Play Video
1
Mississippi Delta Poverty
Mississippi Delta Poverty
::2011/12/15::
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2
Juke Joint Blues - 42 great songs from the Mississippi Delta & the Deep South!
Juke Joint Blues - 42 great songs from the Mississippi Delta & the Deep South!
::2014/06/30::
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3
Fenway High School Mississippi Delta Tour
Fenway High School Mississippi Delta Tour
::2013/04/12::
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4
Bobbie Gentry - Mississippi Delta (1967)
Bobbie Gentry - Mississippi Delta (1967)
::2009/09/30::
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5
Life in the Mississippi Delta
Life in the Mississippi Delta
::2009/07/23::
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6
Delta Blues - 2 hours of Blues, 41 great tracks, the greatest stars of the Delta
Delta Blues - 2 hours of Blues, 41 great tracks, the greatest stars of the Delta
::2014/04/07::
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7
The Mississippi Delta
The Mississippi Delta
::2009/01/05::
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8
Formation of the Mississippi Delta
Formation of the Mississippi Delta
::2008/03/22::
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Anthony Bourdain Parts Unknown & Seasoun 3 Episode 06 & Mississippi Delta
Anthony Bourdain Parts Unknown & Seasoun 3 Episode 06 & Mississippi Delta
::2014/11/06::
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10
Mississippi Delta Blues - America
Mississippi Delta Blues - America's Heartland
::2009/02/18::
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11
muddy waters -- mississippi delta blues
muddy waters -- mississippi delta blues
::2008/08/18::
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12
Mississippi Delta Region by Erik Hastings
Mississippi Delta Region by Erik Hastings
::2006/12/03::
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13
Mississippi Delta Crop Duster
Mississippi Delta Crop Duster
::2013/08/19::
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14
bobbie gentry - "mississippi delta"
bobbie gentry - "mississippi delta"
::2010/10/24::
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15
Life in the Mississippi Delta
Life in the Mississippi Delta
::2009/06/23::
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16
'Mississippi Delta Blues' JIMMIE RODGERS (1933) Blues Guitar Legend
::2009/04/01::
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17
Original Mississippi Delta Bluesmen-Vinyl Recordings- (High Definition)
Original Mississippi Delta Bluesmen-Vinyl Recordings- (High Definition)
::2011/11/10::
Play Video
18
Mississippi Delta Blues Band - Chromatic Style (1986)
Mississippi Delta Blues Band - Chromatic Style (1986)
::2014/08/12::
Play Video
19
Mississippi Delta Blues
Mississippi Delta Blues
::2008/03/07::
Play Video
20
CHICAGO - Just You n Me / Mississippi Delta City Blues LIVE (1977)
CHICAGO - Just You n Me / Mississippi Delta City Blues LIVE (1977)
::2012/04/25::
Play Video
21
Mississippi Delta Flooded Corn Duck Hunt
Mississippi Delta Flooded Corn Duck Hunt
::2012/01/03::
Play Video
22
James Wheeler & Bob Stroger - Mississippi Delta Blues Festival 2013
James Wheeler & Bob Stroger - Mississippi Delta Blues Festival 2013
::2013/11/25::
Play Video
23
Delta & Louisiana Blues - 35 great tracks of Delta Blues, over one hour and 44 minutes of good music
Delta & Louisiana Blues - 35 great tracks of Delta Blues, over one hour and 44 minutes of good music
::2014/05/09::
Play Video
24
Charlie Pride- Mississippi Cotton Pickin Delta Town
Charlie Pride- Mississippi Cotton Pickin Delta Town
::2012/04/01::
Play Video
25
Charley Pride - Mississippi Cotton Pickin
Charley Pride - Mississippi Cotton Pickin' Delta Town
