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1
C minor Ballad-For my father-in-law
C minor Ballad-For my father-in-law
::2012/09/19::
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2
Minor Human Rights and Migration Law Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid VU Amsterdam
Minor Human Rights and Migration Law Faculteit der Rechtsgeleerdheid VU Amsterdam
::2012/06/25::
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3
Juvenile law: major crime, minor punishment?
Juvenile law: major crime, minor punishment?
::2014/02/02::
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4
a minor (law) 未成年 menor de edad
a minor (law) 未成年 menor de edad
::2013/01/30::
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5
Is This Big Law
Is This Big Law's New Minor League?
::2013/10/28::
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6
US firms profit from minor law violations
US firms profit from minor law violations
::2014/07/22::
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7
Major and Minor in Law and Public Policy
Major and Minor in Law and Public Policy
::2013/10/16::
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8
Law and public administration interdisciplinaire minor   Recht en openbaar bestuur Marjolein Nijhuis
Law and public administration interdisciplinaire minor Recht en openbaar bestuur Marjolein Nijhuis
::2012/10/01::
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9
California Creates
California Creates 'Eraser Law' For Minor's Bad Behavior On-Line
::2013/09/25::
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10
New California Online Law "Do-over" Law - Allows Minor To Remove Embarrassing Content - America Law
New California Online Law "Do-over" Law - Allows Minor To Remove Embarrassing Content - America Law
::2013/09/26::
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11
Can A Minor Be Tried as an Adult? CA Juvenile Law Attorney Ryan McGlinn Says Yes
Can A Minor Be Tried as an Adult? CA Juvenile Law Attorney Ryan McGlinn Says Yes
::2012/07/19::
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12
Appointing a Guardian for a Minor Child Through a Will : Red Law Utah Attorney Explains
Appointing a Guardian for a Minor Child Through a Will : Red Law Utah Attorney Explains
::2013/12/13::
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13
[NewsLife] Rule of Law: Tackles
[NewsLife] Rule of Law: Tackles 'heir of minor age' || June 27, 2014
::2014/06/30::
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14
Tv9 Gujarat - Minor girl raped by brother-in-law in Ahmedabad
Tv9 Gujarat - Minor girl raped by brother-in-law in Ahmedabad
::2013/09/22::
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15
Law and Public Administration Interdisciplinaire Minor - Publiekrecht Ine Koevoet
Law and Public Administration Interdisciplinaire Minor - Publiekrecht Ine Koevoet
::2012/10/01::
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16
Minor In Possession of Alcohol | California Law
Minor In Possession of Alcohol | California Law
::2013/12/20::
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17
Moonlight, B-minor study Op. 35 No. 22 - Fernando Sor (Steven Law)
Moonlight, B-minor study Op. 35 No. 22 - Fernando Sor (Steven Law)
::2012/10/02::
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18
Sor - Lecon in B minor, Op. 31 No. 4  (Steven Law)
Sor - Lecon in B minor, Op. 31 No. 4 (Steven Law)
::2012/08/08::
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19
Rule of Law: Laws regarding minor travelling abroad while parents has pending court issues
Rule of Law: Laws regarding minor travelling abroad while parents has pending court issues
::2013/03/06::
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20
Minor Raja Movie Scenes - Shobana sister in law critizing Aagadu Rajendra Prasad - Brahmanandam
Minor Raja Movie Scenes - Shobana sister in law critizing Aagadu Rajendra Prasad - Brahmanandam
::2014/05/01::
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21
minor "father in law" swing
minor "father in law" swing
::2013/08/22::
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22
John Law
John Law's Congregation playing The Quiet Dignity of the Minor
::2012/08/13::
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23
Law and public administration interdisciplinaire minor   Openbaar bestuur Mohamed Derraz
Law and public administration interdisciplinaire minor Openbaar bestuur Mohamed Derraz
::2012/10/01::
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24
Possession of Alcohol By a Minor (Underage Drinking) Law in Connecticut
Possession of Alcohol By a Minor (Underage Drinking) Law in Connecticut
::2014/06/14::
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25
