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How to Get Rid of Mucus in Lungs
How to Get Rid of Mucus in Lungs
Published: 2014/06/03
Channel: WaysAndHow
How mucus keeps us healthy - Katharina Ribbeck
How mucus keeps us healthy - Katharina Ribbeck
Published: 2015/11/05
Channel: TED-Ed
Understanding Dr Sebi About Mucus
Understanding Dr Sebi About Mucus
Published: 2016/09/23
Channel: 4CyclesofLife.com
Blob of Mucous Postnasal Drip
Blob of Mucous Postnasal Drip
Published: 2014/07/14
Channel: drrahmatorlummc
This Simple Drink Will Clear Mucus From Your Lungs & Give An Instant Boost To Your Immune System
This Simple Drink Will Clear Mucus From Your Lungs & Give An Instant Boost To Your Immune System
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: Article-TUBE2
Diagnosing Mucus in the Throat -- The Doctors
Diagnosing Mucus in the Throat -- The Doctors
Published: 2013/06/19
Channel: The Doctors
nose drain NETI POT mucus , snot , moco
nose drain NETI POT mucus , snot , moco
Published: 2012/01/17
Channel: long13hair
HOW TO REMOVE MUCUS FROM YOUR BODY
HOW TO REMOVE MUCUS FROM YOUR BODY
Published: 2015/01/25
Channel: liferegenerator
How to Get Rid of Mucus and Phlegm QUICKLY!
How to Get Rid of Mucus and Phlegm QUICKLY!
Published: 2016/01/30
Channel: Happy Healthy and Free with BoYee!
How to Get Rid of Mucus in Lungs - 5 Home Remedies for Mucus
How to Get Rid of Mucus in Lungs - 5 Home Remedies for Mucus
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: Natural Life Hacks
Provocarea zilei: Piatră Foarfecă Hartie (cu Mucus și Oliver) | Atelierul Magic
Provocarea zilei: Piatră Foarfecă Hartie (cu Mucus și Oliver) | Atelierul Magic
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: Atelierul Magic by Olga Gudynn
I MADE HER LOSE HER MUCUS PLUG!
I MADE HER LOSE HER MUCUS PLUG!
Published: 2017/08/13
Channel: TheGoldynBaby
Sinusitis with Tenacious Eustachian Tube Mucopus
Sinusitis with Tenacious Eustachian Tube Mucopus
Published: 2016/03/24
Channel: drrahmatorlummc
Persistent Sinusitis - Due to Recirculation of mucus  into Maxillary Sinus on Nose Endoscopy
Persistent Sinusitis - Due to Recirculation of mucus into Maxillary Sinus on Nose Endoscopy
Published: 2016/01/06
Channel: Dr KK Karade , ENT Head Neck Thyroid Cancer Hospital
When Your Lungs Drown in Mucus, This is The Best Cure It’s 100% Natural and Works in Just Few hours!
When Your Lungs Drown in Mucus, This is The Best Cure It’s 100% Natural and Works in Just Few hours!
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: Good Life Tube
Mucus coming out of eye!!!
Mucus coming out of eye!!!
Published: 2011/12/10
Channel: Brett Larose
Comment libérer votre corps de tout ce mucus ? - www.regenere.org
Comment libérer votre corps de tout ce mucus ? - www.regenere.org
Published: 2016/02/11
Channel: Regenere / Thierry Casasnovas
How to Get Rid of Sinus Mucus
How to Get Rid of Sinus Mucus
Published: 2017/02/20
Channel: Eric Berg
Dr. Sebi and Arnold Ehret:  Mucus Is The Cause of Your Disease
Dr. Sebi and Arnold Ehret: Mucus Is The Cause of Your Disease
Published: 2016/09/04
Channel: Damien M.
Dr sebi mucus is the cause of all disease
Dr sebi mucus is the cause of all disease
Published: 2017/02/03
Channel: alkha Life
clear mucus discharge
clear mucus discharge
Published: 2016/04/10
Channel: Sexual disease in women
How to Get Rid of Phlegm and Mucus in Chest & Throat Instant Result
How to Get Rid of Phlegm and Mucus in Chest & Throat Instant Result
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: Home Cooking And Home Remedies
Making a Powerful Mucus Buster
Making a Powerful Mucus Buster
Published: 2016/11/13
Channel: 4CyclesofLife.com
What Really Causes Disease: How Toxicity, Mucous, and Hydration Interact
What Really Causes Disease: How Toxicity, Mucous, and Hydration Interact
Published: 2015/05/30
Channel: Loren Lockman
Dr  Sebi Detox RID YOUR BODY OF MUCUS THE ONLY DISEASE!
Dr Sebi Detox RID YOUR BODY OF MUCUS THE ONLY DISEASE!
Published: 2017/04/11
Channel: HALAK
Mucus in Stool The Best Treatment Options english
Mucus in Stool The Best Treatment Options english
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: Shelby Lopez