::2013/01/15::
Play Video
26
36th Annual Mississippi Delta Blues & Heritage Festival
36th Annual Mississippi Delta Blues & Heritage Festival
::2013/11/06::
Play Video
27
Johnny Cash - Ride This Train (Mississippi Delta Land - Detroit City - No Setting Sun)
Johnny Cash - Ride This Train (Mississippi Delta Land - Detroit City - No Setting Sun)
::2010/01/15::
Play Video
28
Mississippi Delta Town
Mississippi Delta Town
::2013/06/28::
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29
Leon Redbone- Mississippi Delta Blues
Leon Redbone- Mississippi Delta Blues
::2012/07/19::
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30
Bobbie Gentry - Mississippi Delta
Bobbie Gentry - Mississippi Delta
::2011/03/21::
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31
Kings of Mississippi - Delta Queen
Kings of Mississippi - Delta Queen
::2009/01/05::
Play Video
32
Mississippi Delta
Mississippi Delta
::2011/07/26::
Play Video
33
Chicago XI Remastered] 01 Mississippi Delta City Blues
Chicago XI Remastered] 01 Mississippi Delta City Blues
::2013/07/02::
Play Video
34
Robert Bilbo Walker [USA] - Mississippi Delta Blues Festival
Robert Bilbo Walker [USA] - Mississippi Delta Blues Festival
::2014/11/24::
Play Video
35
FLOWER POWER - MISSISSIPPI DELTA
FLOWER POWER - MISSISSIPPI DELTA
::2012/10/04::
Play Video
36
Mississippi Delta Blues by Jimmie Rodgers (1933)
Mississippi Delta Blues by Jimmie Rodgers (1933)
::2012/05/19::
Play Video
37
Mississippi Delta - Birthplace of the Blues
Mississippi Delta - Birthplace of the Blues
::2013/10/06::
Play Video
38
Sharecropping in the Mississippi Delta (Podcast)
Sharecropping in the Mississippi Delta (Podcast)
::2009/06/26::
Play Video
39
Chicago - Mississippi Delta Blues - 1977
Chicago - Mississippi Delta Blues - 1977
::2012/03/02::
Play Video
40
Merle Haggard - Mississippi Delta Blues
Merle Haggard - Mississippi Delta Blues
::2011/02/03::
Play Video
41
Mississippi Delta Parchman Farm Prisoners Sing Soul Blues - Video Prison Inmates Sing- Drew, MS.wmv
Mississippi Delta Parchman Farm Prisoners Sing Soul Blues - Video Prison Inmates Sing- Drew, MS.wmv
::2012/05/12::
Play Video
42
Mississippi Delta Brothers - Whole Lotta Shakin
Mississippi Delta Brothers - Whole Lotta Shakin' Going On
::2013/05/17::
Play Video
43
Manhattan Guitar Lesson: "Mississippi Delta Blues"
Manhattan Guitar Lesson: "Mississippi Delta Blues"
::2011/11/30::
Play Video
44
Weebling and wobbling through the grass on the Mississippi Delta railroad
Weebling and wobbling through the grass on the Mississippi Delta railroad
::2013/07/02::
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45
Delta Blues Guitar Lesson: Mississippi John Hurt
Delta Blues Guitar Lesson: Mississippi John Hurt
::2008/07/16::
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46
Terry " Harmonica " Bean - of  Delta Mississippi Blues - With the Blues Band
Terry " Harmonica " Bean - of Delta Mississippi Blues - With the Blues Band
::2012/03/17::
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47
5º Mississippi Delta Blues Festival 2012
5º Mississippi Delta Blues Festival 2012
::2012/11/25::
Play Video
48
Birds of the Mississippi River Delta
Birds of the Mississippi River Delta
::2011/03/21::
Play Video
49
Mississippi Delta Brothers - Come With Me Baby
Mississippi Delta Brothers - Come With Me Baby
::2012/08/27::
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50
Mississippi Delta Community College Halftime vs. Coahoma 2013
Mississippi Delta Community College Halftime vs. Coahoma 2013
::2013/10/23::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This article is about the geographic region of the U.S. state of Mississippi. For other uses, see Mississippi Delta (disambiguation).
Mississippi Delta SVG Map.svg