Aagadu Rajendra Prasad Minor Raja Movie Scenes - Shobana sister in law inquiring about Rekha
Aagadu Rajendra Prasad Minor Raja Movie Scenes - Shobana sister in law inquiring about Rekha
::2014/05/05::
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26
Barber: CA Law Will Tell Minor Victims Of Sexual Abuse That They
Barber: CA Law Will Tell Minor Victims Of Sexual Abuse That They're Gay Or Transgender
::2012/12/14::
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27
Breaking the minor laws
Breaking the minor laws
::2010/08/22::
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28
Florida Law For Shared Custody Of Minor Children
Florida Law For Shared Custody Of Minor Children
::2014/06/01::
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29
When Law and Religion Meet: Islamic Law in Britain: A Minor Problem or a Problem for a Minority?
When Law and Religion Meet: Islamic Law in Britain: A Minor Problem or a Problem for a Minority?
::2012/07/19::
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30
FRESNO cop breaks the law on a minor at Red Roof inn
FRESNO cop breaks the law on a minor at Red Roof inn
::2014/05/16::
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31
Fort Bend County Juvenile Law Attorney Sugar Land Minor In Possesion Lawyer
Fort Bend County Juvenile Law Attorney Sugar Land Minor In Possesion Lawyer
::2013/08/22::
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32
Alaska Minor Dating Law
Alaska Minor Dating Law
::2014/05/27::
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33
Power Soccer School Law 12: Minor Fouls
Power Soccer School Law 12: Minor Fouls
::2007/03/30::
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34
Uwa Law Immigration Web Talk: Minor Drug Offense Change In Law
Uwa Law Immigration Web Talk: Minor Drug Offense Change In Law
::2011/07/15::
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35
Police may have broken the law in their handling of the minor
Police may have broken the law in their handling of the minor
::2012/01/30::
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36
Law & Psychiatry 005 "Minor" Head Injury
Law & Psychiatry 005 "Minor" Head Injury
::2011/05/23::
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37
Newton
Newton's 2nd Law with Minor Kinematics
::2012/06/13::
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38
Mother In-Law attacked by Minor Bird
Mother In-Law attacked by Minor Bird
::2012/12/20::
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39
Integrative Learning at EIU: Artie Berns, BGS Program, Pre-Law Minor
Integrative Learning at EIU: Artie Berns, BGS Program, Pre-Law Minor
::2010/10/21::
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40
Kinghorn, Lessard and Law  "Minor Swing"  Peacock Radio sessions
Kinghorn, Lessard and Law "Minor Swing" Peacock Radio sessions
::2013/09/16::
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41
Minor Consent Law jingle
Minor Consent Law jingle
::2010/10/08::
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42
Modding FTL with Chaotic Law Episode 7 - Minor Damage Sustained!
Modding FTL with Chaotic Law Episode 7 - Minor Damage Sustained!
::2013/05/15::
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43
Florida Law Regarding Name Change Of Minor
Florida Law Regarding Name Change Of Minor
::2014/06/01::
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44
Madhubani Cops arrest and handcuff minor boys against law - Mahuaa News
Madhubani Cops arrest and handcuff minor boys against law - Mahuaa News
::2012/10/27::
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45
Sami Law Audition/18. F Sharp Minor "Insects Dance"
Sami Law Audition/18. F Sharp Minor "Insects Dance"
::2013/09/23::
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46
Minor In Possession And DUI Laws In Nebraska
Minor In Possession And DUI Laws In Nebraska
::2014/04/28::
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47
Roj Mahal - Eyes Open [Law of Attraction] (feat. Elle Minor)
Roj Mahal - Eyes Open [Law of Attraction] (feat. Elle Minor)
::2013/01/21::
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48
《那些年》minor version arranged and played by Law Wai Ting
《那些年》minor version arranged and played by Law Wai Ting
::2012/01/04::
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49
The Legal Rights Of Minor Children In Defamation Of Character On A Child
The Legal Rights Of Minor Children In Defamation Of Character On A Child
::2014/04/28::
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50
Brahms Rhapsody in G minor played by Law
Brahms Rhapsody in G minor played by Law
::2012/05/10::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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"Underage" redirects here. For the music festival of the same name, see Underage Festival.

