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SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY: Bones of the wrist, hand and fingers
SKELETAL SYSTEM ANATOMY: Bones of the wrist, hand and fingers
Published: 2013/02/21
Channel: Samuel Chen
Carpal and Metacarpal bones
Carpal and Metacarpal bones
Published: 2011/05/30
Channel: anatomystudyguide
Metacarpals and Phalanges
Metacarpals and Phalanges
Published: 2013/08/31
Channel: UCDenver Anatomy Lab 3244
Bones of Palm - The Metacarpal Bones
Bones of Palm - The Metacarpal Bones
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: Little Princess @ Knowledge Hub
Metacarpal Fractures - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Metacarpal Fractures - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2014/04/24
Channel: nabil ebraheim
Linos – Transverse fracture of a metacarpal bone
Linos – Transverse fracture of a metacarpal bone
Published: 2014/10/16
Channel: KLSMartinGroup
Osteology of the hand
Osteology of the hand
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: Human Anatomy Education
Closed Reduction of 5th Metacarpal Fracture
Closed Reduction of 5th Metacarpal Fracture
Published: 2015/04/13
Channel: Dalhousie Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Finger Dislocation & Metacarpal Block
Finger Dislocation & Metacarpal Block
Published: 2011/02/22
Channel: Larry Mellick
Carpals/ Metacarpals/ Phalanges
Carpals/ Metacarpals/ Phalanges
Published: 2011/10/22
Channel: smcanatomy1
Third metacarpal bone fracture therapy
Third metacarpal bone fracture therapy
Published: 2014/05/27
Channel: mr jsc
2nd Metacarpus fracture ORIF with Plate
2nd Metacarpus fracture ORIF with Plate
Published: 2015/04/28
Channel: Hand Surgery International
Carpal Bones Song
Carpal Bones Song
Published: 2013/07/16
Channel: learnthroughsong
Hand Fracture Surgery
Hand Fracture Surgery
Published: 2015/01/20
Channel: John Knight
5th Metacarpal Broken Bone aka Boxer
5th Metacarpal Broken Bone aka Boxer's Fracture - Recovered
Published: 2015/01/31
Channel: WCephei77HD
Metacarpal Fracture/Boxers Fracture - Cast and Pin Removal
Metacarpal Fracture/Boxers Fracture - Cast and Pin Removal
Published: 2013/12/30
Channel: mikschumans
I FRACTURED MY METACARPAL BONE? STORY TIME WITH GABBY
I FRACTURED MY METACARPAL BONE? STORY TIME WITH GABBY
Published: 2016/10/10
Channel: Gabriella Mortola
Metacarpal & Metatarsal bones by dr khaled shoghy
Metacarpal & Metatarsal bones by dr khaled shoghy
Published: 2015/10/25
Channel: Dr. khaled shoghy
Metacarpal Bones anatomy - Horse - Equine - Veterinary
Metacarpal Bones anatomy - Horse - Equine - Veterinary
Published: 2015/10/03
Channel: Kosice Vets
Boxer
Boxer's Fracture - 5th Metacarpal Bone Broken, Before and After
Published: 2013/04/16
Channel: WCephei77HD
Metacarpal Bones anatomy - Ruminant - Veterinary
Metacarpal Bones anatomy - Ruminant - Veterinary
Published: 2015/10/03
Channel: Kosice Vets
Thumb Metacarpal Arthritis Repair with Arthrex® CMC Mini TightRope®
Thumb Metacarpal Arthritis Repair with Arthrex® CMC Mini TightRope®
Published: 2016/04/14
Channel: OrthoIllustrated
Metacarpal Bones anatomy - Horse 2 - Equine - Veterinary
Metacarpal Bones anatomy - Horse 2 - Equine - Veterinary
Published: 2015/10/03
Channel: Kosice Vets
Broken Hand (3rd,4th, and 5th Metacarpal)
Broken Hand (3rd,4th, and 5th Metacarpal)
Published: 2016/11/30
Channel: Viet Tran
Spiral Fracture   Metacarpal IV   2 0 mm Lag Screws
Spiral Fracture Metacarpal IV 2 0 mm Lag Screws
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: ortho tube
Intraarticular Fracture Base of Thumb Metacarpal Surgery by Dr. Thomas Trumble
Intraarticular Fracture Base of Thumb Metacarpal Surgery by Dr. Thomas Trumble
Published: 2013/03/06
Channel: Dr. Thomas Trumble, MD
Broken hand 5th metacarpal
Broken hand 5th metacarpal
Published: 2016/06/09
Channel: Adam S
Fractures of the 1st Metacarpal Base:  Bennett
Fractures of the 1st Metacarpal Base: Bennett's and Rolando's Fractures
Published: 2015/04/07
Channel: ORTHOfilms
Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges of the hand
Carpals, metacarpals, phalanges of the hand
Published: 2012/02/06
Channel: PreMedMichelle
Finger and metacarpal Fractures - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Finger and metacarpal Fractures - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2011/03/03
Channel: nabil ebraheim
Fluoroscopic Closed Reduction & Percutaneous Pinning of Multiple Metacarpal Fractures
Fluoroscopic Closed Reduction & Percutaneous Pinning of Multiple Metacarpal Fractures
Published: 2015/09/05
Channel: Henry Dlmaano
Metacarpal Fracture  - Foucher (Intramedullary Kirschner wire osteosynthesis)
Metacarpal Fracture - Foucher (Intramedullary Kirschner wire osteosynthesis)
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: Ortopedia Mao
Right Hand 5th metacarpal Pin Removal
Right Hand 5th metacarpal Pin Removal
Published: 2011/11/09
Channel: ACvlogchannel
re-alignment of a spiral fracture of the 1st (thumb) metacarpal bone
re-alignment of a spiral fracture of the 1st (thumb) metacarpal bone
Published: 2010/08/31
Channel: John Yannopapas
Hands and Feet Bones Song
Hands and Feet Bones Song
Published: 2013/07/16
Channel: learnthroughsong
Metacarpal Surgery Patient tells all
Metacarpal Surgery Patient tells all
Published: 2016/06/08
Channel: GDCHAND
Broken Metacarpal K-Wire (pin) Removal
Broken Metacarpal K-Wire (pin) Removal
Published: 2013/11/20
Channel: josh chavis
Fifth Metacarpal Dislocation and Reduction Emergency
Fifth Metacarpal Dislocation and Reduction Emergency
Published: 2017/04/24
Channel: Larry Mellick
Metacarpal Bone Fracture Management | Orthopedic Classes
Metacarpal Bone Fracture Management | Orthopedic Classes
Published: 2014/06/16
Channel: LAMA | Medical School
Thumb Metacarpal Base Fracture Injury - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Thumb Metacarpal Base Fracture Injury - Everything You Need To Know - Dr. Nabil Ebraheim
Published: 2014/10/27
Channel: nabil ebraheim
Cutting off my plaster, crack of a metacarpal bone 20160525
Cutting off my plaster, crack of a metacarpal bone 20160525
Published: 2016/05/28
Channel: Nirshan Ibrahim
Boxer’s Fracture From Hitting A Wall - Metacarpal Fracture & Treatment
Boxer’s Fracture From Hitting A Wall - Metacarpal Fracture & Treatment
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: Dr. Sampson Davis
5th Metacarpal bone fracture
5th Metacarpal bone fracture
Published: 2016/07/05
Channel: Young Lae Moon
Boxer Splint Technique
Boxer Splint Technique
Published: 2012/09/12
Channel: parkermedicalassocs
Medical vocabulary: What does Metacarpal Bones mean
Medical vocabulary: What does Metacarpal Bones mean
Published: 2016/01/20
Channel: botcaster inc. bot
1st CARPO-METACARPAL JOINT : MOVEMENTS
1st CARPO-METACARPAL JOINT : MOVEMENTS
Published: 2014/06/11
Channel: viren kariya
Carpal and Metacarpal bones   10Youtube com
Carpal and Metacarpal bones 10Youtube com
Published: 2015/03/13
Channel: Dream Team
Cow Fracture of metacarpal External fixation
Cow Fracture of metacarpal External fixation
Published: 2014/10/22
Channel: Dr.Sanjay Jaiwant Gaikwad
Chiropractic Thumb Adjustment | Portland Sports Chiropractor | 1st Metacarpal-Trapezium Adjustment
Chiropractic Thumb Adjustment | Portland Sports Chiropractor | 1st Metacarpal-Trapezium Adjustment
Published: 2015/01/13
Channel: Evolve Performance Healthcare
Metacarpal  Bone structure
Metacarpal Bone structure
Published: 2016/09/03
Channel: dr priyanka
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Metacarpal bones
Metacarpal bones (left hand) 01 palmar view with label.png
Metacarpals shown in red. Left hand, anterior (palmar) view.
Metacarpus ant with label.png
The five metacarpal bones, numbered. Left hand, anterior (palmar) view.
Details
Origins Carpal bones of wrist
Insertions Proximal phalanges
Articulations Carpometacarpal, intermetacarpal, metacarpophalangeal
Identifiers
Latin ossa metacarpalia
MeSH A01.378.800.667.572
TA A02.4.09.001
FMA 71336
Anatomical terms of bone

