Emperor Menelik II GCB, GCMG (Ge'ez ምኒልክ), baptized as Sahle Maryam (17 August 1844 – 12 December 1913), was Negus[nb 1] of Shewa (1866–89), then Nəgusä Nägäst[nb 2] of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death. At the height of his internal power and external prestige, the process of territorial expansion and creation of the modern empire-state had been completed by 1898. Ethiopia was transformed under Nəgusä Nägäst Menelik: the major signposts of modernization were put in place. Externally, his victory over the Italian invaders had earned him great fame: following Adwa, recognition of Ethiopia’s independence by external powers was expressed in terms of diplomatic representation at the court of Menelik and delineation of Ethiopia’s boundaries with the adjacent colonies. After defeating the Italians, he became the first black African king in modern history to engage in slavery of white European war captives held as slaves inside Ethiopia. Menelik expanded his kingdom to the south and east, expanding into areas that had never been under his rule, subjugating and incorporating the Oromo, Sidama, Gurage, Wolayta and other groups.