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Mid-Atlantic and New England State GS
Mid-Atlantic and New England State GS
Published: 2010/08/30
Channel: Tplc Students
Arctic blast sweeps Northern, Mid-Atlantic States
Arctic blast sweeps Northern, Mid-Atlantic States
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: CBS This Morning
Flooding Threatens Millions Across US Mid-Atlantic States
Flooding Threatens Millions Across US Mid-Atlantic States
Published: 2017/04/24
Channel: Wochit News
Globe Trekker - Mid Atlantic States, USA with Brianna Barnes
Globe Trekker - Mid Atlantic States, USA with Brianna Barnes
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: GlobeTrekker.TV
2017 Mid-Atlantic Warmup Highlights
2017 Mid-Atlantic Warmup Highlights
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: Akshat Rajan
Blizzard Buries Mid-Atlantic States
Blizzard Buries Mid-Atlantic States
Published: 2010/02/06
Channel: ABC News
Late winter storm hits South, Mid-Atlantic States
Late winter storm hits South, Mid-Atlantic States
Published: 2014/03/07
Channel: CBS This Morning
Accent Tag - The Maryland or "Mid-Atlantic" Accent, USA
Accent Tag - The Maryland or "Mid-Atlantic" Accent, USA
Published: 2016/03/09
Channel: Brandon Beatty
United States of Arts: Mid Atlantic Arts Foundation
United States of Arts: Mid Atlantic Arts Foundation
Published: 2016/07/07
Channel: National Endowment for the Arts
IUP Marching Band at US Mid-Atlantic States Championship
IUP Marching Band at US Mid-Atlantic States Championship
Published: 2013/11/03
Channel: Tess ZL
2017 License Free Fishing Days - Mid Atlantic States  - Info may not work on all devices.
2017 License Free Fishing Days - Mid Atlantic States - Info may not work on all devices.
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: The Shore Fisherman
Worldwide Accent Project - Mid-Atlantic States, USA
Worldwide Accent Project - Mid-Atlantic States, USA
Published: 2012/06/24
Channel: Adrian L. H. Graham
"Mid-Atlantic" - Day 2 Scales - 2016
"Mid-Atlantic" - Day 2 Scales - 2016
Published: 2016/08/24
Channel: UnscenePro/HookedOnOC
Mid-Atlantic States Career and Education Center
Mid-Atlantic States Career and Education Center
Published: 2016/01/28
Channel: Jeff Truax
USAPL Mid Atlantic Regionals 4k
USAPL Mid Atlantic Regionals 4k
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: John Dalessio
"Roomies" | Kaiser Permanente Mid-Atlantic States
"Roomies" | Kaiser Permanente Mid-Atlantic States
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Kaiser Permanente Thrive
Ulf and Siggie Visit the United States; Episode 2: The Mid-Atlantic
Ulf and Siggie Visit the United States; Episode 2: The Mid-Atlantic
Published: 2012/07/18
Channel: Ellen Weisberg
Kaiser Permanente Community Ambassador Program - Mid-Atlantic States
Kaiser Permanente Community Ambassador Program - Mid-Atlantic States
Published: 2013/07/19
Channel: Kaiser Permanente Thrive
AT&T Mid-Atlantic States President Discusses Hurricane Sandy Response
AT&T Mid-Atlantic States President Discusses Hurricane Sandy Response
Published: 2012/11/23
Channel: NJTV News
Mid-Atlantic Video - Players and Fans Interviews and Batting Practice
Mid-Atlantic Video - Players and Fans Interviews and Batting Practice
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: John Green
Snowstorm will hit Mid-Atlantic, New England Regions
Snowstorm will hit Mid-Atlantic, New England Regions
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: USA TODAY
Mid Atlantic States Region Grades 4 6
Mid Atlantic States Region Grades 4 6
Published: 2016/01/28
Channel: Valdez
Another blast of winter weather for the Mid-Atlantic states
Another blast of winter weather for the Mid-Atlantic states
Published: 2015/08/03
Channel: AP Archive
Delta Packaging: serving custom packaging solutions to mid-Atlantic states
Delta Packaging: serving custom packaging solutions to mid-Atlantic states
Published: 2015/12/11
Channel: Delta Packaging
Mid-Atlantic States See Snow, Sleet Replacing Bitter Cold
Mid-Atlantic States See Snow, Sleet Replacing Bitter Cold
Published: 2016/02/15
Channel: Wochit News
Mid-Atlantic Oireachtas 2016 Parade of Champions
Mid-Atlantic Oireachtas 2016 Parade of Champions
Published: 2016/11/28
Channel: Lisa Murphy
2016 Mid Atlantic Oireahctas Parade of Champions
2016 Mid Atlantic Oireahctas Parade of Champions
Published: 2016/11/28
Channel: delaneyirishdances
National Audubon Society Field Guide to the Mid Atlantic States New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
