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I have taken more than 4,000 Quaaludes before, Methaqualone is great
I have taken more than 4,000 Quaaludes before, Methaqualone is great
Published: 2012/12/18
Channel: Maher Mc Clung
Good Question: What Are Quaaludes?
Good Question: What Are Quaaludes?
Published: 2015/07/08
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Don
Don't Do Methaqualone
Published: 2009/04/12
Channel: jd12990
Synthesis of a quinazolinone heterocycle
Synthesis of a quinazolinone heterocycle
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Channel: Chem Player
Quaaludes or Mandrax in South Africa
Quaaludes or Mandrax in South Africa
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Daniel Xav De Oliveira
What do Quaaludes do to people?
What do Quaaludes do to people?
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: CNN
Drug abuse in South Africa
Drug abuse in South Africa
Published: 2012/02/18
Channel: Sjovisi
A Brief History Of Quaaludes - Newsy
A Brief History Of Quaaludes - Newsy
Published: 2015/07/07
Channel: Newsy Science
Getting High On HIV Medication - Part 1/2
Getting High On HIV Medication - Part 1/2
Published: 2014/04/07
Channel: VICE
The Quint: 23.5 Metric Tonnes of Mandrax Seized in the ‘Biggest’ Drug Bust
The Quint: 23.5 Metric Tonnes of Mandrax Seized in the ‘Biggest’ Drug Bust
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: The Quint
Quaalude I have had over 8,000 of them 714-712
Quaalude I have had over 8,000 of them 714-712
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: Alki Holic
Quaaludes
Quaaludes
Published: 2009/01/01
Channel: fishytautog
What are Quaaludes are how can they effect you?
What are Quaaludes are how can they effect you?
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: CNN
The Quint: What is Methaqualone, the Rs 5,000-per-gram Drug Seized in Bengaluru
The Quint: What is Methaqualone, the Rs 5,000-per-gram Drug Seized in Bengaluru
Published: 2016/09/08
Channel: The Quint
Fentanyl: The Drug Deadlier than Heroin
Fentanyl: The Drug Deadlier than Heroin
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mandrax drug abuse
mandrax drug abuse
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Methaqualone-Health 10 Project
Methaqualone-Health 10 Project
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substanceabuserehabs methaqualone drug abuse facts
substanceabuserehabs methaqualone drug abuse facts
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Methaqualone
Methaqualone
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Uncle Tommy takes a Quaalude
Uncle Tommy takes a Quaalude
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Channel: iamdokus
everything you need to know about quaaludes
everything you need to know about quaaludes
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Channel: drew mccafferty
What Are Quaaludes? Inside the Popular 70s Drug Cosby Offered to Women
What Are Quaaludes? Inside the Popular 70s Drug Cosby Offered to Women
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: Inside Edition
Jordan Belfort The Real Wolf Of Wall Street Raw Footage
Jordan Belfort The Real Wolf Of Wall Street Raw Footage
Published: 2013/12/21
Channel: D.A. Beats
2 Crore Mandrax Tablets approx  23.38 Metric Tons of Methaqualone Tablets (Mandrax) worth Rs 3000 Cr
2 Crore Mandrax Tablets approx 23.38 Metric Tons of Methaqualone Tablets (Mandrax) worth Rs 3000 Cr
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: gallinews
Methaqualone - Wiki Videos
Methaqualone - Wiki Videos
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Methaqualone Meaning
Methaqualone Meaning
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Channel: ADictionary
Getting High On HIV Medication (Full Documentary)