The Mississippi Delta is the distinctive northwest section of the U.S. state of Mississippi that lies between the Mississippi and Yazoo rivers. The region has been called "The Most Southern Place on Earth"[1] ("Southern" in the sense of "characteristic of its region, the American South") because of its unique racial, cultural, and economic history. It was one of the richest cotton-growing areas in the nation. Before the American Civil War (1861-1865), the region attracted many speculators who developed land for cotton plantations; they became wealthy planters dependent for labor on black slaves, who comprised the majority of population in these counties well before the Civil War.

African Americans developed the musical forms of blues and jazz. The majority of residents in several counties in the region are still black, although more than 400,000 blacks left the state in the 20th century Great Migration to northern, midwestern, and western industrial cities. As the agricultural economy does not support many jobs or businesses, the region has worked to diversify. At times the region has suffered heavy flooding from the Mississippi River, notably in 1927 and 2011.

Geography[edit]

Technically the area is not a delta but part of an alluvial plain, created by regular flooding over thousands of years. This region is remarkably flat and contains some of the most fertile soil in the world.

It includes all or part of the following counties: Washington, Western DeSoto, Humphreys, Western Carroll, Issaquena, Western Panola, Quitman, Bolivar, Coahoma, Leflore, Sunflower, Sharkey, Tate, Tunica, Tallahatchie, Western Holmes, Western Yazoo, Western Grenada and Warren.

The river delta at the mouth of the Mississippi lies some 300 miles south of this area, and is referred to as the Mississippi River Delta. The two should not be confused, as may happen in some media references or casual conversation.

The shared flood plain of the Yazoo and Mississippi rivers

Music[edit]

The Delta is strongly associated with the origins of several genres of popular music, including the Delta blues and rock and roll. The rich music came out of the struggles of mostly black sharecroppers and tenant farmers whose lives were marked by poverty and hardship.[2][3][4]

Gussow (2010) examines the conflict between blues musicians and black ministers in the region between 1920 and 1942. The ministers condemned blues music as "devil's music". In response, blues musicians satirized preachers in their music, as for example in the song, "He Calls That Religion", by the blues group Mississippi Sheiks. The lyrics accused black ministers of engaging in and fomenting sinful behavior. The black residents were poor, and the musicians and ministers competed for their money. The Great Migration to northern cities, beginning before World War I, seriously depleted black communities and churches, but it led to the growth of jazz in Chicago, for instance, as musicians moved north.

Travel destination[edit]

A noted definition of the Delta region is by author David L. Cohn, who wrote it "begins in the lobby of the Peabody Hotel in Memphis and ends on Catfish Row in Vicksburg".[5]

Southern Living calls the Mississippi Delta "a back road traveler's paradise". Valerie Fraser Luesse showcased the region's character in her March 2008 essay, "Delta Journal". It begins:

The springtime sun is as yellow as a daffodil floating in a sea of blue. From high above, it reaches down to warm a vast expanse of smoky-black earth that smells like river. The cotton is flourishing—clear-to-the-horizon fields of it are broken by groves of pecan trees, whispering to each other in a rustle of leaves. And though you can't see Old Man hidden behind the levee, you can feel his presence—the twisting, turning, mighty, muddy presence of the Mississippi River.

—Valerie Fraser Luesse[6]

Agriculture and the Delta economy[edit]

Plantations[edit]

For more than two centuries, agriculture has been the mainstay of the Delta economy. Sugar cane and rice were introduced to the region by European settlers from the Caribbean in the 18th century. Sugar and rice production were centered in southern Louisiana, and later in the Arkansas Delta.

Early agriculture also included limited tobacco production in the Natchez area and indigo in the lower Mississippi. What had begun as back-breaking land clearing by yeoman French farmers, supported by extensive families, was expanded by the late 18th century into a labor-intensive plantation system dependent on the labor of enslaved Native Americans. But they could escape to the surrounding lands, their homeland. In the 18th century, the French, Spanish and English ended Native American slavery, and imported enslaved Africans instead. In the early years, African laborers brought critical knowledge and techniques for the cultivation and processing of both rice and indigo.

Hundreds of thousands of Africans were captured, sold and transported as slaves from West Africa to North America, which, in the opinion of Jefferson Davis and others living in Mississippi, reflected the will of Providence, as it led to their Christianizing and to the improvement of their condition, compared to what it would have been had they remained in Africa.[7] According to Davis, the Africans "increased from a few unprofitable savages to millions of efficient Christian laborers."[8]

The invention of the cotton gin in the late 18th century stimulated the widespread production of short-staple cotton throughout the Deep South. Until then, it had been too labor-intensive to process. Congressional passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830 extinguished Native American claims to the lands of the Deep South, and opened the way for European-American settlement.