National Audubon Society Field Guide to the Mid Atlantic States New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey,
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: L Foreman
Heavy snow batters Mid-Atlantic region of the United States
Heavy snow batters Mid-Atlantic region of the United States
Published: 2015/07/24
Channel: AP Archive
Kaiser Permanente of the Mid-Atlantic States Earns High HEDIS®  Rankings
Kaiser Permanente of the Mid-Atlantic States Earns High HEDIS® Rankings
Published: 2012/10/08
Channel: Kaiser Permanente Thrive
Waterfalls of the Mid Atlantic States 200 Falls in Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennysylvania
Waterfalls of the Mid Atlantic States 200 Falls in Maryland, New Jersey, and Pennysylvania
Published: 2017/08/11
Channel: Horvátová
Mid Atlantic Oireachtas 2014 U10
Mid Atlantic Oireachtas 2014 U10
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: Blockparty222
Elims#1 Mid Atlantic Street Outlaws Menard Chevy  Maple Grove 2017
Elims#1 Mid Atlantic Street Outlaws Menard Chevy Maple Grove 2017
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: zlumlord
Dog Friendly Washington, D C  and the Mid Atlantic States Includes Northern Virginia, Maryland, Dela
Dog Friendly Washington, D C and the Mid Atlantic States Includes Northern Virginia, Maryland, Dela
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: daraed lukaku
2014 EPL Mid-Atlantic - Event 2 | Free State Classic | Eastern Paintball League
2014 EPL Mid-Atlantic - Event 2 | Free State Classic | Eastern Paintball League
Published: 2014/06/21
Channel: Social Paintball
Expedition Mid Atlantic: Ultrasound
Expedition Mid Atlantic: Ultrasound
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: OCEARCH
Mountain Bike! Mid Atlantic States Charleston, SC to Washington, DC America by Mountain Bike   Menas
Mountain Bike! Mid Atlantic States Charleston, SC to Washington, DC America by Mountain Bike Menas
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: F. Izati
"Mid-Atlantic" - Day 3 Scales - 2016
"Mid-Atlantic" - Day 3 Scales - 2016
Published: 2016/08/25
Channel: UnscenePro/HookedOnOC
Mid-Atlantic ACE Student Convention 2017 Thursday Evening
Mid-Atlantic ACE Student Convention 2017 Thursday Evening
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: Dan Petersheim
midatlantic 255
midatlantic 255
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: AIWF Mid Atlantic Wrestling
Nor
Nor'easter Slams Into Mid-Atlantic States
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: CBS Miami
Mid-Atlantic states get hit with snow
Mid-Atlantic states get hit with snow
Published: 2013/03/06
Channel: WPTV News | West Palm Beach Florida
Nick Metaxas 2013 Teen Bodybuilding Mid-Atlantic States
Nick Metaxas 2013 Teen Bodybuilding Mid-Atlantic States
Published: 2013/06/09
Channel: IcarusMan2
Laura Boyajian
Laura Boyajian's Declaration for Mid-Atlantic State Governor
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: laura4gov
KPAAPA Mid Atlantic States 2010-2011
KPAAPA Mid Atlantic States 2010-2011
Published: 2011/08/26
Channel: giggymedia
Early Snow Forecasts NYC NJ Long Island,Snow Forecasts Mid Atlantic & South
Early Snow Forecasts NYC NJ Long Island,Snow Forecasts Mid Atlantic & South
Published: 2017/01/03
Channel: Joe Cioffi
The Best Bike Rides in the Mid Atlantic States Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvani
The Best Bike Rides in the Mid Atlantic States Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvani
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: Risdon W.
"Goin
"Goin' In Deep" - Big Eye Tunas - Mid-Atlantic 2015
Published: 2015/08/24
Channel: UnscenePro/HookedOnOC
Alternate Future Of The United States - Episode 2 - Mid Atlantic Emergency
Alternate Future Of The United States - Episode 2 - Mid Atlantic Emergency
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: LFG Mapping Productions
First State Hoopers - Mid-Atlantic "Battle on the Hardwood" Highlights
First State Hoopers - Mid-Atlantic "Battle on the Hardwood" Highlights
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: One Journey
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Mid-Atlantic Region
Mid-Atlantic States Map.jpg
Composition
Metropolitan areas
Largest city New York City
Area
 • Total 191,308.5 sq mi (495,487 km2)
Population (2008 est.)[1]
 • Total 57,303,316
 • Density 300/sq mi (120/km2)
GDP[2]
 • Total $2.962 trillion (2007)

