Menelaus in vase painting[edit]

Menelaus appears in Greek vase painting in the 6th to 4th centuries BC, such as: Menelaus’s reception of Paris at Sparta; his retrieval of Patroclus’s corpse; and his reunion with Helen.[10]

Menelaus in Greek tragedy[edit]

Menelaus appears as a character in a number of 5th-century Greek tragedies: SophoclesAjax, and EuripidesAndromache, Helen, Orestes, Iphigenia at Aulis, and The Trojan Women.

Menelaus in other media[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The chief sources for Menelaus' life before the Trojan War are Hyginus' Fabulae and the Epitome of the Bibliotheca.
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ Sappho, fr. 16. See an analysis of the poem by Gumpert, Grafting Helen, 92
  4. ^ Palace of Helen
  5. ^ Mee & Spawforth (2001), p. 229
  6. ^ See the Judgment of Paris.
  7. ^ Homer; Lattimore, Richmond; Martin, Richard (2011). The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 116–17. ISBN 9780226470498. 
  8. ^ Andromache, 629–31.
  9. ^ Line 1675.
  10. ^ Woodford 1993.
  11. ^ Vampire: The Masquerade – Chicago by Night, pp. 62–64
  12. ^ "‘Troy: Fall Of A City’: Bella Dayne, Louis Hunter & More Join BBC/Netflix Epic". Deadline. March 30, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2017. 

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Menelaus at Wikimedia Commons
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Tyndareus
(second reign)
King of Sparta Succeeded by
Orestes

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