During Indian Removal, tribes were forced west of the Mississippi in Indian Territory. Some slaves were brought to the Mississippi Delta by planters migrating from other parts of the South, but most were relocated through the domestic slave trade, in a forced migration from the Upper South and East Coast that totaled more than one million persons. Many slaves were brought up to Delta towns by riverboat from slave markets in New Orleans, or downriver from Memphis and Louisville. Others were transported by sea in the coastwise slave trade. By this time, slavery had long been established as a racial caste. African Americans for generations worked the commodity plantations, which they helped make extremely profitable.

By the early 19th century, cotton had become the Delta’s premier crop, for which there was high international demand. Mills in New England and New York also demanded cotton for their industry, and New York City was closely tied to the cotton trade. Many southern planters traveled frequently there for business, and cotton-related exports comprised half of all from the port of New York City from 1822.[9] In 1861 Democratic mayor Fernando Wood called for secession of New York City in 1861 because of its close business ties to the South.[10]

Demand for cotton remained high until well after the American Civil War, even in an era of falling cotton prices. Though cotton planters believed that the alluvial soils of the region would always renew, the agricultural boom from the 1830s to the late 1850s caused extensive soil exhaustion and erosion. Lacking agricultural knowledge, planters continued to raise cotton the same way after the Civil War.

Plantations before the war were generally developed on ridges near the rivers, which provided transportation of products to market. Most of the territory was still considered wilderness, needing substantial new population. These areas were covered in a heavy dense growth of trees, bushes and vines.[11]

Following the Civil War, 90 percent of the bottomlands in Mississippi were still undeveloped, which led to the state's attracting numerous people to its frontier.[11] They could trade their labor in clearing the land to eventually purchase it, from their sale of lumber. Tens of thousands of migrants, both black and white, were drawn to the area. By the end of the century, two-thirds of the independent farmers in the Mississippi Delta were black. The extended low price of cotton had caused many to go deeply into debt, however, and gradually they had to sell off their lands. From 1910 to 1920, the first and second generations of African Americans after slavery lost their stake in the land and had to resort to sharecropping and tenant farming to survive.[11]

Sharecropping and tenant farming replaced the slave-dependent plantation system. This labor system inhibited the use of progressive agricultural techniques. In the late 19th century, the clearing and drainage of wetlands, especially in Arkansas and the Missouri Bootheel, increased lands available for tenant farming and sharecropping.

Mechanization starting in the 1930s again altered agricultural economics, as thousands of laborers were no longer needed. They migrated North in the Great Migration, with many settling in Chicago.

Since the late 20th century, lower Delta agriculture has increasingly been dominated by families and nonresident corporate entities that hold large landholdings. Their operations are heavily mechanized with low labor costs. Such farm entities are capital-intensive, where hundreds and thousands of acres are used to produce market-driven crops such as cotton, sugar, rice, and soybeans.[12]

Mechanization and migration[edit]

During the 1920s and 1930s, in the aftermath of the increasing mechanization of Delta farms, displaced whites and African Americans began to leave the land and move to towns and cities. It was not until the Great Depression years of the 1930s and later that large-scale farm mechanization came to the region. The mechanization of agriculture and the availability of domestic work outside the Delta spurred the migration of Delta residents from the region. Farming was unable to absorb the available labor force, and entire families moved together.

From the late 1930s through the 1950s, the Delta experienced an agriculture boom, as wartime needs followed by reconstruction in Europe expanded the demand for the Delta region’s farm products. As the mechanization of agriculture continued, women continued to leave the fields and go into service work, while the men drove tractors and worked on the farms. From the 1960s through the 1990s, thousands of small farms and dwellings in the Delta region were absorbed by large corporate-owned agribusinesses, and the smallest Delta communities have stagnated.[12]

Diversification[edit]

Remnants of the region’s agrarian heritage are scattered along the highways and byways of the lower Delta. Larger communities have survived by fostering economic development in education, government, and medicine. Other endeavors such as catfish, poultry, rice, corn, and soybean farming have assumed greater importance. Today, the monetary value of these crops rivals that of cotton production in the lower Delta. Shifts away from the river as a main transportation and trading route to railroads and, more significantly, highways, have left the river cities struggling for new roles and businesses.

In recent years, due to the growth of the automobile industry in the South, many parts suppliers have opened facilities in the Delta (as well as on the Arkansas Delta side of the Mississippi River, another area of high poverty). The 1990s legalization of casino gambling in Mississippi has boosted the Delta's economy, particularly in the areas of Tunica and Vicksburg.