Getting High On HIV Medication (Full Documentary)
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Channel: VICE
Methaqualone
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Channel: ONTSecurity
Microcause - Methaqualone
Microcause - Methaqualone
Published: 2014/04/30
Channel: r4mmsteinnn
The Wolf Of Wall Street - Lemmon/Quaalude Drug Phase Scene
The Wolf Of Wall Street - Lemmon/Quaalude Drug Phase Scene
Published: 2015/02/21
Channel: Thomas Armstrong
BILL COSBY TRYING TO GET A PRESCRIPTION FOR QUAALUDES
BILL COSBY TRYING TO GET A PRESCRIPTION FOR QUAALUDES
Published: 2016/01/29
Channel: RXComedy
DRI Seizes Methaqualone Tablets | Worth Rs 9.20 lakh| Hyderabad
DRI Seizes Methaqualone Tablets | Worth Rs 9.20 lakh| Hyderabad
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: ETV Andhra Pradesh
quaalude mindset
quaalude mindset
Published: 2010/11/10
Channel: leicafrog
DRI SEIZES METHAQUALONE TABLETS IN COURIER PARCEL @ TNA NEWS ...
DRI SEIZES METHAQUALONE TABLETS IN COURIER PARCEL @ TNA NEWS ...
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: TNA News Channel
How to Make it in America , with Quaalude Charlie
How to Make it in America , with Quaalude Charlie
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Methaqualone  Moonset
Methaqualone Moonset
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Six Weeks Of Progesterone   "Methaqualone"
Six Weeks Of Progesterone "Methaqualone"
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The Wolf of WallStreet "Quaalude /Lemmons714 scene
The Wolf of WallStreet "Quaalude /Lemmons714 scene
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23 38 Metric Tonnes of Banned Mandrax Drug Seized In Udaipur : NewspointTv
23 38 Metric Tonnes of Banned Mandrax Drug Seized In Udaipur : NewspointTv
Published: 2016/11/02
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What Drug Am I? - Methaqualone
What Drug Am I? - Methaqualone
Published: 2012/05/08
Channel: austin dortman
AZ-NEWS.24X7:- HyderabadThe DRI( Directorate of revenue intelligence), seized Methaqualone tablets i
AZ-NEWS.24X7:- HyderabadThe DRI( Directorate of revenue intelligence), seized Methaqualone tablets i
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Methaqualone (Public Announment)
Methaqualone (Public Announment)
Published: 2009/04/06
Channel: crazy4portugal
THE MOPED MAN AND THE QUAALUDES
THE MOPED MAN AND THE QUAALUDES
Published: 2010/06/06
Channel: David Puls
Quaaludes (Methaqualone)
Quaaludes (Methaqualone)
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Cosby-n-Quaaludes ..OH, MY!
Cosby-n-Quaaludes ..OH, MY!
Published: 2015/07/09
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Quaaludes and Alcohol
Quaaludes and Alcohol
Published: 2013/08/04
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How to Pronounce Methaqualone
How to Pronounce Methaqualone
Published: 2013/04/05
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Methaqualone Health Video
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How to say "methaqualone"! (High Quality Voices)
How to say "methaqualone"! (High Quality Voices)
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Medical vocabulary: What does Methaqualone mean
Medical vocabulary: What does Methaqualone mean
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Methaqualone
Methaqualone2.svg
Methaqualone ball-and-stick model.png
Clinical data
Pronunciation /mɛθəˈkwln/
Pregnancy
category
  • US: D (Evidence of risk)
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 70-80%
Biological half-life Biphasic (10-40; 20-60 hours)
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.000.710
Chemical and physical data
Formula C16H14N2O
Molar mass 250.30 g/mol
3D model (Jmol)
Melting point 113 °C (235 °F)
  (verify)