In human anatomy, the metacarpal bones or metacarpus, form the intermediate part of the skeletal hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist which forms the connection to the forearm. The metacarpal bones are equivalent to the metatarsal bones in the foot.

Structure[edit]

Left hand shown with thumb on left.

The metacarpals form a transverse arch to which the rigid row of distal carpal bones are fixed. The peripheral metacarpals (those of the thumb and little finger) form the sides of the cup of the palmar gutter and as they are brought together they deepen this concavity. The index metacarpal is the most firmly fixed, while the thumb metacarpal articulates with the trapezium and acts independently from the others. The middle metacarpals are tightly united to the carpus by intrinsic interlocking bone elements at their bases. The ring metacarpal forms a transitional element of the semi-independent last metacarpal.[1]

Each metacarpal bone consists of a body and two extremities (head and base).

Body[edit]

The body (shaft) is prismoid in form, and curved, so as to be convex in the longitudinal direction behind, concave in front. It presents three surfaces: medial, lateral, and dorsal.

  • The medial and lateral surfaces are concave, for the attachment of the interosseus muscles, and separated from one another by a prominent anterior ridge.
  • The dorsal surface presents in its distal two-thirds a smooth, triangular, flattened area which is covered in by the tendons of the extensor muscles. This surface is bounded by two lines, which commence in small tubercles situated on either side of the digital extremity, and, passing upward, converge and meet some distance above the center of the bone and form a ridge which runs along the rest of the dorsal surface to the carpal extremity. This ridge separates two sloping surfaces for the attachment of the interossei dorsales.
  • To the tubercles on the digital extremities are attached the collateral ligaments of the metacarpophalangeal joints.

[2]

Base[edit]

The base or carpal extremity (basis) is of a cuboidal form, and broader behind than in front: it articulates with the carpal bones, and with the adjoining metacarpal bones; its dorsal and volar surfaces are rough, for the attachment of ligaments.

[2]

Head[edit]

The head or digital extremity (caput) or neck per ICD-9 coding presents an oblong surface markedly convex from before backward, less so transversely, and flattened from side to side; it articulates with the proximal phalanx. It is broader, and extends farther upward, on the volar than on the dorsal aspect, and is longer in the antero-posterior than in the transverse diameter. On either side of the head is a tubercle for the attachment of the collateral ligament of the metacarpophalangeal joint.

The dorsal surface, broad and flat, supports the tendons of the extensor muscles.

The volar surface is grooved in the middle line for the passage of the flexor tendons, and marked on either side by an articular eminence continuous with the terminal articular surface.

[2]

Articulations[edit]

Besides the metacarpophalangeal joints, the metacarpal bones articulate by carpometacarpal joints as follows:

  1. the first with the trapezium;
  2. the second with the trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and third metacarpal;
  3. the third with the capitate and second and fourth metacarpals;
  4. the fourth with the capitate, hamate, and third and fifth metacarpals;
  5. and the fifth with the hamate and fourth metacarpal;

Insertions[edit]

Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus/Brevis: Both insert on the base of metacarpal II; Assist with wrist extension and radial flexion of the wrist

Extensor Carpi Ulnaris: Inserts on the base of metacarpal V; Extends and fixes wrist when digits are being flexed; assists with ulnar flexion of wrist

Abductor Pollicis Longus: Inserts on the trapezium and base of metacarpal I; Abducts thumb in frontal plane; extends thumb at carpometacarpal joint

Opponens Pollicis: Inserts on metacarpal I; flexes metacarpal I to oppose the thumb to the fingertips

Opponens digiti minimi: Inserts on the medial surface of metacarpal V; Flexes metacarpal V at carpometacarpal joint when little finger is moved into opposition with tip of thumb; deepens palm of hand.[3]

Clinical significance[edit]

Congenital disorders[edit]

The fourth and fifth metacarpal bones are commonly "blunted" or shortened, in pseudohypoparathyroidism and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism.

