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Let's Play Skyrim Part [156] - The Midden
Published: 2012/04/07
Channel: SirSilica
Skyrim: The Midden Relic Puzzle + Treasure
Skyrim: The Midden Relic Puzzle + Treasure
Published: 2011/11/20
Channel: laggEcss
Alone: Lucas Finds a Shell Midden (Season 1, Episode 1) | History
Alone: Lucas Finds a Shell Midden (Season 1, Episode 1) | History
Published: 2015/06/15
Channel: HISTORY
Midden in ORKAAN IRMA!
Midden in ORKAAN IRMA!
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: Seekrz
MIDDEN IN EEN RUIMTE-STATION! (COD: Black Ops 3 Custom Zombies)
MIDDEN IN EEN RUIMTE-STATION! (COD: Black Ops 3 Custom Zombies)
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: Yarasky
Midden in de marine: deel 1 van 7
Midden in de marine: deel 1 van 7
Published: 2011/03/02
Channel: Werkenbijdemarine
HORRORHUIS midden in een BOS!
HORRORHUIS midden in een BOS!
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: VAELTAX
Meisje in het midden
Meisje in het midden
Published: 2011/07/01
Channel: studiosupersoof
Kinderen voor Kinderen 28 - Meisje in het midden
Kinderen voor Kinderen 28 - Meisje in het midden
Published: 2010/05/04
Channel: 1985Alice
Wiel Wissel (midden in de nacht)  Herman Lippinkhof
Wiel Wissel (midden in de nacht) Herman Lippinkhof
Published: 2009/12/25
Channel: lukhul
DRS GAAT STUK MIDDEN IN RACE! - F1 2017 Career Mode #6 (Grand Prix: Monaco)
DRS GAAT STUK MIDDEN IN RACE! - F1 2017 Career Mode #6 (Grand Prix: Monaco)
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: GameMeneer
Velehk Sain - Daedric Gauntlet Relic - Midden Dark - TES V: Skyrim HD
Velehk Sain - Daedric Gauntlet Relic - Midden Dark - TES V: Skyrim HD
Published: 2011/12/01
Channel: NonymousGamer
IK STA MIDDEN IN CAMP NOU!!
IK STA MIDDEN IN CAMP NOU!!
Published: 2017/08/01
Channel: Fifa Bawz
kijk naar het midden
kijk naar het midden
Published: 2008/05/11
Channel: msnertjes
Midden in de marine: deel 2 van 7
Midden in de marine: deel 2 van 7
Published: 2011/04/01
Channel: Werkenbijdemarine
Midden in Amsterdam zingen: Durf ik dit? 🎶 | Femke Meines
Midden in Amsterdam zingen: Durf ik dit? 🎶 | Femke Meines
Published: 2017/08/08
Channel: Femke Meines
GEVAARLIJKE HAAI VALT AAN MIDDEN OP ZEE!
GEVAARLIJKE HAAI VALT AAN MIDDEN OP ZEE!
Published: 2017/01/25
Channel: xLinkTijger
01 Midden in de Marine
01 Midden in de Marine
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: werkenbijdefensie
SCHAATSEN MIDDEN OP ZEE! || Fan Friday
SCHAATSEN MIDDEN OP ZEE! || Fan Friday
Published: 2016/10/28
Channel: MeisjeDjamila
Skyrim Midden Derinliklerindeki Tutsak Daedra
Skyrim Midden Derinliklerindeki Tutsak Daedra
Published: 2016/05/14
Channel: Herawler Wildrunner
Kinderen voor Kinderen - Meisje in het midden
Kinderen voor Kinderen - Meisje in het midden
Published: 2009/06/03
Channel: BELLExFRED
♪ Kerstliedje: "Midden in de winternacht" met tekst!
♪ Kerstliedje: "Midden in de winternacht" met tekst!
Published: 2008/12/04
Channel: Petra Kroon
VERDWAALD MIDDEN IN JAPAN?!
VERDWAALD MIDDEN IN JAPAN?!
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: Smoare
Midden in de marine: deel 4 van 7
Midden in de marine: deel 4 van 7
Published: 2011/04/22
Channel: Werkenbijdemarine
Midden in de winternacht
Midden in de winternacht
Published: 2013/12/04
Channel: Irene Voogd
The Midden Expanded PS4 Mods
The Midden Expanded PS4 Mods
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: Kevin Markham
Midden in de donk
Midden in de donk're nacht.
Published: 2015/10/02
Channel: Janet66
Terence Roelofsen - In het midden (live-session/one take) in de Domtoren.