WANT TO CLEAR MUCUS FROM YOUR LUNGS AND GIVE AN INSTANT BOOST TO YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM? TRY THIS!
WANT TO CLEAR MUCUS FROM YOUR LUNGS AND GIVE AN INSTANT BOOST TO YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM? TRY THIS!
Published: 2016/10/23
Channel: How To
What causes Mucus and phlegm in throat| OMG MUST SEE!!
What causes Mucus and phlegm in throat| OMG MUST SEE!!
Published: 2016/10/28
Channel: BreathSolutionwithMcNealy
Cure Your Sinus Mucus & Chronic Cough
Cure Your Sinus Mucus & Chronic Cough
Published: 2013/02/18
Channel: MeNotBrainWashed
Mucus & colles : obstructions à la santé / Régime sans mucus d
Mucus & colles : obstructions à la santé / Régime sans mucus d'Arnold Ehret (Fabien Moine)
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: Fabien Moine - Hygiénisme
आंव (Mucus) की परेशानी में बबूल का आयुर्वेदिक लाभ | Acharya Balkrishna
आंव (Mucus) की परेशानी में बबूल का आयुर्वेदिक लाभ | Acharya Balkrishna
Published: 2015/12/04
Channel: Acharya Balkrishna
How To Get Rid Of Phlegm And Mucus In Chest & Throat (Instant Result)
How To Get Rid Of Phlegm And Mucus In Chest & Throat (Instant Result)
Published: 2017/07/09
Channel: Newzmagazine.com
Removing Mucus from the body (Naturally)
Removing Mucus from the body (Naturally)
Published: 2016/02/11
Channel: Omar Morsy
My Mid-Cycle Fertile Mucus
My Mid-Cycle Fertile Mucus
Published: 2016/05/30
Channel: Billie Jones
Lungs, Sinus & Mucus Conditions Part 1
Lungs, Sinus & Mucus Conditions Part 1
Published: 2011/12/02
Channel: DrRobertMorseND
Meaning of Snot and Mucus Colors
Meaning of Snot and Mucus Colors
Published: 2014/08/11
Channel: Health • Mind • Body • Spirit
8 Home Remedies For Mucus
8 Home Remedies For Mucus
Published: 2014/01/17
Channel: Ayushveda
Éliminer le mucus des poumons dès la première utilisation
Éliminer le mucus des poumons dès la première utilisation
Published: 2017/01/07
Channel: Recettes de la nature
Dirty Sneeze Sputum/Mucus Prank on Public - (बलगम ) Best Prank Ever | THF - Ab Mauj Legi Dilli
Dirty Sneeze Sputum/Mucus Prank on Public - (बलगम ) Best Prank Ever | THF - Ab Mauj Legi Dilli
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: The HunGama Films - Ab Mauj Legi Dilli
THIS SIMPLE DRINK WILL CLEAR MUCUS FROM YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM
THIS SIMPLE DRINK WILL CLEAR MUCUS FROM YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM
Published: 2016/08/31
Channel: Direct Trend
😯  When Your Lungs Drown In Mucus, This Is The Best Cure! And Best Of All Is That It’S 100% Natural
😯 When Your Lungs Drown In Mucus, This Is The Best Cure! And Best Of All Is That It’S 100% Natural
Published: 2017/01/02
Channel: Home Remedy
Conception 101: Decoding Your Cervical Mucus
Conception 101: Decoding Your Cervical Mucus
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: Mosie Baby
Lime or Lemon water, removes mucus for the body!!!
Lime or Lemon water, removes mucus for the body!!!
Published: 2014/07/29
Channel: CHEF MAMA ROSA
Foods that Improve Cervical Mucus Quality
Foods that Improve Cervical Mucus Quality
Published: 2015/11/01
Channel: Momism Mommas
Dog Eye Mucus?  Holistic Answers
Dog Eye Mucus? Holistic Answers
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: Veterinary Secrets
Phát âm chuẩn - Anh ngữ đặc biệt: Mucus and Phage (VOA)
Phát âm chuẩn - Anh ngữ đặc biệt: Mucus and Phage (VOA)
Published: 2016/03/25
Channel: Học tiếng Anh cùng VOA
How To Get Rid Of Mucus, Phlegm & Sing With A Cold
How To Get Rid Of Mucus, Phlegm & Sing With A Cold
Published: 2015/05/21
Channel: Singers Secret
Top 10 Mucus-forming Foods that People Think are Healthy: #1
Top 10 Mucus-forming Foods that People Think are Healthy: #1
Published: 2013/06/07
Channel: Prof. Spira - Mucus-free Life LLC
Evitez ces 4 aliments pour réduire le mucus dans la gorge
Evitez ces 4 aliments pour réduire le mucus dans la gorge
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: Recettes de la nature
Why is There Mucus in My Poop?
Why is There Mucus in My Poop?
Published: 2013/10/04
Channel: Question Everything
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Mucous cells of the stomach lining secrete mucus (pink) into the lumen

