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Mid Engine Cars - RWD vs AWD
Mid Engine Cars - RWD vs AWD
Published: 2015/01/07
Channel: Engineering Explained
Which is best: front engine, mid-engine or rear engine? - Video Bench Racing with Autoweek
Which is best: front engine, mid-engine or rear engine? - Video Bench Racing with Autoweek
Published: 2013/04/02
Channel: AutoweekUSA
Rear Engine Cars - RWD vs AWD
Rear Engine Cars - RWD vs AWD
Published: 2015/01/14
Channel: Engineering Explained
THESE cars are MID-ENGINE too?!
THESE cars are MID-ENGINE too?!
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Downforce City
9 Mid-Engine Cars Which Are Not Supercars
9 Mid-Engine Cars Which Are Not Supercars
Published: 2016/05/19
Channel: VisioRacer
Mid Engine E30
Mid Engine E30
Published: 2014/01/16
Channel: EvLSkillz
Mid engine Cavalier first drive
Mid engine Cavalier first drive
Published: 2014/05/07
Channel: midenginecav
Mid-engine corvette is happening. Here are the rear quarter panels for proof.
Mid-engine corvette is happening. Here are the rear quarter panels for proof.
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: Chevy Dude
Mid-Engine Design: Geneva Motorshow 2011
Mid-Engine Design: Geneva Motorshow 2011
Published: 2011/03/10
Channel: Porsche
Mid Engine Corvette: What we know!
Mid Engine Corvette: What we know!
Published: 2017/10/26
Channel: Carpidity
Bespoke Mid Engine Corvette By Aria Group
Bespoke Mid Engine Corvette By Aria Group
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: DPCcars
Which Is The Best Engine Placement: Front-Engine, Mid-Engine, Or Rear-Engine?
Which Is The Best Engine Placement: Front-Engine, Mid-Engine, Or Rear-Engine?
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Sirpalmtree
DF Goblin - Build your own mid-engine sports car
DF Goblin - Build your own mid-engine sports car
Published: 2015/01/27
Channel: DF Kit Car
LS Mid engine swap
LS Mid engine swap
Published: 2017/04/03
Channel: usmcbutler
SLC SuperLight Coupe - The Mid-Engine Track Beast!
SLC SuperLight Coupe - The Mid-Engine Track Beast!
Published: 2016/12/09
Channel: Benjamin Getchell
Rat Rod with rear engine (Mid Engine) 2016 July 4th Seward Nebraska
Rat Rod with rear engine (Mid Engine) 2016 July 4th Seward Nebraska
Published: 2016/07/05
Channel: unclebigguy
Porsche  Mid-engine, LS6, G-50 5 speed
Porsche Mid-engine, LS6, G-50 5 speed
Published: 2015/02/10
Channel: driveability
Mid engine RWD civic Build.wmv
Mid engine RWD civic Build.wmv
Published: 2012/06/03
Channel: J Noble
My 420hp mid engine, rear wheel drive Del Sol
My 420hp mid engine, rear wheel drive Del Sol
Published: 2016/10/16
Channel: Bennie Kerkhof
mid engine ford mustang fastback
mid engine ford mustang fastback
Published: 2016/12/24
Channel: car addiction
LEAKS about the 2018 MID ENGINE CORVETTE C8!!
LEAKS about the 2018 MID ENGINE CORVETTE C8!!
Published: 2017/02/10
Channel: American GT
Porsche 911 Secrets: Mid engine concept
Porsche 911 Secrets: Mid engine concept
Published: 2014/05/21
Channel: Porsche
Mid Engine Design
Mid Engine Design
Published: 2015/10/27
Channel: Wiki Automobiles
2019 Mid-Engine Corvette C8: OUT IN PUBLIC (New Photos & What We Know)
2019 Mid-Engine Corvette C8: OUT IN PUBLIC (New Photos & What We Know)
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: NEO Auto
New 1700 HP Tunnel Ram Alien 427CI(7L) LSX.  Mid Engine Design.  NRE.  Its a Beast.  Its a Pussycat.
New 1700 HP Tunnel Ram Alien 427CI(7L) LSX. Mid Engine Design. NRE. Its a Beast. Its a Pussycat.
Published: 2013/04/12
Channel: nelsonracingengines
Mid Engine RWD Acura Integra GSR Build Project
Mid Engine RWD Acura Integra GSR Build Project
Published: 2017/09/04
Channel: Build Diaries
Twin turbo mid engine dune buggy sand rail
Twin turbo mid engine dune buggy sand rail
Published: 2015/04/01
Channel: Ben's Collision
mid engine mustang
mid engine mustang
Published: 2013/11/19
Channel: Jacque Langston
Latest Mid-Engine Chevy Corvette Spy Shots | Autoblog Minute
Latest Mid-Engine Chevy Corvette Spy Shots | Autoblog Minute
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: Autoblog
The Mid- vs. Rear-Engine Debate: Porsche Cayman R vs. 911 GT3 - CAR and DRIVER
The Mid- vs. Rear-Engine Debate: Porsche Cayman R vs. 911 GT3 - CAR and DRIVER
Published: 2011/06/22
Channel: Car and Driver Magazine
Mid engine RWD conversion b20 turbo Honda CRX build, drag racing
Mid engine RWD conversion b20 turbo Honda CRX build, drag racing
Published: 2009/09/11
Channel: zimsplat
WTF Truck?!?!  Mid-Engine Twin Turbo S10
WTF Truck?!?! Mid-Engine Twin Turbo S10
Published: 2013/09/23
Channel: 1320video
Handyman Corner "Mid-Engine Car"
Handyman Corner "Mid-Engine Car"
Published: 2013/02/22
Channel: RedGreenTV
Mid Engine Subaru Powered Rwd Escort
Mid Engine Subaru Powered Rwd Escort
Published: 2009/04/13
Channel: james Renton
1984 Chevrolet Mid Engine Pick Up
1984 Chevrolet Mid Engine Pick Up
Published: 2013/11/03
Channel: ScottieDTV
Rhys Millen
Rhys Millen's RM460 - Mid Engine Genesis Coupe
Published: 2009/10/08
Channel: qkwon
Car New | Mid-Engine 2019 Corvette C8 Spied, Gets Three Engine Options
Car New | Mid-Engine 2019 Corvette C8 Spied, Gets Three Engine Options
Published: 2017/08/05
Channel: Car New
MotorWeek | EyeSpy: Mid-Engine Corvette
MotorWeek | EyeSpy: Mid-Engine Corvette
Published: 2016/07/29
Channel: MotorWeek
C8 MID ENGINE CORVETTE IS HERE! (Everything You NEED To Know)
C8 MID ENGINE CORVETTE IS HERE! (Everything You NEED To Know)
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Street Speed 717
Honda Del Sol RWD mid engine conversion semi build B16 turbo (short movie)
Honda Del Sol RWD mid engine conversion semi build B16 turbo (short movie)
Published: 2015/10/01
Channel: Bennie Kerkhof
Mazda 323 Mid Engine Conversion
Mazda 323 Mid Engine Conversion
Published: 2016/08/21
Channel: Nic Bolton Just Another Bushman
Mini Type R powered Midengine layout
Mini Type R powered Midengine layout
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: Freehandzzzzzzz
Factory Five Racing 818: Mid-Engine Marvel
Factory Five Racing 818: Mid-Engine Marvel
Published: 2015/08/16
Channel: ElectricFederal
Mid Engine Corvette Ancestor (V8 Corvair Aluminum Engine Crown Conversion)
Mid Engine Corvette Ancestor (V8 Corvair Aluminum Engine Crown Conversion)
Published: 2010/07/18
Channel: Jeff Banet
Mid-engine / Rear-Wheel-Drive Racing Car: Drift Trial
Mid-engine / Rear-Wheel-Drive Racing Car: Drift Trial
Published: 2017/10/26
Channel: Bill Bolek
RWD Mid Engine Del Sol Action Vids 2015
RWD Mid Engine Del Sol Action Vids 2015
Published: 2015/12/10
Channel: Bennie Kerkhof
My scratch-built mid-engine sportscar - La Bala
My scratch-built mid-engine sportscar - La Bala
Published: 2006/06/12
Channel: Steve Graber
mid engine civic hatch burnout
mid engine civic hatch burnout
Published: 2013/07/22
Channel: Bernardo Cambron
427 Mid Engine Deep Rumble Burnout 10 22 17
427 Mid Engine Deep Rumble Burnout 10 22 17
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: CORVAIRWILD
mid engine turbo rwd crx vs eclipse gsx
mid engine turbo rwd crx vs eclipse gsx
Published: 2009/05/11
Channel: zimsplat
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine between the rear and front axles