Terence Roelofsen - In het midden (live-session/one take) in de Domtoren.
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: terence sessions
Richard Groenendijk Midden in de Winternacht
Richard Groenendijk Midden in de Winternacht
Published: 2016/11/27
Channel: Richard Groenendijk
Bertus Dasselaar 09 bij Jalving transport Teheran 1974    Midden Oosten transport
Bertus Dasselaar 09 bij Jalving transport Teheran 1974 Midden Oosten transport
Published: 2017/01/08
Channel: Jacovtk
Do & Voice Male - Midden in de winternacht - Kerststerren 24-12-10
Do & Voice Male - Midden in de winternacht - Kerststerren 24-12-10
Published: 2010/12/27
Channel: muzieklampie
The Monk, The Midden and the Missing Monastery
The Monk, The Midden and the Missing Monastery
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: DigVentures
VERLATEN VLIEGTUIG midden in de BOSSEN !
VERLATEN VLIEGTUIG midden in de BOSSEN !
Published: 2017/07/23
Channel: Urbex Explore
Midden Geçerken Havada Head Shot Yiyen Direncan (CS:GO)
Midden Geçerken Havada Head Shot Yiyen Direncan (CS:GO)
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: Twitch Media
Weekendowe RPG - TES V Skyrim #3 - Tajemniczy Relikt z Midden
Weekendowe RPG - TES V Skyrim #3 - Tajemniczy Relikt z Midden
Published: 2012/09/01
Channel: RojTeamPlays
Jan Smit - Midden In De Winternacht
Jan Smit - Midden In De Winternacht
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: Jan Smit Officieel kanaal
Nieuwsuur (NOS/NTR) 02 07 2017: Hoe MH17 midden in een veldslag terecht kwam (2/2)
Nieuwsuur (NOS/NTR) 02 07 2017: Hoe MH17 midden in een veldslag terecht kwam (2/2)
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: DutchNewsAgency
I
I'm playing Skyrim - Access The Midden without joining the College [exploit]
Published: 2012/05/09
Channel: CarlosBenDer21413419
met meneer van de midden !!!
met meneer van de midden !!!
Published: 2017/01/28
Channel: Thider productions
DE BELGISCHE KUST MIDDEN JAREN 60
DE BELGISCHE KUST MIDDEN JAREN 60
Published: 2015/07/29
Channel: Georges Debrabandere
VPRO Tegenlicht - Het Midden Oosten Gedecodeerd
VPRO Tegenlicht - Het Midden Oosten Gedecodeerd
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: Niek van Lieshout
Midden in de Winternacht
Midden in de Winternacht
Published: 2012/12/05
Channel: KRO.nl/katholiek
Motocross uit zwaaidag MX des Nations bij Motorsportpark Gelderland Midden (  24- 09 -2017 )
Motocross uit zwaaidag MX des Nations bij Motorsportpark Gelderland Midden ( 24- 09 -2017 )
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: Johnvanbeek100
'De toekomst van het Midden-Oosten' #Israëlcursus, met Afshin Ellian (Columnist Elsevier)
Published: 2017/01/24
Channel: Christenen voor Israël
Opwekking 676 - Welkom in ons midden + subs
Opwekking 676 - Welkom in ons midden + subs
Published: 2008/05/16
Channel: Jeroen Dantuma
Midden in de marine: deel 6 van 7
Midden in de marine: deel 6 van 7
Published: 2011/05/18
Channel: Werkenbijdemarine
Alle 13 Jaanke - Witte eend op de midden van de weg.
Alle 13 Jaanke - Witte eend op de midden van de weg.
Published: 2010/06/06
Channel: Elsemiek1993
INWIJDING door De Oude Cheng in
INWIJDING door De Oude Cheng in 'De Weg van het Stille Midden' (Ingesproken)
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: deoudecheng
Jef Elbers - In
Jef Elbers - In 't midden van 't gewoel
Published: 2014/06/15
Channel: Vlaamseleeuw2010
Paula, Femke & Mellanie - Meisje in
Paula, Femke & Mellanie - Meisje in 't midden
Published: 2013/10/21
Channel: xAdorableVanessa
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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A closeup of a shell midden in Argentina.

