A motion picture rating system is designated to classify films with regard to suitability for audiences in terms of issues such as sex, violence, substance abuse, profanity, impudence or other types of mature content. A particular issued rating can be called a certification, classification, certificate or rating.
This is designed to help parents decide whether a movie is suitable for their children. Yet, the effectiveness of these designations is widely disputed. Also, in some jurisdictions a rating may impose on movie theaters the legal obligation of refusing the entrance of children or minors to the movie. Furthermore, where movie theaters do not have this legal obligation, they may enforce restrictions on their own. Ratings are often given in lieu of censorship. Movie theaters often have time restrictions on what time kids can come in with their parent.
In countries such as Australia, an official government censorship system decides on ratings; in other countries, such as the United States, it is done by industry committees with little, if any official government status. In most countries, however, films that are considered morally offensive have been censored, restricted, or banned. Even if the film rating system has no legal consequences, and a film has not explicitly been restricted or banned, there are usually laws forbidding certain films, or forbidding minors to view them.
The influence of specific factors in deciding a rating varies from country to country. For example, in countries such as the U.S., films with strong sexual content are often restricted to older viewers, whereas in countries such as France and Germany, sexual content is viewed much more leniently. On the other hand, films with violent content are often subject in countries such as Germany and Finland to high ratings and even censorship, whereas countries such as Australia offer more lenient ratings to violent movies.
Other factors may or may not influence the classification process, such as being set within a non-fictional historical context, whether the film glorifies violence or drug use, whether said violence or drug use is carried out by the protagonist, with whom the viewer should empathize, or by the antagonist. In Germany, for example, films depicting explicit war violence in a real war context (such as the Second World War) are handled more leniently than films with purely fictional settings.
A film may be produced with a particular rating in mind. It may be re-edited if the desired rating is not obtained, especially to avoid a higher rating than intended. A film may also be re-edited to produce an alternate version for other countries.
A comparison of currently active film rating systems, showing age on the horizontal axis. Note however that the specific criteria used in assigning a classification can vary widely from one country to another. Thus a color code or age range cannot be directly compared from one country to another.
Spring green – Aimed at young audiences.
Green – All ages may watch.
Yellow – Parental guidance is suggested.
Orange – Not recommended for a younger audience but not restricted.
Red – Restricted to an older audience unless accompanied by an adult.
Brown – Restricted exclusively to an older audience.
Blue – Exclusively adult content / Further restrictions usually apply to exhibition.
Black – No rating / Exempt from classification / Banned from viewing.
PG – Parental guidance recommended. The content is mild in impact. It is not recommended for viewing or playing by persons under 15 without guidance from parents or guardians.
M – Recommended for mature audiences. Not recommended for children under 15 years old but not legally restricted. The content is moderate in impact.
MA15+ – Mature Accompanied. Unsuitable for children younger than 15. Children younger than 15 years must be accompanied by a parent or guardian. The content is strong in impact.
R18+ – Restricted to 18 years and over. Adults only. The content is high in impact.
X18+ – Restricted to 18 years and over. Films with this rating have pornographic content. Films classified as X18+ are banned from being sold or rented in all Australian states and are only legally available in the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory.
RC – Refused Classification. Banned from sale or hire in Australia and cannot be legally imported. Films are rated RC if their content is very high in impact and exceeds the guidelines.
Motion pictures are rated by the Austrian Board of Media Classification (ABMC) for the Federal Ministry of Education, Arts and Culture (Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Kunst und Kultur). The recommendations made by the ABMC are generally not legally binding and there are nine sets of provincial laws on the cinema sector with different age provisions. The only exception is in the case of "16" rated films, since under Austrian law there is a legal age restriction on certain types of content i.e. discrimination, sexual abuse, glorification of violence etc. In addition to the ABMC's age recommendations, in the province of Vienna children under the age of 6 are only permitted to attend public film performances if they are accompanied.
The AMBC issues age recommendation from the following categories:
Unrestricted – Released for all age groups
6+ – Released for children from age 6
10+ – Released for children from age 10
12+ – Released for children from age 12
14+ – Released from age 14
16+ – Released from age 16. Restricted classification.