History[edit]

The mid-engine, rear-wheel drive format can be considered the original layout of automobiles. A 1901 Autocar was the first gasoline-powered automobile to use a drive shaft and placed the engine under the seat. This pioneering vehicle is now in the collection of the Smithsonian Institution.[1]

Benefits[edit]

The Lotus Europa S1 was based on a prototype built to compete for Henry Ford II's contract to build a Le Mans race car in the early 1960s.

Mounting the engine in the middle instead of the front of the vehicle puts more weight over the rear tires, so they have more traction and provide more assistance to the front tires in braking the vehicle, with less chance of rear-wheel lockup and less chance of a skid or spin out. If the mid-engine vehicle is also rear-drive the added weight on the rear tires can also improve acceleration on slippery surfaces, providing much of the benefit of all wheel drive without the added weight and expense of all wheel drive components. The mid-engine layout makes ABS brakes and traction control systems work better, by providing them more traction to control. The mid-engine layout may make a vehicle safer, since an accident can occur if a vehicle cannot stay in its own lane around a curve or is unable to stop quickly enough. Mid-engine design is also a way to provide additional empty crush space in the front of the automobile between the bumper and the windshield, which can then be used in a frontal collision to absorb more of the impact force to minimize penetration into the passenger compartment of the vehicle.