A midden (also kitchen midden or shell heap; from early Scandinavian; Danish: mødding, Swedish regional: mödding)[1] is an old dump for domestic waste[2] which may consist of animal bone, human excrement, botanical material, mollusc shells, sherds, lithics (especially debitage), and other artifacts and ecofacts associated with past human occupation.

The word is of Scandinavian via Middle English derivation, and is today used by archaeologists worldwide to describe any kind of feature containing waste products relating to day-to-day human life. They may be convenient, single-use pits created by nomadic groups or long-term, designated dumps used by sedentary communities that accumulate over several generations.

These features, therefore, provide a useful resource for archaeologists who wish to study the diet and habits of past societies. Middens with damp, anaerobic conditions can even preserve organic remains in deposits as the debris of daily life are tossed on the pile. Each individual toss will contribute a different mix of materials depending upon the activity associated with that particular toss. During the course of deposition sedimentary material is deposited as well. Different mechanisms, from wind and water to animal digs, create a matrix which can also be analyzed to provide seasonal and climatic information. In some middens individual dumps of material can be discerned and analysed.[3]

Shell middens[edit]

The Whaleback Shell Midden in Maine resulted from oyster harvesting from 200 BC to 1000 AD.

A shell midden or shell mound is an archaeological feature consisting mainly of mollusk shells. The Danish term køkkenmøddinger (plural) was first used by Japetus Steenstrup to describe shell heaps and continues to be used by some researchers. A midden, by definition, contains the debris of human activity, and should not be confused with wind or tide created beach mounds. Some shell middens are processing remains: areas where aquatic resources were processed directly after harvest and prior to use or storage in a distant location.

Some shell middens are directly associated with villages, as a designated village dump site. In other middens, the material is directly associated with a house in the village. Each household would dump its garbage directly outside the house. In all cases, shell middens are extremely complex and very difficult to excavate fully and exactly. The fact that they contain a detailed record of what food was eaten or processed and many fragments of stone tools and household goods makes them invaluable objects of archaeological study.

Shells have a high calcium carbonate content, which tends to make the middens alkaline. This slows the normal rate of decay caused by soil acidity, leaving a relatively high proportion of organic material (food remnants, organic tools, clothing, human remains) available for archaeologists to find.[4]

Edward Sylvester Morse conducted one of the first archaeological excavations of shellmounds in Omori, Japan in 1877, which led to the discovery of a style of pottery described as "cord-marked", translated as "Jōmon", which came to be used to refer to the early period of Japanese history when this style of pottery was produced.[5][6] Shell middens were studied in Denmark in the latter half of the 19th century. The Danish word køkkenmødding (kitchen mound) is now used internationally. The English word "midden" (waste mound) derives from the same Old Norse word that produced the modern Danish one.[7]

Examples[edit]

The Turtle Mound shell midden is the largest on the US East Coast.

Shell middens are found in coastal zones all over the world. Consisting mostly of mollusc shells, they are interpreted as being the waste products of meals eaten by nomadic groups or hunting parties. Some are small examples relating to meals had by a handful of individuals, others are many metres in length and width and represent centuries of shell deposition. In Brazil, they are known as sambaquis, having been created over a long period between the 6th millennium BC and the beginning of European colonisation.

On Canada's west coast, there are shell middens that run for more than a kilometer along the coast and are several meters deep.[8] The midden in Namu, British Columbia is over 9 meters deep and spans over 10,000 years of continuous occupation.

Shell middens created in coastal regions of Australia by indigenous Australians exist in Australia today. Middens provide evidence of prior occupation and are generally protected from mining and other developments. One must exercise caution in deciding whether one is examining a midden or a beach mound. There are good examples on the Freycinet Peninsula in Tasmania where wave action currently is combining charcoal from forest fire debris with a mix of shells into masses that storms deposit above high-water mark. Shell mounds near Weipa in far north Queensland that are mostly less than 2 meters high (although ranging up to 10 meters high) and a few tens of meters long are claimed to be middens,[9] but are in fact shell cheniers (beach ridges) re-worked by nest mound-building birds.[10]

Shell mounds are also attributed to the creation of tropical hardwood hammocks, one example being the Otter mound preserve in Florida, where shell deposits from Calusa natives provided flood free high areas in otherwise large watered areas.[11]

There are instances in which shell middens may have doubled as areas of ceremonial construction or ritual significance. The Woodland period Crystal River site provides an example of this phenomenon.[12]

Other definitions[edit]

The word "midden" is still in everyday use in Scotland and Northern England, and has come by extension to refer to anything that is a mess, including people. This use was also taken to Northern Ireland by Scottish plantation settlers. In West Yorkshire, a midden is an outside lavatory, typically in the back yards of terraced houses. Often attached to this small building is an outhouse which houses dustbins.