There are only two classifications for films publicly exhibited in Belgium issued by the Inter-Community Commission for Film Rating (Dutch: Intergemeenschapscommissie voor de Filmkeuring; French: Commission Intercomunautaire de Contrôle des Films). Films are prohibited to minors under the age of 16 unless passed by the commission. There is no mandatory rating system for video formats but 90 per cent of video distribution abides by the voluntary Belgium Video Federation. It is basically the same as the system for theatrical exhibition, but also provides a "12" rating.
Films are rated in Brazil by the Dejus (Departamento de Justiça, Classificação, Títulos e Qualificação – Department of Justice, Rating, Titles and Qualification), which is run by the Brazilian Ministry of Justice (Ministério da Justiça). Anyone below the film's minimum age can watch it if accompanied by the parent or guardian, except for those rated "Not recommended for ages under 18", which, by law, are strictly prohibited from viewing by people under 18. Unlike many countries, the Dejus doesn't have any legal right to ban, demand cuts or refuse to rate any movie.
The Dejus uses the following system:
Film classification symbols used in Brazil.
L: Livre para Todos os Públicos ("Free For All Public"): This classification applies to works which contain predominantly positive contents and which do not bring unsuitable elements subject to ratings to ages higher than 10, such as the ones listed below:
Violence: Fantasy violence; display of arms with no violence; deaths with no violence; bones and skeletons with no violence.
Sex and Nudity: Non-erotic nudity.
Drugs: Moderate or insinuated use of legal drugs.
10: Não Recomendado para Menores de 10 Anos ("Not recommended for ages under 10"): The following contents are accepted for this age range:
Violence: Display of arms with violence; fear/tension; distress; bones and skeletons with signs of violent acts; criminal acts without violence; derogatory language.
Sex and Nudity: Educational contents about sex.
Drugs: Oral description of the use of legal drugs; discussion on the issue "drug trafficking"; medicinal use of illegal drugs.
12: Não Recomendado para Menores de 12 Anos ("Not recommended for ages under 12"): The following contents are accepted for this age range:
Violence: Violent act; body injury; description of violence; presence of blood; victim's grief; natural or accidental death with violence; violent act against animals; exposure to danger; showing people in embarrassing or degrading situations; verbal aggression; obscenity; bullying; corpses; sexual harassment; overvaluation of the physical beauty; overvaluation of consumption.
Sex and Nudity: Veiled nudity; sexual innuendo; sexual fondling; masturbation; foul language; sex content language; sex simulation; sexual appeal.
Drugs: Use of legal drugs; inducing the use of legal drugs; irregular use of medication; mention to illegal drugs.
14: Não Recomendado para Menores de 14 Anos ("Not recommended for ages under 14"): The following contents are accepted for this age range:
Violence: Intentional death; stigma/prejudice.
Sex and Nudity: Nudity; erotization; vulgarity; sexual intercourse; prostitution.
Drugs: Insinuation of the use of illegal drugs; verbal descriptions of the use of illegal drugs; discussion on the "decriminalization of illegal drugs".
16: Não Recomendado para Menores de 16 Anos ("Not recommended for ages under 16"): The following contents are accepted for this age range:
Violence: Rape; sexual coercion; torture; mutilation; suicide; gratuitous violence/banalization of violence; abortion, death penalty, euthanasia.
Sex and Nudity: Intense sexual intercourse.
Drugs: Production or trafficking of any illegal drug; use of illegal drugs; inducing the use of illegal drugs.
18: Não Recomendado para Menores de 18 Anos ("Not recommended for ages under 18"): The following contents are accepted for this age range:
Violence: Violence of high impact; exaltation, glamorization and/or incitement to violence; cruelty; hate crimes.
Sex and Nudity: Explicit sex; complex/strong impact sexual intercourses (incest, group sex, violent fetish and pornography overall).
Drugs: Inciting the use of illegal drugs.
There are also operational descriptions of attenuating and aggravating elements that can interfere on the final rating.
The Bulgarian film rating system is defined in the Film Industry Act of 2003 and administered by the National Film Rating Committee.
Bulgarian film ratings
When is it given
Recommended to children
"The film confirms the ideals of humanism or popularizes the national and world cultures or contributes to upbringing children."
No restrictive recommendations from the Committee.
"The film is in no way contrary to the universal rules of morality in this country."
No persons under the age of 12 are admitted unless accompanied by an adult.