The Mid-Atlantic, also called Middle Atlantic states or the Mid-Atlantic states, form a region of the United States generally located between New England and the South Atlantic States. Its exact definition differs upon source, but the region often includes New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Washington, D.C..[3][4] The Mid-Atlantic has played an important role in the development of American culture, commerce, trade, and industry.[5]

In the late 19th century, it was called "the typically American" region by Frederick Jackson Turner. Religious pluralism and ethnic diversity have been important elements of Mid-Atlantic society from its settlement by Dutch, Swedes, English Catholics, and Quakers through to the period of English rule, and beyond to the current day. After the American Revolution, the Mid-Atlantic region hosted each of the historic capitals of the United States, including the current federal capital, Washington, D.C.

In the early part of the 19th century, New York and Pennsylvania overtook Virginia as the most populous states and the New England states as the country's most important trading and industrial centers. Large numbers of German, Irish, Italian, Jewish, Polish, and other immigrants transformed the region, especially coastal cities such as New York City, Newark, Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C., but also interior cities such as Pittsburgh, Albany, and Buffalo.

New York City, with its skyscrapers, subways, and headquarters of the United Nations, emerged in the 20th century as an icon of modernity and American economic and cultural power. By the 21st century, the coastal areas of the Mid-Atlantic were thoroughly urbanized.

The Northeast Corridor and Interstate 95 link an almost contiguous sprawl of suburbs and large and small cities, forming the Mid-Atlantic portion of the Northeast megalopolis, one of the world's most important concentrations of finance, media, communications, education, medicine, and technology.

The Mid-Atlantic is a relatively affluent region of the nation, having 43 of the 100 highest-income counties in the nation based on median household income and 33 of the top 100 based on per capita income. Most of the Mid-Atlantic states rank among the 15 highest-income states in the nation by median household income and per capita income.

Defining the Mid-Atlantic[edit]

A USGS Fact Sheet interpretation of the Mid Atlantic.[6]
An 1897 map displays an inclusive definition of the Mid-Atlantic region, including Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania.