The word is used by farmers in Britain to describe the place where farm yard manure from cows or other animals is collected. Grants are sometimes available to protect these from rain to avoid runoff and pollution.[13][14]

In the animal kingdom, some species establish ground burrows, also known as middens, that are used mostly for food storage. For example, the North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) usually has one large active midden in each territory with perhaps an inactive or auxiliary midden.[15] A midden may be a regularly used animal toilet area or dunghill, created by many mammals, such as the hyrax, and also serving as a territorial marker.[16]

Some animals, including some species of fishes, collect foodstuffs with heavy shells that are hard to remove. They may establish sites where rocks or similar items are available as natural anvils on which the animals habitually break open the shells. These discarded shells may accumulate around the anvils in sizable middens, sometimes for generations. Commonly such middens are sited where there is a convenient rock that is an unusual resource in the region.

Octopus middens are piles of debris that the octopus piles up to conceal the entrance of its den. Octopus middens are commonly made of rocks, shells, and the bones of prey, although they may contain anything the octopus finds that it can move.

Some more currently widespread used terms include garbage pile, garbage dump, waste pile, waste dump, and waste/garbage disposal site. The material (waste, garbage, refuse, rubbish, etc.) may be placed on a pile/mound on level ground or in a hole/pit dug into the ground which may be subsequently covered over with other material, often for sanitary, aesthetic or land reclamation reasons.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.), 2003 .
  2. ^ Brinton, DG (1866). "Artificial Shell-deposits of the United States". Reports. Washington: Smithsonian Institution. 
  3. ^ Stein, Julie (2000). Exploring Coast Salish Prehistory: The Archaeology of San Juan Island. 
  4. ^ "Whaleback Shell Midden". Whaleback Shell Midden. Retrieved 2006-05-11. 
  5. ^ John Whitney Hall (1988). The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University Press. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-521-22352-2. 
  6. ^ Keiji Imamura. "Collections of Morse from The Shell Mounds of Omori". Digital Museum, University of Tokyo. Retrieved 4 September 2015. 
  7. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". www.etymonline.com. 
  8. ^ Stein, Julie (1992). Deciphering a Shell Midden. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-664730-5. 
  9. ^ Bailey, G; Chappell, J.B; Cribb, R (1994) "The origin of Anadara shell mounds at Weipa, North Queensland, Australia" Archaeology in Oceania. Volume 29 Number 2. pp. 69–80
  10. ^ "Marine Geology : Shell mound formation in coastal northern Australia:". ScienceDirect. 1995-12-31. doi:10.1016/0025-3227(95)00101-8. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 
  11. ^ "Otter Mound Preserve". Colliergov.net. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 
  12. ^ Pluckhahn, Thomas J.; Thompson, Victor D.; Cherkinsky, Alexander (2015). "The temporality of shell-bearing landscapes at Crystal River, Florida". Journal of Anthropological Anthropology. 37: 19–36. 
  13. ^ "Manure/Slurry Storage". Scottish Government. Investment under this storage and handling Option may include:action to minimise the volume of clean water getting into manure or slurry stores, including the installation of covers for slurry storage facilities and middens 
  14. ^ "Roofed Midden benefits Lake District Farm". Thanks to a grant from Farming Connect Cumbria the Booths were able to roof the slurry midden, probably trebling its capacity by excluding the rainwater, as well as making necessary repairs to the midden itself to prevent possible run-off to a nearby beck. The midden can now provide up to 10 weeks' storage for the slurry. 
  15. ^ dfg.webmaster@alaska.gov. "Alaska Department of Fish & Game: North American Red Squirrel". Adfg.state.ak.us. Retrieved 2014-02-24. 
  16. ^ Chase, B.M.; Meadows, M.E.; Scott, L.; Thomas, D.S.G.; Marais, E.; Sealy, J.; Reimer, P.J. (2009). "A record of rapid Holocene climate change preserved in hyrax middens from southwestern Africa". Geology. 37 (8): 703–6. Bibcode:2009Geo....37..703C. doi:10.1130/G30053A.1. 

External links[edit]

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