In law, a minor is a person under a certain age—usually the age of majority—which legally demarcates childhood from adulthood. The age of majority depends upon jurisdiction and application, but is generally 18. Minor may also be used in contexts unconnected to the overall age of majority. For example, the drinking age in the United States is 21, and people below this age are sometimes called minors even if they are older than 18. The term underage often refers to those under the age of majority, but may also refer to persons under a certain age limit, such as the drinking age, smoking age, age of consent, marriageable age, driving age, voting age, etc. These age limits are often different from the age of majority.

The concept of minor is not sharply defined in most jurisdictions. The ages of criminal responsibility and consent, the age at which school attendance is no longer obligatory, the age at which legally binding contracts can be entered into, and so on, may be different.

In many countries, including Australia, India, Philippines, Brazil, Croatia, and Colombia, a minor is defined as a person under the age of 18. In the United States, where the age of majority is set by the individual states, minor usually refers to someone under the age of 18, but can in some states be used in certain areas (such as gambling, gun ownership and the consuming of alcohol) to define someone under the age of 21. In the criminal justice system in some places, "minor" is not entirely consistent, as a minor may be tried and punished for a crime either as a "juvenile" or, usually only for "extremely serious crimes" such as murder, as an "adult"[citation needed].

In Japan, Taiwan, Thailand, and South Korea, a minor is a person under 20 years of age. In New Zealand law, a minor is a person under 20 years of age as well, but most of the rights of adulthood are assumed at lower ages: for example, entering into contracts and having a will are legally possible at age 15.[citation needed]

Canada[edit]

For all provincial laws (such as alcohol and tobacco regulation), the provincial and territorial governments have the power to set the age of majority in their respective province or territory, and the age varies across Canada. Alberta, Manitoba, Quebec, and Prince Edward Island have the age set at 18, while in British Columbia, Ontario, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick the age of majority is 19. Saskatchewan legal gaming age is 19 while Saskatchewan's legal drinking age is 19.[1]

For Federal Law (Criminal Code, Voting, etc.), the age of majority is 18.[2]

Italy[edit]

In Italy, law nr. 39 of March 8, 1975, states that a minor is a person under the age of 18.[3] Citizens under the age of 18 have no right to vote (to vote for senate must be at least 25) and be elected in political elections, are not allowed to obtain a driving license for automobiles nor issue or sign legal instruments. Crimes committed in Italy by minors are tried in a juvenile court.

Thailand[edit]

The Civil and Commercial Code of the Kingdom of Thailand does not define the term "minor"; however, sections 19 and 20 read as follows:

  • Section 19 – A person, on completion of 20 years of age ceases to be a minor and become sui juris
  • Section 20 – A minor becomes sui juris upon marriage, provided that the marriage is made in accordance with the provisions of Section 1448

Hence, a minor in Thailand refers to any person under the age of 20, unless he or she is married. A minor is restricted from doing juristic acts—for example, sign contracts. When a minor wishes to do a juristic act, he has to obtain the consent from his legal representative, usually (but not always) the parents and otherwise the act is voidable. The exceptions are acts by which a minor merely acquires a right or is freed from a duty, acts that are strictly personal, and acts that are suitable to the person's condition in life and are required for their reasonable needs. A minor can make a will at the age of fifteen.

United Kingdom[edit]

In England and Wales and in Northern Ireland a minor is a person under the age of 18;[4] in Scotland, under the age of 16.[5] The age of criminal responsibility in England and Wales and in Northern Ireland is 10; and 12 in Scotland, formerly 8, which was the lowest age in Europe.[6] [7] [8]

In England and Wales, cases of minors breaking the law are often dealt with by the Youth Offending Team. If they are incarcerated, they are sent to a Young Offender Institution.

Things that persons under 18 are prohibited from doing include sitting on a jury, voting, standing as a candidate, buying or renting films with an 18 certificate or R18 certificate or seeing them in a cinema, being depicted in pornographic materials, suing without a litigant friend, being civilly liable, accessing adoption records and purchasing alcohol, tobacco products, knives and fireworks. The rules on minimum age for sale of these products are frequently broken so in practice drinking and smoking takes place before the age of majority; however many UK shops are tightening restrictions on them by asking for identifying documentation from potentially underage customers.