A large cultural influence in the region is its history of hunting and fishing. Hunting in the Delta is primarily for game such as whitetail deer, wild turkey, and waterfowl, along with many small game species (squirrel, rabbit, dove, quail, raccoon, etc.) For many years, the hunting and fishing have also attracted visitors in the regional tourism economy. The Delta is one of the top waterfowl destinations in the world because it is in the middle of the Mississippi Flyway (The largest of all the migratory bird routes in America).

Principal towns[edit]

Festivals[edit]

Following is a list of various festivals in the Delta:

February
  • Mississippi River Marathon (Greenville)
March
  • Italian Festival of Mississippi (Cleveland)
April
  • Rivergate Festival (Tunica)
  • World Catfish Festival (Belzoni)
  • Leland Crawfish Festival (Leland)
  • Crosstie Arts & Jazz Festival (Cleveland)
  • Juke Joint Festival (Clarksdale)
  • Riverfest (Vicksburg)
  • Dragon Boat Festival (Greenville)
May
  • Deep Delta Festival (Rolling Fork)
  • River to the Rails Festival (Greenwood)
  • Mainstream Arts & Crafts Festival (Greenville)
  • Summerfest (Hollandale)
  • Showfest (Tunica) As of 2010
June
  • B.B. King Homecoming Festival (Indianola)
  • Highway 61 Blues Festival (Leland)
  • Delta Jubilee (Clarksdale)
July
  • First Friday Jazz Festival (Greenville)
August
  • Sunflower River Blues Festival (Clarksdale)
September
  • September Festival (Mound Bayou)
  • Delta Air and Balloon Festival (Greenwood)
  • Mississippi Delta Blues and Heritage Festival (Greenville)
  • Charleston Day Reunion (Charleston)
  • Gateway To The Delta Festival (Charleston)
  • Delta State University Pig Pickin' (Cleveland)
October
  • Great Delta Bear Affair [13]
  • Octoberfest (Cleveland)
  • The Great Ruleville Roast
  • The King Biscuit Blues Festival (Helena, AR)
  • Frog Fest (Leland)
  • Mighty Mississippi Music Festival (Greenville)
  • Delta Hot Tamale Festival (Greenville)
November
  • Electroacoustic Juke Joint (Cleveland) [2]
December
  • Roy Martin Delta Band Festival (Greenwood)

Government and infrastructure[edit]

The Mississippi Department of Corrections operates the Mississippi State Penitentiary (Parchman, MSP) in unincorporated Sunflower County,[14][15] within the Mississippi Delta. John Buntin of Governing magazine said that MSP "has long cast its shadow over the Mississippi Delta, including my hometown of Greenville, Mississippi".[16]

Demographics[edit]

Of the state's African American population, 34% resides in the Mississippi Delta, which has many black-majority legislative districts.[17]

Education[edit]

Universities[edit]

Community colleges[edit]

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

As of 2005, the majority of public schools in the Mississippi Delta are majority black, and the majority of private schools are majority white. De facto racial segregation is present in schools in Delta communities. Suzanne Eckes of The Journal of Negro Education said "Although de facto segregation in schools exists throughout the country, the de facto segregation that exists in the Mississippi Delta region is somewhat unique."[18]

Media and publishing[edit]

Newspapers, magazines and journals

Television

The Northern Delta is also served by The Commercial Appeal and The Daily News newspapers in Memphis, Tennessee plus several radio and TV stations.

Transportation[edit]