"The film contains certain erotic scenes or scenes with drinking, taking drugs or stimulants or a few scenes of violence."
No persons under the age of 16 are admitted.
"The film contains quite a number of erotic scenes or scenes with drinking, taking drugs or stimulants or a considerable number of scenes showing violence."
No persons under the age of 18 are admitted.
"The film is naturalistically erotic or shows violence in an ostentatious manner."
Exhibitions of X films are permitted on the condition that the venue is licensed for exhibiting X rated films only. The act also prohibits the renting and selling of D and X rated media to people below the ages of 16 and 18 respectively.
Film ratings in Canada are a provincial responsibility, and each province has its own legislation, rules and regulations regarding rating, exhibition and admission. Ratings are required for theatrical exhibition, but not all provinces require classification for home video. In the past there was a wide range of rating categories and practices in the various provinces; however, the seven rating systems—with the exception of Quebec—now all use categories and logos derived from the Canadian Home Video Rating System (CHVRS).
The categories are mostly identical to the CHVRS with a few minor variations. In the provinces that require classification of video formats, supply of 14A and 18A films is restricted to customers above those ages. In the case of theater exhibition, children are admitted to 14A and 18A films in the Manitoba and Maritime provinces if accompanied by an adult, although admittance is restricted to children over the age of 14 in the case of 18A films. Likewise, British Columbia,Saskatchewan (administered by the British Columbia Film Classification Office),Alberta and Ontario also admit children to 14A and 18A films if accompanied, but do not impose an age restriction on 18A films. The Maritimes and British Columbia (along with Saskatchewan) also provide an "A" classification for adult content. Some provinces, such as Nova Scotia, reserve the right to prohibit films altogether.
14A – Suitable for people 14 years of age or older. Those under 14 should view with an adult. No rental or purchase by those under 14. Parents cautioned. (Formerly "Adult Accompaniment (14)" in the Maritimes)
18A – Suitable for people 18 years of age or older. Those under 18 should view with an adult. No rental or purchase by those under 18. Parents strongly cautioned.
R – Restricted to 18 years and over. No rental or purchase by those under 18. Content not suitable for minors.
A – Adult. Film is not suitable for viewers under 18 years of age. (Formerly "Explicit Material (XXX)" in the Maritimes)
In Quebec, the Régie du cinéma rates all films and videos. The Régie is a governmental agency overseen by the Quebec Ministry of Culture and Communications; its purview devolves from the Cinema Act (chapter C-18.1). In some cases the Régie du cinéma may refuse to provide a classification, effectively banning the film. Educational and sports films are exempt from classification.
G: Visa général (General Rating) – May be viewed, rented or purchased by persons of all ages.
13+: 13 ans et plus (13 years and over) – May be viewed, rented or purchased by children 13 years of age or over. Children under 13 may be admitted only if accompanied by an adult.
16+: 16 ans et plus (16 years and over) – May be viewed, rented or purchased by children 16 years of age or over.
18+: 18 ans et plus (18 years and over) – May be viewed, rented or purchased by adults 18 years of age or over.
Pornographic films may only be exhibited at venues licensed for that purpose. Minors are admitted to films with pornographic and excessively violent content if they are accompanied by a parent or guardian.
In Denmark, the Media Council for Children and Young People currently rates films. Films do not have to be submitted for a rating and in such instances must be labelled a "15" (restricted to people aged 15 and above). Children aged 7 and above may attend any performance—including those restriced to older audiences—if they are accompanied by an adult.
Approval of the film for general admittance.
Approval of the film for general admittance, but not recommended for children younger than the age of 7.
Approval of the film for admittance of children from the age of 11.
Approval of the film for admittance of children from the age of 15.
Exempt from classification – only used on home video products (mostly documentaries, Danish stand-up shows and educational material)
Prior to showing in theaters, a distribution certificate must be obtained from the Ministry of Culture. The Minister will decide which certificate to issue based on a recommendation by the Board of Film Classification. In some cases films may be classified as "pornographic films or those containing an incitement to violence" or completely prohibited from screening. A certificate will be granted from the following:
U – certificate authorising the screening of the film to all members of the public
12 – certificate prohibiting the screening of the film to minors under twelve
16 – certificate prohibiting the screening of the film to minors under sixteen
18 – certificate prohibiting the screening of the film to minors under eighteen
The Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft (Voluntary Self-Regulation of the Film Industry, FSK) has a film ratings system under which films are classified. All the ratings contain the phrase "gemäß §14 JuSchG" (in accordance with §14 of the Youth Protection Law), signifying that they are legally binding for minors. Cinemas may legally exhibit films without a classification but minors are prohibited from such screenings.