Driving certain large vehicles, acting as personal license holder for licensed premises, and adopting a child are only permitted after the age of 21. The minimum age to drive a HGV1 vehicle was reduced to 18. However, certain vehicles, e.g., steamrollers, require that someone be 21 years of age to obtain an operating license.

United States[edit]

In the United States as of 1995, minor is legally defined as a person under the age of 18, although 21 with the context of alcohol; people under the age of 21 may be referred to as "minors".[citation needed] However, not all minors are considered "juveniles" in terms of criminal responsibility. As is frequently the case in the United States, the laws vary widely by state.

In four states, New York, North Carolina, New Hampshire,[9] and Texas, "juvenile" refers to a person under 17.[10] In most states a juvenile is legally defined as a person under 18.[citation needed]

Under this distinction, those considered juveniles are usually tried in juvenile court, and they may be afforded other special protections. For example, in some states a parent or guardian must be present during police questioning, or their names may be kept confidential when they are accused of a crime. For many crimes (especially more violent crimes), the age at which a minor may be tried as an adult is variable below the age of 18 or (less often) below 16.[11] For example, in Kentucky, the lowest age a juvenile may be tried as an adult, no matter how heinous the crime, is 14.

In most states, juveniles may not be incarcerated with adult inmates, even if the child is charged as an adult. This is also discouraged by the federal government, which prefers funding only if children and adults are housed in separate facilities[citation needed].

The death penalty for those who have committed a crime while under the age of 18 was discontinued by the U.S. Supreme Court case Roper v. Simmons in 2005.[12] The court's 5–4 decision was written by Justice Kennedy and joined by Justices Ginsburg, Stevens, Breyer, and Souter, and cited international law, child developmental science, and many other factors in reaching its conclusion.

The twenty-sixth amendment to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1971, granted all citizens the right to vote in every state, in every election, from the age of 18.

The U.S. Department of Defense took the position that they would not consider "enemy combatants" held in extrajudicial detention in the Guantanamo Bay detainment camps minors unless they were less than sixteen years old.[verification needed] In any event, they only separated three of more than a dozen detainees under 16 from the adult prison population. Several dozen detainees between sixteen and eighteen were detained with the adult prison population. Now those under 18 are kept separate, in line with the age of majority and world expectations.

Some states, including Florida, have passed laws that allow a person accused of an extremely heinous crime, such as murder, to be tried as an adult, regardless of age. These laws, however, have been challenged by the American Civil Liberties Union. An estimated 250,000 youth are tried, sentenced, or incarcerated as adults every year across the United States.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Age of Majority Table
  2. ^ Youth Criminal Justice Act
  3. ^ "Italie". Wipo Lex. Retrieved 7 September 2012. 
  4. ^ Family Law Reform Act 1969, section 1
  5. ^ Age of legal capacity, Scotland 1991
  6. ^ (https://www.gov.uk/age-of-criminal-responsibility)
  7. ^ (http://www.youthjusticeagencyni.gov.uk/youth_justice_system/age_of_criminal_responsibility/)
  8. ^ (http://www.scottish.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefingsAndFactsheets/S4/SB_11-53rev.pdf)
  9. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/06/nyregion/06juvenile.html?pagewanted=all
  10. ^ http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/163813.txt
  11. ^ [Gaines, Larry K and Roger Leroy Miller. "Criminal Justice in Action" 4th ed., Thompson Wadsworth Publishing, 2007. Pg 495]
  12. ^ Roper v. Simmons (No. 03-633) | LII / Legal Information Institute
  13. ^ Campaign for Youth Justice, Key Facts: Youth in the Justice System. Washington, D.C.: Campaign for Youth Justice, 2007. Web. May 2011. Citing Woolard, J. “Juveniles within Adult Correctional Settings: Legal Pathways and Developmental Considerations.” International Journal of Forensic Mental Health 4.1 (2005):http://www.campaignforyouthjustice.org/documents/KeyYouthCrimeFacts.pdf

External links[edit]

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