There are differing interpretations as to the composition of the Mid-Atlantic. Sometimes, the nucleus is considered to consist of Maryland, Delaware, and Virginia, with additional states possibly included.[7] Other sources consider New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania to be the core Mid-Atlantic states, with others sometimes included.[8] For example, since the 1910 census, the Mid-Atlantic Census Division has included New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, which combined with the New England Division, comprised the Northeast Census Region.[9] A United States Geological Survey publication describes the Mid-Atlantic Region as all of Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, along with the parts of New Jersey, New York, and North Carolina that drain into the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays and the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds.[10]

West Virginia and Virginia are atypical of this region in several ways. They are the only states to lie primarily within the Southern American dialect region,[11] and the major religious tradition in both states is Evangelical Christian, 31% in Virginia and 36% in West Virginia.[12] Although a few of West Virginia's eastern panhandle counties are considered part of the Washington, D.C. MSA, the major portion of the state is rural, and there are no major or even large cities.[13]

The "typically American" region[edit]

Frederick Jackson Turner wrote in 1893 about the important role the Mid-Atlantic or "Middle region" had played in the formation of the national American culture, and defined it as "the typical American region".[14]

History[edit]

Shipping and trade have been important to the Mid-Atlantic economy since the beginning of the colonial era.

The explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to see the region in 1524. Henry Hudson later extensively explored that region in 1609 and claimed it for the Dutch, who then created a fur-trading post in Albany in 1614. Jamestown, Virginia was the first permanent English colony in North America seven years earlier in 1607.

From early colonial times, the Mid-Atlantic region was settled by a wider range of European people than in New England or the South. The Dutch New Netherland settlement along the Hudson River in New York and New Jersey, and for a time, New Sweden along the Delaware River in Delaware, divided the two great bulwarks of English settlement from each other. The original English settlements in the region notably provided refuge to religious minorities, Maryland to Roman Catholics, and Pennsylvania to Quakers and the mostly Anabaptist Pennsylvania Dutch. In time, all these settlements fell under English colonial control, but the region continued to be a magnet for people of diverse nationalities.

The area that came to be known as the Middle Colonies served as a strategic bridge between the North and South. The New York and New Jersey campaign during the American Revolutionary War saw more battles than any other theater of the conflict. Philadelphia, midway between the northern and southern colonies, was home to the Continental Congress, the convention of delegates who organized the American Revolution. The same city was the birthplace of the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and the United States Constitution in 1787, while the United States Bill of Rights was drafted and ratified, and the first Supreme Court of the United States sat for the first time, in the first capital under the Constitution at New York City.

While early settlers were mostly farmers, traders, and fishermen, the Mid-Atlantic states provided the young United States with heavy industry and served as the "melting pot" of new immigrants from Europe. Cities grew along major ports, shipping routes, and waterways. Such flourishing cities included New York City and Newark on opposite sides of the Hudson River, Philadelphia on the Delaware River, and Baltimore on the Chesapeake Bay.

Cities and urban areas[edit]

New York City
Washington, D.C.

Metropolitan areas[edit]

Metropolitan areas with more than 1,000,000 people:

Top Ten Largest Cities by Population in the Mid-Atlantic Region
City 2010 Pop.
1 New York City 8,405,837
2 Philadelphia 1,553,165
3 Washington, D.C. 646,449
4 Baltimore 622,104
5 Pittsburgh 305,841
6 Newark, New Jersey 278,427
7 Buffalo, New York 258,959
8 Jersey City, New Jersey 257,342

State capitals[edit]

Politics of the Mid-Atlantic states[edit]