Mucus (/mjuːkəs/ MYOO-kəss) is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes. It is typically produced from cells found in mucous glands, although it may also originate from mixed glands, which contain both serous and mucous cells. It is a viscous colloid containing inorganic salts, antiseptic enzymes (such as lysozymes), immunoglobulins, and glycoproteins such as lactoferrin[1] and mucins, which are produced by goblet cells in the mucous membranes and submucosal glands. Mucus serves to protect epithelial cells (that line the tubes) in the respiratory, gastrointestinal, urogenital, visual, and auditory systems; the epidermis in amphibians; and the gills in fish, against infectious agents such as fungi, bacteria and viruses. The average human nose produces about a liter of mucus per day.[2] Most of the mucus produced is in the gastrointestinal tract.

Bony fish, hagfish, snails, slugs, and some other invertebrates also produce external mucus. In addition to serving a protective function against infectious agents, such mucus provides protection against toxins produced by predators, can facilitate movement and may play a role in communication.

Respiratory system[edit]

Illustration depicting the movement of mucus in the respiratory tract.

In the human respiratory system, mucus, also known as airway surface liquid (ASL), aids in the protection of the lungs by trapping foreign particles that enter them, in particular, through the nose, during normal breathing.[3] Further distinction exists between the superficial and cell-lining layers of ASL, which are known as mucus layer (ML) and pericilliary liquid layer (PCL), respectively.[4] "Phlegm" is a specialized term for mucus that is restricted to the respiratory tract, whereas the term "nasal mucus" describes secretions of the nasal passages.

Nasal mucus is produced by the nasal mucosa; and mucosal tissues lining the airways (trachea, bronchus, bronchioles) is produced by specialized airway epithelial cells (goblet cells) and submucosal glands. Small particles such as dust, particulate pollutants, and allergens, as well as infectious agents and bacteria are caught in the viscous nasal or airway mucus and prevented from entering the system. This event along with the continual movement of the respiratory mucus layer toward the oropharynx, helps prevent foreign objects from entering the lungs during breathing. This explains why coughing often occurs in those who smoke cigarettes. The body's natural reaction is to increase mucus production. In addition, mucus aids in moisturizing the inhaled air and prevents tissues such as the nasal and airway epithelia from drying out.[5] Nasal and airway mucus is produced continuously, with most of it swallowed subconsciously, even when it is dried.[6]

Increased mucus production in the respiratory tract is a symptom of many common illnesses, such as the common cold and influenza. Hypersecretion of mucus can occur in inflammatory respiratory diseases such as respiratory allergies, asthma, and chronic bronchitis.[5] The presence of mucus in the nose and throat is normal, but increased quantities can impede comfortable breathing and must be cleared by blowing the nose or expectorating phlegm from the throat.