Methaqualone, sold under the brand name Quaalude (pronounced /ˈkwld/; KWAY-lood) and sometimes stylized "Quāālude"[1] in the US and Mandrax in the UK and South Africa, is a sedative and hypnotic medication. It is a member of the quinazolinone class.

The sedative–hypnotic activity of methaqualone was first noted by researchers in the 1950s. In 1962, methaqualone was patented in the US by Wallace and Tiernan.[2] Its use peaked in the early 1970s as a hypnotic, for the treatment of insomnia, and as a sedative and muscle relaxant.

Methaqualone became increasingly popular as a recreational drug and club drug in the late 1960s and 1970s, known variously as "ludes" or "sopers" (also "soaps") in the U.S. and "mandrakes" and "mandies" in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. The drug was often used by hippies and by people who went dancing at glam rock clubs in the 1970s and at discos. The drug was so popular in the disco scene of the 1970s that the drug, sold under the brand name Quaaludes, was nicknamed "disco biscuits".

Uses[edit]

Medical[edit]

Methaqualone is a depressant that increases the activity of the GABA receptors in the brain and nervous system. When GABA activity is increased, blood pressure drops and the breathing and pulse rates slow, leading to a state of deep relaxation. These properties explain why methaqualone was originally mainly prescribed for insomnia.[3] Methaqualone peaks in the bloodstream within several hours, with a half-life of 20–60 hours. Regular users build up a physical tolerance, requiring larger doses for the same effect. Overdose can lead to nervous system shutdown, coma and death.[4]

Methaqualone is not recommended for use while pregnant and is in pregnancy category D.[5] In Canada, methaqualone is listed in Schedule III of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act and requires a prescription but is Schedule I according to NAPRA.[6] Methaqualone is banned in India.[7]

Recreational[edit]

A variety of Quaalude pills and capsules.

Methaqualone became increasingly popular as a recreational drug in the late 1960s and 1970s, known variously as "ludes" or "sopers" (also "soaps") in the U.S. and "mandrakes" and "mandies" in the UK, Australia and New Zealand. The drug was often used by hippies and by people who went dancing at glam rock clubs in the 1970s and at discos (one slang term for Quaaludes was "disco biscuits"). In the mid-1970s, there were bars in Manhattan called "juice bars" that only served non-alcoholic drinks that catered to people who liked to dance on methaqualone.[8]

The drug was more tightly regulated in Britain under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and in the U.S. from 1973. It was withdrawn from many developed markets in the early 1980s. In the United States it was withdrawn in 1982 and made a Schedule I drug in 1984. It has a DEA ACSCN of 2565 and in 2013 the aggregate annual manufacturing quota for the US was 10 grams. Mention of its possible use in some types of cancer and AIDS has periodically appeared in the literature since the late 1980s; research does not appear to have reached an advanced stage. The DEA has also added the methaqualone analogue mecloqualone (also a result of some incomplete clandestine syntheses) to Schedule I as ACSCN 2572, and zero manufacturing quota.

Gene Haislip, the former head of the Chemical Control Division of the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), told the PBS documentary program Frontline: "We beat 'em." By working with governments and manufacturers around the world, the DEA was able to halt production and, Haislip says, "eliminated the problem".[9][10][11] Methaqualone was manufactured in the United States under the name Quaalude by the pharmaceutical firms Rorer and Lemmon with the numbers 714 stamped on the tablet, so people often referred to Quaalude as 714s, "Lemmons", or "Lemmon 7s". Methaqualone was also manufactured in the US under the trade names Sopor and Parest. After the legal manufacture of the drug ended in the United States in 1982, underground laboratories in Mexico continued illegal manufacture of methaqualone all through the 1980s, continuing the use of the "714" stamp, until their popularity waned in the early 1990s. Purported methaqualone is in a significant minority of cases found to be inert, or contain diphenhydramine or benzodiazepines.

Methaqualone is one of the most commonly used recreational drugs in South Africa.[12][13] It is also popular elsewhere in Africa and in India.[13] Commonly known as Mandrax, M-pills, buttons, or smarties, a mixture of crushed mandrax and cannabis is smoked, usually through a smoking pipe made from the neck of a glass bottle.[citation needed]

Overdose[edit]

An overdose can cause delirium, convulsions, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, vomiting, kidney failure, coma, and death through cardiac or respiratory arrest. It resembles barbiturate poisoning, but with increased motor difficulties and a lower incidence of cardiac or respiratory depression. The standard one tablet adult dose of Quaalude was 300 mg when made by Lemmon. A dose of 8000 mg is lethal and a dose as little as 2000 mg could induce a coma if taken with an alcoholic beverage.[14]

Drug testing[edit]

Urine drug test of gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) confirmation up to 90 hours after the last intake is a practical way of detecting methaqualone use.[15] To avoid a false positive, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) determined the initial cut off level of 300 ng/ml for forensic and workplace drug testing of methaqualone. Only after testing at over 200 ng/ml is a person be considered positive, and possibly subject to penalties or workplace disciplinary action.[16] As reported by Quest Diagnostics in 2011, methaqualone had a 0% positive drug testing rate in the US, making it one of the least used recreational drugs in that year.[17]

Information provided by government, industrial, and academic sources most notably quoted in the textbook "Illegal Drugs" (Gahlinger, 2001) and some more in depth media reports list diphenhydramine and ostensibly other ethanolamine antihistamines as a potential source of methaqualone false-positives on immunoassay drug tests. Confirmation by low pressure vapour phase chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) should clear up the matter. Whether quinine and its relatives also have the potential to cause false positives is not known.