Ohne Altersbeschränkung (FSK 0): no age restriction (white sign)
Freigegeben ab 6 Jahren (FSK 6): released to ages 6 and older (yellow sign)
Freigegeben ab 12 Jahren (FSK 12): released to ages 12 and older; children who are at least age 6 may be admitted with parental accompaniment (green sign)
Freigegeben ab 16 Jahren (FSK 16): released to ages 16 and older, nobody under this age admitted (blue sign)
Keine Jugendfreigabe (FSK 18): "no youth admitted", adults only. (red sign)
Infoprogramm or Lehrprogramm: "educational programming". This rating is not issued by the FSK, but may be self-applied to films seeking to educate their audience (e.g. documentaries, instructional films, etc.). Films with this rating may be sold without any age restriction provided they do not contain any material "evidently harmful to the development of children and youths".
The FSK rating also limits the time of the day in which the movie may be aired on free-to-air TV stations to a time frame between 22:00 (FSK 16) or 23:00 (FSK 18) and 6:00. Stations are permitted to broadcast films not approved for audiences under 12 at their own discretion.
Films intended for public exhibition have to be submitted to the Director of Film, Newspaper and Article Administration, who is the Film Censorship Authority (FCA) under the Ordinance, for approval. Films approved for public exhibition are then either classified or exempted from classification.
I – suitable for all ages (circle sign)
IIA – not suitable for children (square sign)
IIB – not suitable for young persons and children
III – for persons aged 18 or above only
Of the four levels, Levels I, IIA, and IIB are unrestricted. Only Level III is a restricted category.
Motion pictures shown in Indonesia must undergo reviewing by the Indonesian Film Censorship Board. Other than issuing certificates, the LSF/IFCB also reviews and issues permits for film-related advertising, such as movie trailers and posters. LSF has the authority to cut scenes from films. Films passed for exhibition are awarded one of the following classifications:
SU (Semua Umur): All ages
R (Remaja): Teen
D (Dewasa): Adult
Limited (Terbatas): Passed uncut for film festival screenings
A Japanese film rating regulator known as Eirin(映倫?) [full-name: Eiga Rinri Kanri Iinkai (映画倫理管理委員会?)] has a film classification system under which films are classified into one of four categories. The categories have been in use since 1 May 1998.
G: General, suitable for all ages
PG-12: Parental guidance requested for young people under 12 years.
In Latvia it is the duty of the producer of a film or distributor to assign a rating according to a pre-determined set of criteria. All publicly exhibited films, visual recordings and films broadcast over television and electronic networks must be classified.
U (universal audience) – Suitable for persons of all age groups
7+: Suitable for a person who has reached at least 7 years of age
12+: Suitable for a person who has reached at least 12 years of age
16+: Suitable for a person who has reached at least 16 years of age
18+: Not suitable for a minor (prohibited to people under 18)
Historically, film censorship in Malaysia was carried out by police under the Theatre Ordinance 1908. In 1954 the Film Censorship Board (LPF) was created to censor films distributed across Malaysia in accordance with the Cinematograph Films Act 1952, and later the Film Censorship Act 2002. Malaysia's motion picture rating system was introduced in 1953, initially classifying films either for General Audiences (Tontonan Umum) or For Adults Only (Untuk Orang Dewasa Sahaja), and in 1996 these classifications were changed to U and 18. In 2010 the PG13 classification was introduced, which was changed to P13 in 2012.
Malaysian film classification logos used since January 2012
Upon viewing the board will assign one of three categories to the film:
Lulus Bersih (Passed Clean [i.e. without cuts])
Lulus Dengan Pengubahan (Passed with Edits/Cuts)
Tidak Diluluskan Untuk Tayangan (Not Approved for Screening)
Should a film be approved, the Board then assigns the film a classification. As of 2012 the ratings are:
U (Umum) - No age limit.
P13 (Penjaga) – Viewers under 13 years of age need parental/guardian supervision while viewing.