Parties
Nonpartisan Federalist Democratic-Republican National Republican Democratic Whig Know Nothing Republican Constitutional Union Progressive
  • Bold denotes election winner.
Presidential electoral votes in the Mid-Atlantic states since 1789
Year Delaware Washington, D.C. Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia
1789 Washington No election Washington Washington Deadlocked Washington Washington No election
1792 Washington No election Washington Washington Washington Washington Washington No election
1796 Adams No election Adams Adams Adams Jefferson Jefferson No election
1800 Adams No election Jefferson Adams Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson No election
1804 Pinckney No election Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson No election
1808 Pinckney No election Madison Madison Madison Madison Madison No election
1812 Clinton No election Madison Clinton Clinton Madison Madison No election
1816 King No election Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe No election
1820 Monroe No election Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe Monroe No election
1824 Jackson No election Jackson Jackson Adams Jackson Crawford No election
1828 Adams No election Adams Adams Jackson Jackson Jackson No election
1832 Clay No election Clay Jackson Jackson Jackson Jackson No election
1836 Harrison No election Harrison Harrison Van Buren Van Buren Van Buren No election
1840 Harrison No election Harrison Harrison Harrison Harrison Van Buren No election
1844 Clay No election Clay Clay Polk Polk Polk No election
1848 Taylor No election Taylor Taylor Taylor Taylor Cass No election
1852 Pierce No election Pierce Pierce Pierce Pierce Pierce No election
1856 Buchanan No election Fillmore Buchanan Frémont Buchanan Buchanan No election
1860 Breckinridge No election Breckinridge Lincoln Lincoln Lincoln Bell No election
1864 McClellan No election Lincoln McClellan Lincoln Lincoln No election Lincoln
1868 Seymour No election Seymour Seymour Seymour Grant No election Grant
1872 Grant No election Hendricks Grant Grant Grant Grant Grant
1876 Tilden No election Tilden Tilden Tilden Hayes Tilden Tilden
1880 Hancock No election Hancock Hancock Garfield Garfield Hancock Hancock
1884 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Blaine Cleveland Cleveland
1888 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Harrison Harrison Cleveland Cleveland
1892 Cleveland No election Cleveland Cleveland Cleveland Harrison Cleveland Cleveland
1896 McKinley No election McKinley McKinley McKinley McKinley Bryan McKinley
1900 McKinley No election McKinley McKinley McKinley McKinley Bryan McKinley
1904 Roosevelt No election Parker Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Parker Roosevelt
1908 Taft No election Bryan Taft Taft Taft Bryan Taft
1912 Wilson No election Wilson Wilson Wilson Roosevelt Wilson Wilson
1916 Hughes No election Wilson Hughes Hughes Hughes Wilson Hughes
1920 Harding No election Harding Harding Harding Harding Cox Harding
1924 Coolidge No election Coolidge Coolidge Coolidge Coolidge Davis Coolidge
1928 Hoover No election Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover Hoover
1932 Hoover No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Hoover Roosevelt Roosevelt
1936 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1940 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1944 Roosevelt No election Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt Roosevelt
1948 Dewey No election Dewey Dewey Dewey Dewey Truman Truman
1952 Eisenhower No election Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Stevenson
1956 Eisenhower No election Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower Eisenhower
1960 Kennedy No election Kennedy Kennedy Kennedy Kennedy Nixon Kennedy
1964 Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson Johnson
1968 Nixon Humphrey Humphrey Nixon Humphrey Humphrey Nixon Humphrey
1972 Nixon McGovern Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon Nixon
1976 Carter Carter Carter Ford Carter Carter Ford Carter
1980 Reagan Carter Carter Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Carter
1984 Reagan Mondale Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan Reagan
1988 Bush Dukakis Bush Bush Dukakis Bush Bush Dukakis
1992 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Bush Clinton
1996 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Dole Clinton
2000 Gore Gore Gore Gore Gore Gore Bush Bush
2004 Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Kerry Bush Bush
2008 Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama McCain
2012 Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Obama Romney
2016 Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Clinton Trump Clinton Trump
Year Delaware Washington, D.C. Maryland New Jersey New York Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia

Culture[edit]

Sports[edit]

The Mid-Atlantic is home to several professional sports franchises in major leagues:

In addition, the Major League Soccer features four Mid-Atlantic teams: D.C. United, New York City FC, New York Red Bulls and Philadelphia Union, as well as two WNBA teams: New York Liberty and Washington Mystics.