A blunted fourth metacarpal, with normal fifth metacarpal, can signify Turner syndrome.

Blunted metacarpals (particularly the fourth metacarpal) are a symptom of Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome.

Fracture[edit]

The neck of a metacarpal (in the transition between the body and the head) is a common location for a boxer's fracture.

Other animals[edit]

The principle of homology illustrated by the adaptive radiation of the metacarpal bones of mammals. All conform to the basic pentadactyl pattern but are modified for different usages. The third metacarpal is shaded throughout; the shoulder is crossed-hatched.

In four-legged animals, the metacarpals form part of the forefeet, and are frequently reduced in number, appropriate to the number of toes. In digitigrade and unguligrade animals, the metacarpals are greatly extended and strengthened, forming an additional segment to the limb, a feature that typically enhances the animal's speed. In both birds and bats, the metacarpals form part of the wing.

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

The Greek physician Galen used to refer to the metacarpus as μετακάρπιον.[4][5] The Latin form metacarpium [4][6][7][8] more truly resembles[4] its Ancient Greek predecessor μετακάρπιον than metacarpus.[9][10]Meta– is Greek for beyond and carpal from Ancient Greek καρπός (karpós, “wrist”). In anatomic Latin, adjectives like metacarpius,[11] metacarpicus,[12] metacarpiaeus,[13] metacarpeus,[14] metacarpianus [15] and metacarpalis [10] can be found. The form metacarpius is more true[7][11] to the later Greek form μετακάρπιος.[11] Metacarpalis, as in ossa metacarpalia in the current official Latin nomenclature, Terminologia Anatomica [10] is a compound consisting of Latin and Greek part.[12] The usage of such hybrids in anatomic Latin is disapproved by some.[7][12]

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. ^ Tubiana et al 1998, p 11
  2. ^ a b c Gray's Anatomy. (See infobox)
  3. ^ Saladin, Kenneth S. "Capt. 10." Anatomy & Physiology: the Unity of Form and Function. Dubuque: McGraw-Hill, 2010. 361-64. Print.
  4. ^ a b c Hyrtl, J. (1880). Onomatologia Anatomica. Geschichte und Kritik der anatomischen Sprache der Gegenwart. Wien: Wilhelm Braumüller. K.K. Hof- und Universitätsbuchhändler.
  5. ^ Liddell, H.G. & Scott, R. (1940). A Greek-English Lexicon. revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones. with the assistance of. Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  6. ^ Schreger, C.H.Th.(1805). Synonymia anatomica. Synonymik der anatomischen Nomenclatur. Fürth: im Bureau für Literatur.
  7. ^ a b c Triepel, H. (1908). Memorial on the anatomical nomenclature of the anatomical society. In A. Rose (Ed.), Medical Greek. Collection of papers on medical onomatology and a grammatical guide to learn modern Greek (pp. 176-193). New York: Peri Hellados publication office.
  8. ^ Triepel, H. (1910). Nomina Anatomica. Mit Unterstützung von Fachphilologen. Wiesbaden: Verlag J.F. Bergmann.
  9. ^ His, W. (1895). Die anatomische Nomenclatur. Nomina Anatomica. Der von der Anatomischen Gesellschaft auf ihrer IX. Versammlung in Basel angenommenen Namen. Leipzig: Verlag Veit & Comp.
  10. ^ a b c Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) (1998). Terminologia Anatomica. Stuttgart: Thieme
  11. ^ a b c Triepel, H. (1910). Die anatomischen Namen. Ihre Ableitung und Aussprache. Mit einem Anhang: Biographische Notizen.(Dritte Auflage). Wiesbaden: Verlag J.F. Bergmann.
  12. ^ a b c Triepel, H. & Stieve, H. (1936). Die anatomischen Namen. Ihre Ableitung und Aussprache. Anhang: Eigennamen, die früher in der Anatomie verwendet wurden.(Achtzehnte Auflage). Berlin/Heidelberg:Springer-Verlag.
  13. ^ Siebenhaar, F.J. (1850). Terminologisches Wörterbuch der medicinischen Wissenschaften. (Zweite Auflage). Leipzig: Arnoldische Buchhandlung.
  14. ^ International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee (1966). Nomina Anatomica . Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica Foundation.
  15. ^ Foster, F.D. (1891-1893). An illustrated medical dictionary. Being a dictionary of the technical terms used by writers on medicine and the collateral sciences, in the Latin, English, French, and German languages. New York: D. Appleton and Company.

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