As of 2012, films in Malta are classified by the Film Board in accordance with the Malta Council for Culture and the Arts Act. As part of an overhaul in 2013 the "14" and "16" age classifications were replaced by "12A" and "15"; the "PG" rating was redefined while "U", "12" and "18" were retained in their existing form.
If the film is deemed "fit for exhibition" it will be awarded one of the following classifications:
U (Universal) – Suitable for all.
PG (Parental Guidance) – General viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children.
12A – Suitable for persons of 12 years and over: Provided that persons younger than 12 years may attend only when accompanied by an adult.
12 – Suitable only for persons of twelve years and over.
15 – Suitable for persons of fifteen years and over.
18 – Suitable only for persons of eighteen years and over.
The General Directorate of Radio, Television and Cinematography (in Spanish, Dirección General de Radio, Televisión y Cinematografía) is the issuer of ratings for motion pictures. The RTC is an agency of the Department of State (Secretaría de Gobernación). It has its own classification system, as follows:
AA Informative-only rating: Understandable for children under 7 years.
A Information-only rating: For all age groups.
B Information-only rating: For adolescents 12 years and older.
B-15 Information-only rating: Not recommended for children under 15.
Potentially harmful to children under 12 years; broadcasting is not allowed before 8:00 pm.
Potentially harmful to children under 16 years; broadcasting is not allowed before 10:00 pm.
Mostly, these icons are used along with other symbols, displaying if a movie contains violence, sexual content, frightening scenes, drug or alcohol abuse, discrimination, or coarse language. These symbols are also used for TV-programs in the Netherlands.
The Films, Videos, and Publications Classification Act 1993 gives the Office of Film and Literature Classification the power to classify publications into three categories: unrestricted, restricted, or "objectionable" (banned). With a few exceptions, films, videos, DVDs and restricted computer games must carry a label before being offered for supply or exhibited to the public.
The National Film and Video Censors Board classifies films, videos, DVDs, and VCDs. Classifications carrying an age rating are legally restricted, although the "15" and "18" classifications do not apply to people below 2 years of age. The categories are:
G (Green Sign): Suitable for viewing by persons of all ages.
PG (Green Sign): Parental Guidance advised.
12 (Yellow Sign): Not suitable for people under the age of 12.
12A (Yellow Sign): Not suitable for people under the age of 12. A child must be accompanied by an adult to view the film.
15 (Red Sign): Not suitable for persons under the age of 15.
18 (Red Sign): Not suitable for people under the 18.
RE (Red Sign): Films which fall under this category are to be exhibited and distributed only in specially licensed premises.
The Norwegian Media Authority (Medietilsynet) sets the age limits on films to be exhibited in Norway. There is no requirement to submit a film to the Media Authority for classification, but such films carry a mandatory age rating of "18" and the distributor is legally repsonsible for the film's content.
The following age limits apply to films to be shown in cinemas:
A – Suitable for all
7 – 7 years (children from 4 years old accompanied by an adult)
11 – 11 years (children down to 8 years accompanied by an adult)
15 – 15 years (young down to 12 years accompanied by an adult)
18 – 18 (absolute lower limit)
Children up to three years younger than the indicated age rating may be admitted if accompanied by an adult; however the Media Authority will occasionally discourage parents from accompanying children below the age recommendation to certain films. The Media Authority has no power to ban films but must not classify films which they consider contravene Norweigian criminal law.
Ratings in Poland are not set by any board or advisory body. Prior to 1989 the applicable age ratings were "no age limit", "over 7", "over 12", "over 15" and "over 18" and were set by The General Committee of Cinematography. Since 1989 there is no official classification system, with age ratings being self-prescriptive and set by the distributors. In case of television, the supervisory body – Krajowa Rada Radiofonii i Telewizji (KRRiT, The National Council of Radio Broadcasting and Television) can impose fines upon those responsible for improper rating of a broadcast, or lack of it.
Movies are rated in Portugal by the Comissão de Classificação de Espectáculos of the Ministry of Culture. In cinemas the ratings are mandatory whereas for video releases they are merely advisory, except in the case of pornographic content. Children under the age of 3 were previously prohibited from public film performances, but a special category was introduced for this age group when the classification system was overhauled in 2014. A category for 14 year-olds was also introduced, and the lowest age rating was dropped from 4 years of age to 3. The categories are the following:
Para todos os públicos – For all the public (especially designed for children under 3 years of age).