US 49 runs through the Mississippi Delta

Air transportation

Highways

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ James C. Cobb, The Most Southern Place on Earth: The Mississippi Delta and the Roots of Regional Identity (1992)
  2. ^ "Vintage / Anchor « Knopf Doubleday - Vintage / Anchor". Randomhouse.com. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  3. ^ "Mississippi Delta's Economy, Way of Life Fading". NPR. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  4. ^ "Preface". Usccr.gov. Retrieved 2012-07-07. 
  5. ^ Cohn, David L. (1948). Where I Was Born and Raised, New York: Houghton Mifflin, p. 12.
  6. ^ Valerie Fraser Luesse, "Delta Journal", Southern Living, March 2008
  7. ^ Davis, Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government at 517-518 (1881)
  8. ^ Jefferson Davis, Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government at 160-161.
  9. ^ "King Cotton: Dramatic Growth of the Cotton Trade", New York Divided: Slavery and the Civil War, New-York Historical Society, accessed May 12, 2012
  10. ^ Roberts, Sam (December 26, 2010). "New York Doesn't Care to Remember the Civil War", The New York Times, accessed 10 March 2014
  11. ^ a b c John C. Willis, Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta after the Civil War, Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2000
  12. ^ a b Justin Gardner and Tom Nolan, "An Agricultural Economist's Perspective on the Mississippi Delta", Arkansas Review: A Journal of Delta Studies, August 2009, Vol. 40 Issue 2, pp 80–89
  13. ^ [1][dead link]
  14. ^ "State Prisons". Mississippi Department of Corrections. Retrieved on January 14, 2011.
  15. ^ "MDOC QUICK REFERENCE". Mississippi Department of Corrections. Retrieved on May 21, 2010.
  16. ^ Buntin, John. "Down on Parchman Farm". Governing Magazine. July 27, 2010. Retrieved on August 13, 2010.
  17. ^ a b "Location". Mississippi Valley State University. Retrieved on April 5, 2012.
  18. ^ Eckes p. 159.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Cobb, James C. The Most Southern Place on Earth: The Mississippi Delta and the Roots of Regional Identity (1992) excerpt and text search; also online edition
  • Cosby, A.G. et al. A Social and Economic Portrait of the Mississippi Delta (1992) online (Alternate, Archive)
  • Currie, James T. Enclave: Vicksburg and Her Plantations, 1863-1870 (1980) excerpt and text search
  • Dollard, John. Caste and Class in a Southern Town (1937), sociological study of the Delta
  • Gardner, Justin, and Nolan, Tom. "An Agricultural Economist's Perspective on the Mississippi Delta," Arkansas Review: A Journal of Delta Studies Aug 2009, Vol. 40 Issue 2, pp 80–89
  • Hamlin, Francoise N. Crossroads at Clarksdale: The Black Freedom Struggle in the Mississippi Delta After World War II (University of North Carolina Press; 2012) 371 pages
  • Helferich, Gerry. High Cotton: Four Seasons in the Mississippi Delta (2007) excerpt and text search, growing cotton in 21st century
  • McCoyer, Michael. "'Rough Men in "the Toughest Places I Ever Seen': The Construction and Ramifications of Black Masculine Identity in the Mississippi Delta's Levee Camps, 1900-1935," International Labor and Working-Class History, Spring 2006, Issue 69, pp 57-80
  • Morris, Christopher. Becoming Southern: The Evolution of a Way of Life, Warren County and Vicksburg, Mississippi, 1770–1860 (1995) excerpt and text search
  • Nelson, Lawrence J. "Welfare Capitalism on a Mississippi Plantation in the Great Depression". Journal of Southern History 50 (May 1984): 225–50. in JSTOR
  • Owens, Harry P. Steamboats and the Cotton Economy: River Trade in the Yazoo-Mississippi Delta (1990). excerpt and text search
  • Percy, William Alexander. Lanterns on the Levee; Recollections of a planter's son (1941) 347 pages excerpt and text search
  • Powdermaker, Hortense. After Freedom: A Cultural Study in the Deep South (1939), anthropological study of the Delta
  • Rogers, Kim Lacy. "Lynching Stories". (Archive) In: Rogers, Kim Lacy, Selma Leydesdorff, and Graham Dawson (editors). Trauma and Life Stories: International Perspectives. Routledge: London and New York City. p. 113-130.
  • Rubin, Richard. Confederacy of Silence: A True Tale of the New Old South (2002)
  • Saikku, Mikko. This Delta, This Land: An Environmental History of the Yazoo-Mississippi Floodplain (University of Georgia Press, 2005). xx, 373 pp. ISBN 0-8203-2673-9
  • Willis, John C. Forgotten Time: The Yazoo-Mississippi Delta After the Civil War (2000)
  • Woodruff, Nan Elizabeth. American Congo: The African American Freedom Struggle in the Delta (2003) excerpt and text search
  • "Nile of the New World", John Gunther, National Park Service

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 33°48′N 90°24′W / 33.8°N 90.4°W / 33.8; -90.4

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