History[edit]

Methaqualone was first synthesized in India in 1951 by Indra Kishore Kacker and Syed Hussain Zaheer, for use as an antimalarial drug.[14][18][19] By 1965, it was the most commonly prescribed sedative in Britain, where it has been sold legally under the names Malsed, Malsedin, and Renoval. In 1965, a methaqualone/antihistamine combination was sold as the sedative drug Mandrax, by Roussel Laboratories (now part of Sanofi-Aventis). In 1972, it was the sixth-bestselling sedative in the US,[20] where it was legal under the brand name Quaalude. Quaalude in the United States was originally manufactured in 1965 by the Fort Washington, Pennsylvania, based pharmaceutical firm William H. Rorer Inc. The drug name "Quaalude" combined the words "quiet interlude" and shared a stylistic reference to another drug marketed by the firm, Maalox.[21]

In 1978, Rorer sold the rights to manufacture Quaalude to the Lemmon Company of Sellersville, Pennsylvania. At that time, Rorer chairman John Eckman commented on Quaalude's bad reputation stemming from illegal manufacture and use of methaqualone, and illegal sale and use of legally prescribed Quaalude: "Quaalude accounted for less than 2% of our sales but created 98% of our headaches."[14] Both companies still regarded Quaalude as an excellent sleeping drug. Lemmon, well aware of Quaalude's public image problems, used advertisements in medical journals to urge physicians "not to permit the abuses of illegal users to deprive a legitimate patient of the drug". Lemmon also marketed a small quantity under another name, Mequin, so doctors could prescribe the drug without the negative connotations.[14] The rights to Quaalude were held by the JB Roerig & Company division of Pfizer, before the drug was discontinued in the United States in 1985, mainly due to its psychological addictiveness and recreational use.[22]

The 2013 film The Wolf of Wall Street included a depiction of Quaalude intoxication (and driving under the influence) by Leonardo DiCaprio's character. Later, headlines were focused on Quaaludes after a deposition became public where Bill Cosby admitted under oath that he had given the drug to women with whom he wanted to have sex.[23]

As mentioned above, methaqualone is a common recreational and self-medication drug in South Africa and other of the former Frontline States, including Mozambique, Angola, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Some percentage of this consumption, as well as on the European and Near East clandestine drug markets, was/is in all probability sourced from the massive cache of powder and tabletted methaqualone produced under the aegis of the apartheid-era South African government's Project Coast in a segment thereof directed by Dr Wouter Basson (whose "Brownies" are capsules of pure MDMA in doses of up to 135 mg), who at one point was held by police in Croatia carrying $40m in Vatican bearer bonds when attempting to purchase 500 kilos of methaqualone. The methaqualone and MDMA, along with cocaine and other empathogens and aphrodisiacs as well as muscle relaxants and incapacitating anticholinergic deliriants were considered for non-lethal riot-control use. The entire drug cache disappeared into the underground in the final days of the National Party's tenure in office. The total methaqualone cache may have approached a ton.[24]

North, Central, and South American clandestine drug markets typically source the drug from industrial-scale illegal drug labs in Mexico, Colombia, Belize, Peru and elsewhere. Smaller labs occasionally are uncovered in the United States and Canada and the final percentage of methaqualone as well as mecloqualone, other chemical relatives, other congeners, and unreacted precursors form a chemical profile which can be used as a fingerprint to identify the likely origin of batches of the drug just as such things as morphine content and its relation to heroin content and presence of codeine, acetylcodeine, noscapine, papaverine, and other opium components form a chemical fingerprint for batches of heroin.[25]