Diseases involving mucus[edit]

In general, nasal mucus is clear and thin, serving to filter air during inhalation. During times of infection, mucus can change color to yellow or green either as a result of trapped bacteria[7] or due to the body's reaction to viral infection.[8] The green color of mucus comes from the heme group in the iron-containing enzyme myeloperoxidase secreted by white blood cells as a cytotoxic defense during a respiratory burst.

In the case of bacterial infection, the bacterium becomes trapped in already-clogged sinuses, breeding in the moist, nutrient-rich environment. Sinusitis is an uncomfortable condition which may include congestion of mucus. A bacterial infection in sinusitis will cause discolored mucus and would respond to antibiotic treatment; viral infections typically resolve without treatment.[9] Almost all sinusitis infections are viral and antibiotics are ineffective and not recommended for treating typical cases.[10]

In the case of a viral infection such as cold or flu, the first stage and also the last stage of the infection cause the production of a clear, thin mucus in the nose or back of the throat. As the body begins to react to the virus (generally one to three days), mucus thickens and may turn yellow or green. Viral infections cannot be treated with antibiotics, and are a major avenue for their misuse. Treatment is generally symptom-based; often it is sufficient to allow the immune system to fight off the virus over time.[11]

Upper respiratory tract[edit]

Increased mucus production in the upper respiratory tract is a symptom of many common ailments, such as the common cold. Nasal mucus may be removed by blowing the nose or by using nasal irrigation. Excess nasal mucus, as with a cold or allergies, due to vascular engorgement associated with vasodilation and increased capillary permeability caused by histamines,[12] may be treated cautiously with decongestant medications. Thickening of mucus as a "rebound" effect following overuse of decongestants may produce nasal or sinus drainage problems and circumstances that promote infection.

During cold, dry seasons, the mucus lining nasal passages tends to dry out, meaning that mucous membranes must work harder, producing more mucus to keep the cavity lined. As a result, the nasal cavity can fill up with mucus. At the same time, when air is exhaled, water vapor in breath condenses as the warm air meets the colder outside temperature near the nostrils. This causes an excess amount of water to build up inside nasal cavities. In these cases, the excess fluid usually spills out externally through the nostrils.[13]

Lower respiratory tract[edit]

Excess mucus production in the bronchi and bronchioles, as may occur in asthma, bronchitis or influenza, resuls from chronic airway inflammation, and hence may be treated with anti-inflammatory medications. Impaired mucociliary clearance due to conditions such as primary ciliary dyskinesia may also result in its accumulation in the bronchi.[4] The dysregulation of mucus homesotasis is the fundamental characteristic of cystic fibrosis, an inherited disease caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, which encodes a chloride channel. This defect leads to the altered electrolyte composition of mucus, which triggers its hyperabsorption and dehydration. Such low-volume, viscous, acidic mucus causes has a reduced antimicrobial function, which facilitates bacterial colonisation.[14] The thinning of the mucus layer ultimately affects the PCL, which becomes dehydrated, compromising ciliary function and impairing mucociliary clearance.[4][14]

Digestive system[edit]

Gastric glands are composed of epithelial cells (A), chief cells (C), and parietal cells (B). The chief and parietal cells produce and secrete mucus (D) to protect the lining of the stomach (F) against the harsh pH of stomach acid. The mucus is basic, while the stomach acid (E) is acidic.

In the human digestive system, mucus is used as a lubricant for materials that must pass over membranes, e.g., food passing down the esophagus. Mucus is extremely important in the intestinal tract. It forms an essential layer in the colon and in the small intestine that helps reduce intestinal inflammation by decreasing bacterial interaction with intestinal epithelial cells.[15] A layer of mucus along the inner walls of the stomach is vital to protect the cell linings of that organ from the highly acidic environment within it.[scientific 1] Mucus is not digested in the intestinal tract. Mucus is also secreted from glands within the rectum due to stimulation of the mucous membrane within.[citation needed]

Reproductive system[edit]

In the human female reproductive system, cervical mucus prevents infection and provides lubrication during sexual intercourse. The consistency of cervical mucus varies depending on the stage of a woman's menstrual cycle. At ovulation cervical mucus is clear, runny, and conducive to sperm; post-ovulation, mucus becomes thicker and is more likely to block sperm. Several Fertility Awareness methods, such as the Creighton Model and Billings method rely on this fact to prevent or to improve the odds of pregnancy.