M/3 Passed for viewers aged 3 and older.
M/6 Passed for viewers aged 6 and older.
M/12 Passed for viewers aged 12 and older.
M/14 Passed for viewers aged 14 and older.
M/16 Passed for viewers aged 16 and older.
M/18 Passed for viewers aged 18 and older.
M/18–P Special rating supplementary to the M/18 age rating denoting "pornography".
Since 2012 the rating appears inside circles, which indicate age restrictions followed by a plus(+), and appears in most shows, including TV and Internet shows in Russian. The indication shown:
0+Фильм разрешён для показа в любой зрительской аудитории (Film allowed for any age) – All ages are admitted. No age restrictions.
6+Фильм разрешён детям, достигшим 6 лет (Film for those above 6) – Unsuitable for children under 6.
12+Детям до 12 лет фильм разрешён в сопровождении родителей (Film for those above 12) – Unsuitable for children under 12.
16+Фильм разрешён детям старше 16 лет (Film for those above 16) – Unsuitable for children under 16.
18+Фильм разрешён детям старше 18 лет (Film for those above 18) – Prohibited for children under 18.
Фильмы, которым отказано в классификации (Refused classification) – Banned.
Film classification in Singapore was introduced in 1991 and comes under the jurisdiction of the Board of Film Censors (BFC). There were three ratings originally: G (General), PG (Parental Guidance) and R18 (Restricted to 18 years and above). Prior to then films were either approved or effectively banned. Since then, there have been several alterations to the ratings over the years. The R18 rating has been dropped, and has been replaced by NC16 (No Children under 16), M18 (Mature 18) and R21 (Restricted 21). A PG13 (Parental Guidance 13) rating, introduced in 2011, is the latest rating to be introduced. The G, PG and PG13 ratings are advisory while NC16, M18 and R21 carry age restrictions. Video ratings are mostly the same as the cinema ratings, except only go up to M18. Some titles, such as documentaries and sports programmes may be exempt from classification on video, but all titles must be classified for public exhibition.
The revised Singapore film rating system which took effect 15 July 2011
The categories are:
G: General – Suitable for all ages.
PG: Parental Guidance – Suitable for all but parents should guide their young.
PG13: Parental Guidance 13 – Suitable for persons aged 13 and above but parental guidance is advised for children below 13.
NC16: No Children Under 16 – Suitable for persons aged 16 and above.
M18: Mature 18 – Suitable for persons aged 18 and above.
R21: Restricted 21 – Suitable for adults aged 21 and above.
All films to be commercially released in Spain in any medium must be submitted to the ICAA. Classifications are advisory except for X-rated films, which are restricted to specially licensed venues. A supplementary classification, "Especialmente Recomendada para la Infancia" (Especially recommended for children), is sometimes appended to the lowest two classifications.
Statens medieråd (the Swedish Media Council) is a government agency with the aims to reduce the risk of harmful media influences among minors and to empower minors as conscious media users. The classification bestowed on a film should not be viewed as recommendations on the suitability for children, as the law the council operates under (SFS 2010:1882) only mandates them to assess the relative risk to children's well-being. It is not a legal requirement to submit a film to the Media Council, but children under the age of 15 are not admitted in such instances. The councils classification only applies to public exhibition, and the law does not require classification of home media.
Switzerland has adopted Freiwillige Selbstkontrolle der Filmwirtschaft (FSK), Germany's classification body. Under Swiss law, however, children up to two years younger than the age recommendations will be admitted if accompanied by a person invested with parental authority.
General audiences category (普遍級(普)) – (G) Viewing is permitted for audiences of all ages.
Protected category (保護級(護)) – (P) Viewing is not permitted for children under six; children viewers between six and 11 shall be accompanied and given guidance by parents, teachers, seniors, or adult relatives or friends.
Parental guidance category (輔導級(輔)) – (PG) Viewing is not permitted for children under 12; attention and guidance from parents, teachers, or seniors are required for adolescent viewers between 12 and 17.
Restricted category (限制級(限)) – (R) Viewing is not permitted for those under 18.