Methaqualone is also a minor product of drug labs in Lebanon's Biqa Valley (also a supplier to African markets) and in all likelihood is produced for fundraising purposes by some combatants in the current Syrian Civil War, as is the case with heroin, opium, morphine, fentanyl analogues, Captagon, first generation amphetamines, cannabis, hashish and others. The government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is a well-known industrial-scale producer of drugs such as dextromethamphetamine (Ice, Shabu, etc.) and other sympathomimetic stimulants for export to Asian and Australian clandestine drug markets and may supply some amount of methaqualone as well.[25]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rile, Karen (1983). Winter Music (First ed.). Boston and Toronto: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 41, 59. ISBN 0-316-74657-6. 
  2. ^ U.S. Patent 3,135,659 – Hydroxy and Alkoxy Aryl Quinazolones
  3. ^ "methaqualone reference". Enotes. Archived from the original on February 23, 2012. 
  4. ^ "recreational drugs tranquilizers". drug library eu. 
  5. ^ Drug Safety. "Methaqualone in Pregnancy and Breastfeeding". Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  6. ^ "Search National Drug Schedule". 
  7. ^ "Drugs banned in India". Central Drugs Standard Control Organization, Dte.GHS, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Archived from the original on 2015-02-21. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  8. ^ Lawrence Young (31 January 2010). "METHAQUALONE". Drug Text. International Substance Use Library. Retrieved 27 July 2012. 
  9. ^ "The Meth Epidemic – Haislip discusses parallels to current Methamphetamine epidemic". 
  10. ^ Ferns, Sean, "Lecture: Gene Haislip : The Chemical Connection: A Historical Perspective on Chemical Control", Drug Enforcement Administration Museum Lecture Series, Arlington, Virginia, October 25, 2007
  11. ^ Piccini, Sara, "DRUG WARRIOR: THE DEA’S GENE HAISLIP ’60, B.C.L. ’63 BATTLED WORLDWIDE AGAINST THE ILLEGAL DRUG TRADE – AND SCORED A RARE VICTORY", William & Mary Alumni Magazine, The College of William & Mary, Spring 2010
  12. ^ "Mandrax". DrugAware. Reality Media. 2003. Retrieved 2009-08-13. 
  13. ^ a b McCarthy, G; Myers, B; Siegfried, N (2005). "Treatment for methaqualone dependence in adults". Reviews (2): CD004146. PMID 15846700. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004146.pub2. 
  14. ^ a b c d Linder, Lee (28 May 1981). "Quaalude manufacturer: Image hurt by street use". Lawrence Journal-World. Associated Press. p. 6. Retrieved 16 August 2013. Eckman/Fisher 
  15. ^ Rock, NL; Moore, RJ. "methaqualone drug testing". Int J Addict. 11: 237–44. PMID 1262091. 
  16. ^ "methaqualone drug testing". Testcountry. 
  17. ^ "workplace drug test positive rates". quest diagnostics. 
  18. ^ van Zyl, Etienne F. (2001). "A survey of reported synthesis of methaqualone and some positional and structural isomers". Forensic Science International. 122 (2–3): 142–149. doi:10.1016/S0379-0738(01)00484-4. 
  19. ^ Potential Analgesics. Part I. Synthesis of substituted 4-quinazolones, I. K. Kacker and S. H. Zaheer, J. Ind. Chem. Soc. 28 (1951), pp. 344–346.
  20. ^ GC/MS Assays for Abused Drugs in Body fluids, p. 39
  21. ^ "Dividends: Dropping the Last 'Lude". Time. 28 November 1983. Retrieved 16 August 2013. 
  22. ^ Silverstein, Shel. "Quaaludes Again". Captain Wayne's Mad Music.com. 
  23. ^ Harry Low and Tom Heyden (9 July 2015) The rise and fall of Quaaludes BBC News Magazine. Accessed 9 July 2015.
  24. ^ Levenda, pp 302-303[full citation needed]
  25. ^ a b NCOCTL Bulletin Volume XXV, No 2, pp 3 sidebar "Blast From The Past"

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