In the human male reproductive system, the seminal vesicles contribute up to 100% of the total volume of the semen and contain mucus, amino acids, prostaglandins, vitamin C, and fructose as the main energy source for the sperm.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Purves, William. "Why don't our digestive acids corrode our stomach linings?". Scientific American. Retrieved 6 December 2012. Second, HCl in the lumen doesn't digest the mucosa because goblet cells in the mucosa secrete large quantities of protective mucus that line the mucosal surface. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Singh, PK; Parsek, MR; Greenberg, EP; Welsh, MJ (May 2002). "A component of innate immunity prevents bacterial biofilm development". Nature. 417 (6888): 552–5. PMID 12037568. doi:10.1038/417552a. 
  2. ^ "What's a Booger?". KidsHealth. 
  3. ^ Lillehoj, ER; Kim, KC (December 2002). "Airway mucus: its components and function". Archives of Pharmacal Research. 25 (6): 770–80. PMID 12510824. 
  4. ^ a b c Mall, MA (March 2008). "Role of Cilia, Mucus, and Airway Surface Liquid in Mucociliary Dysfunction: Lessons from Mouse Models". Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery. 21 (1): 13–24. doi:10.1089/jamp.2007.0659. 
  5. ^ a b Thorton, DJ; Rousseau, K; MucGuckin, MA (2008). "Structure and function of the polymeric mucins in airways mucus". Annual Review of Physiology. 70 (44): 459–486. PMID 17850213. doi:10.1146/annurev.physiol.70.113006.100702. 
  6. ^ Gates, Stefan (2006). "Boogers". Gastronaut: Adventures in Food for the Romantic, the Foolhardy, and the Brave. pp. 68, 69. ISBN 0-15-603097-7. 
  7. ^ "Runny Nose (with green or yellow mucus)". Get Smart: Know When Antibiotics Work. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. March 9, 2006. Archived from the original on Mar 8, 2008. 
  8. ^ "Yellow-green Phlegm and Other Myths". University of Arizona campus health services. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  9. ^ Consumer Reports; American Academy of Family Physicians (April 2012), "Treating sinusitis: Don't rush to antibiotics" (PDF), Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation, Consumer Reports, retrieved August 17, 2012 
  10. ^ American Academy of Family Physicians, presented by ABIM Foundation, "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question" (PDF), Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation, American Academy of Family Physicians, retrieved August 14, 2012 
  11. ^ "Definition of Viral Infection". MedicineNet.com. Retrieved 2010-04-04. 
  12. ^ Monroe EW, Daly AF, Shalhoub RF (February 1997). "Appraisal of the validity of histamine-induced wheal and flare to predict the clinical efficacy of antihistamines". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 99 (2): S798–806. PMID 9042073. doi:10.1016/s0091-6749(97)70128-3. 
  13. ^ "Why Does Cold Weather Cause Runny Noses?". NPR. Retrieved 2011-09-22. 
  14. ^ a b Haq, Iram J; Gray, Michael A; Garnett, James P; Ward, Christopher; Brodlie, Malcolm (March 2016). "Airway surface liquid homeostasis in cystic fibrosis: pathophysiology and therapeutic targets". Thorax. 71 (3): 284–287. doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207588. 
  15. ^ Johansson, Malin E. V.; Gustafsson, Jenny K.; Sjöberg, Karolina E.; Petersson, Joel; Holm, Lena; Sjövall, Henrik; Hansson, Gunnar C. (2010-01-01). "Bacteria penetrate the inner mucus layer before inflammation in the dextran sulfate colitis model". PloS One. 5 (8): e12238. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 2923597Freely accessible. PMID 20805871. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012238. 

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