A motion picture rating system was proposed in the Film and Video Act of 2007, and was passed on December 20, 2007 by the Thai military-appointed National Legislative Assembly, replacing laws which had been in place since 1930. The draft law was met with resistance from the film industry and independent filmmakers. Activists had hoped for a less-restrictive approach; however, films are still subject to censorship, or can be banned from release altogether if the film is deemed to "undermine or disrupt social order and moral decency, or might impact national security or the pride of the nation".
The ratings were put into effect in August 2009. They are as follows:
P – Educational.
G – General Audience.
13 – Suitable for viewers aged 13 years and over.
15 – Suitable for viewers aged 15 years and over.
18 – Suitable for viewers aged 18 years and over.
20 – Suitable for viewers aged 20 years and over. Restricted.
Banned – Films that are not allowed to screen publicly in Thailand.
In Turkey, movies to be shown in cinemas are rated by the Evaluation and Classification Board of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. All films to be made commercially available must be classified, except in the case of educational films which are labeled as "for educational purposes" instead. The board also has the power to refuse classification in extreme cases (producers and distributors can submit an edited version of a movie to the board but edited versions may also be rejected if still deemed inappropriate); in this case, the movie will be banned with the exception of special artistic activities like fairs, festivals, feasts and carnivals.
Genel İzleyici Kitlesi – General audience.
7+ – Suitable for viewers aged 7 and over.
7A – Viewers under the age of 7 may watch with accompanying family mambers.
13+ – Suitable for viewers aged 13 and over.
13A – Viewers under the age of 13 may watch with accompanying family members.
15+ – Suitable for viewers aged 15 and over.
15A – Viewers under the age of 15 may watch with accompanying family members.
The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) classifies films to be publicly exhibited in the United Kingdom, although statutory powers remain with local councils which can overrule any of the BBFC's decisions. Since 1984, the BBFC also classifies films made commercially available though a home video format. If the BBFC refuses a classification this effectively amounts to a ban (although local councils retain the legal right to overturn it in the case of cinema exhibition). The BBFC's regulatory powers do not extend to the internet, so a film they have banned on physical media can still be made available via streaming media/video on demand. Videos designed to inform, educate or instruct or concerned with sport, religion or music are exempt from classification; exempt films may be marked as "E", but this is not an official label.
UK film classification certificates. Uc is depracated.
Uc – Especially suitable for pre-school children. The category is now depracated, although older video works still in circulation may carry the label.
U (Universal) - Suitable for all. A U film should be suitable for audiences aged four years and over.
PG (Parental Guidance) - General viewing, but some scenes may be unsuitable for young children. A PG film should not unsettle a child aged around eight or older.
12A - Cinema release suitable for 12 years and over. No one younger than 12 may see a 12A film in a cinema unless accompanied by an adult.
12 – Video release suitable for 12 years and over. Video recordings with this rating are not to be supplied to anyone below that age.
15 - Suitable only for 15 years and older. No-one under 15 is allowed to see a 15 film at the cinema or buy/rent a 15 rated video.
18 - Suitable only for adults. No-one under 18 is allowed to see an 18 film at the cinema or buy / rent an 18 rated video.
R18 (Restricted 18) - Adult works for licensed premises only. The R18 category is a special and legally-restricted classification primarily for explicit works of consenting sex or strong fetish material involving adults. Films may only be shown to adults in specially licensed cinemas, and video works may be supplied to adults only in licensed sex shops. R18 videos may not be supplied by mail order.
In the United States, the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA), through the Classification and Rating Administration (CARA), issues ratings for movies. The system was established in 1968 and is voluntary; an unrated film is often informally denoted by "NR" in newspapers and so forth.
G (General Audiences) – All Ages Admitted.
PG (Parental Guidance Suggested) – Some Material May Not Be Suitable For Children.
PG-13 (Parents Strongly Cautioned) – Some Material May Be Inappropriate For Children Under 13.
R (Restricted) – Under 17 Requires Accompanying Parent Or Adult Guardian.
NC-17 (Adults Only) – No One 17 and Under Admitted.
^ abOlsberg SPI; KEA European Affairs; KPMG (May 2003). "Appendix 1 Country Profiles" (PDF). "Empirical Study on the Practice of the Rating of Films Distributed in Cinemas Television DVD and Videocassettes in the EU and EEA Member States". European Commission. p. 125. Retrieved 28 May 2014.