Notable golf tournaments in the Mid-Atlantic include the Barclays, Quicken Loans National and Atlantic City LPGA Classic. The US Open, held at New York City, is one of the four Grand Slam tennis tournaments, whereas Washington Open is part of the ATP World Tour 500 series.

Notable motorsports tracks include Watkins Glen International, Dover International Speedway and Pocono Raceway, which have hosted Formula One, IndyCar, NASCAR, World Sportscar Championship and IMSA races. Also, the Englishtown and Reading drag strips such have hosted NHRA national events. Pimlico Race Course at Baltimore and Belmont Park at New York host the Preakness Stakes and Belmont Stakes horse races, which are part of the Triple Crown of Thoroughbred Racing.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". US Census Bureau. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  2. ^ "News Release: GDP by State" (PDF). Bureau of Economic Analysis. Retrieved 2009-04-16. 
  3. ^ https://www2.census.gov/geo/pdfs/maps-data/maps/reference/us_regdiv.pdf
  4. ^ https://www.britannica.com/place/Middle-Atlantic-states
  5. ^ "United States". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  6. ^ Earl A. Greene et al. "Ground-Water Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination in the Mid-Atlantic Region". USGS Fact Sheet FS 2004-3067. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2013.Note: Although the locator map appears to exclude part of northwestern Pennsylvania, other more detailed maps in this article include all of the state.
  7. ^ "Word Net Definition". Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  8. ^ ""The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000. "Middle Atlantic States" entry"". Retrieved 2009-04-09. 
  9. ^ "Census Regions and Divisions of the United States" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  10. ^ Earl A. Greene et al. "Ground-Water Vulnerability to Nitrate Contamination in the Mid-Atlantic Region". USGS Fact Sheet FS 2004-3067. 2005. Retrieved 25 April 2013. Note: Although the locator map appears to exclude part of northwestern Pennsylvania, other more detailed maps in this article include all of the state.
  11. ^ Labov, William, Sharon Ash and Charles Boberg, Atlas of North American English: Phonetics, Phonology and Sound Change, Mouton de Gruyter, 2005 Southern Regional Map
  12. ^ PEW Forum on Religion & Public Life
  13. ^ U.S. Census 2000 Report
  14. ^ Frederick Jackson Turner, The Frontier in American History.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Bodle, Wayne, "The Mid-Atlantic and the American Revolution", Pennsylvania History 82 (Summer 2015), 282–99.
  • Heineman, Kenneth J., "The Only Things You Will Find in the Middle of the Road are Double Yellow Lines, Dead Frogs, and Electoral Leverage: Mid-Atlantic Political Culture and Influence across the Centuries", Pennsylvania History, 82 (Summer 2015), 300–13.
  • Landsman, Ned C. Crossroads of Empire: The Middle Colonies in British North America (2010)
  • Longhurst, James. "" Typically American": Trends in the History of Environmental Politics and Policy in the Mid-Atlantic Region." Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies 79.4 (2012): 409-427.
  • Magoc, Chris J., "In Search of a Useable—and Hopeful—Environmental Narrative in the Mid-Atlantic", Pennsylvania History, 82 (Summer 2015), 314–28.
  • Mancall, Peter C., Joshua L. Rosenbloom, and Thomas Weiss. "Exports from the Colonies and States of the Middle Atlantic Region 1720–1800." Research in Economic History 29 (2013): 257-305.
  • Marzec, Robert. The Mid-Atlantic Region: The Greenwood Encyclopedia of American Regional Cultures (2004)
  • Richter, Daniel K, "Mid-Atlantic Colonies, R.I.P.", Pennsylvania History, 82 (Summer 2015), 257–81.
  • Rosenbloom, Joshua L., and Thomas Weiss. "Economic growth in the Mid-Atlantic region: Conjectural estimates for 1720 to 1800." Explorations in Economic History 51 (2014): 41-59.

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