In most automobiles, and in sports cars especially, ideal car handling requires balanced traction between the front and rear wheels when cornering, in order to maximize the possible speed around curves without sliding out. This balance is harder to achieve when the heavy weight of the engine is located far to the front or far to the rear of the vehicle. Some automobile designs strive to balance the fore and aft weight distribution by other means, such as putting the engine in the front and the transmission and battery in the rear of the vehicle.

Another benefit comes when the heavy mass of the engine is located close to the back of the seats. It makes it easier for the suspension to absorb the force of bumps so the riders feel a smoother ride. But in sports cars the engine position is once again used to increase performance and the potentially smoother ride is usually more than offset by stiffer shock absorbers.

This layout also allows the transmission and motor to be directly bolted to each other—with independent suspension on the driven wheels; this removes the need for the chassis to transfer engine torque reaction.

Drawbacks[edit]

Underfloor mid-engine in a historical Hanomag truck chassis.

The largest drawback of mid-engine cars is restricted rear passenger space; consequently most mid-engine vehicles are two-seat vehicles. The engine in effect pushes the passenger compartment forward towards the front axle (if engine is behind driver). Exceptions typically involve larger vehicles of unusual length or height in which the passengers can share space between the axles with the engine, which can be between them or below them, as in some Toyota vans, large trucks and buses. The mid-engine layout (with a horizontal engine) was common in single-decker buses in the 1950s and 1960s, e.g. the AEC Reliance. The Ferrari Mondial is to date the only successful example of a true mid-engined convertible with seating for 4 and sports car / supercar performance. A version of the Lotus Evora with a removable roof panel is anticipated but no definite date is known.

Like any layout where the engine is not front-mounted and facing the wind, the traditional "engine-behind-the-passengers" layout makes engine cooling more difficult. This has been a problem in some cars,[citation needed] but this issue seems to have been largely solved in newer designs. For example, the Saleen S7 employs large engine-compartment vents on the sides and rear of the bodywork to help dissipate heat from its very high-output engine.

Mid engined cars are more dangerous than front-engined cars if the driver loses control - although this may be initially harder to provoke due to the superior balance - and the car begins to spin. The moment of inertia about the center of gravity is low due to the concentration of mass between the axles (similar to standing in the middle of a playground roundabout, rather than at the edge) and the spin will occur suddenly, the car will rotate faster and it will be harder to recover from. Conversely, a front-engined car is more likely to break away in a progressive and controllable manner as the tires lose traction.

Variations[edit]

The term "mid-engine" has usually been applied to cars having the engine located between the driver and the rear drive axles. This layout is referred to here as RMR layout. Sports and racing cars typically have this mid-engine layout, as these vehicles' handling characteristics are more important than other features, such as capacity. Additionally the mechanical layout and packaging of an RMR car is substantially different from that of a front engine or rear engine car.

A subset of Front-Rear when the engine is in front of the driver, but fully behind the front axle line, the layout is sometimes called Front Mid engine Rear FMR layout instead of the less-specific term front-engine. In handling and vehicle layout FMR is substantially the same as FR.[citation needed] Some vehicles could be classified as FR or FMR depending on the factory installed engine (I4 vs I6). Historically most classical FR cars such as the Ford Models T and A would qualify as a FMR engine car. Additionally, the difference between FR and FMR may be as little as a few millimeters of engine protrusion in front of the front axle line as manufacturers mount engine as far back in the chassis as possible. Not all manufacturers use the Front-Mid designation.

Examples[edit]

FMR layout – Front Mid-engine / Rear-wheel drive[edit]

Front mid-engine position / Rear-wheel drive

These cars are RWD cars with engine placed between driver and front axle.

FM4 layout – Front Mid-engine / Four-wheel drive[edit]

This layout, similar to above FMR layout, with engine between driver and behind front axle, adds front wheel drive to become a four-wheel drive.

RMR layout – Rear Mid-engine / Rear-wheel drive[edit]

Rear mid-engine position / Rear-wheel drive

These cars use traditional engine layout between driver and rear drive axle. Typically, they're simply called MR layout cars.

M4 layout – Rear Mid-engine / Four-wheel drive[edit]

These cars uses mid-ship, four-wheel drive, with engine between axles.

MF layout – Mid-engine / Front-wheel drive[edit]

Front mid-engine position / Front-wheel drive

These cars are "mid-ship engined" vehicles, but they use front-wheel drive, with the engine in front of the driver. It is still treated as an FF layout, though, due to the engine's placement still being in the front of the car, contrary to the popular belief that the engine is placed in front of the rear axle with power transferred to the front wheels (an RMF layout). In most examples, the engine is longitudinally mounted rather than the transversely as is common with FF cars.

References[edit]

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