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Muhammad Azam
Azam shah.jpg
A later portrait of Crown Prince Muhammad Azam Shah
Flag of the Mughal Empire (triangular).svg 7th Mughal Emperor
Reign 14 March 1707 – 8 June 1707
Predecessor Aurangzeb
Successor Bahadur Shah I
Consort Jahanzeb Banu Begum
Wives Rahmat Banu Begum
Shahar Banu Begum
Issue Sultan Muhammad Bidar Bakht
Jawan Bakht
Sikandar Shan
Wala Jah
Wala Shan
Ali Tabar
Giti Ara Begum
Iffat Ara Begum
Najib-un-Nisa Begum
Full name
Abu'l Faaiz Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam
House House of Timur
Father Aurangzeb
Mother Dilras Banu Begum
Born (1653-06-28)June 28, 1653
Burhanpur, India
Died June 8, 1707(1707-06-08) (aged 53)
Jajau, near Agra, India
Burial Humayun's Tomb
Religion Islam

Abu'l Faaiz Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam (28 June 1653 – 8 June 1707) commonly known as Azam Shah, was the 7th Emperor of the Mughal Empire and the eldest son of Emperor Aurangzeb and his Empress consort Dilras Banu Begum. He was also the grandson of the fifth Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan.

Azam was appointed heir-apparent (Shahi Ali Jah) to his father, Emperor Aurangzeb, on 12 August 1681.[1] He served as the Viceroy of Berar Subah, Malwa, Bengal and Gujarat. He ascended to the Mughal throne at Ahmednagar upon the death of his father on 14 March 1707 as the rightful heir to his father.

Azam Shah and his three sons, Sultan Muhammad Bidar Bakht and Shahzada Jawan Bakht Bahadur and Shahzada Sikandar Shan Bahadur were later defeated and killed by Azam Shah's elder step-brother, Prince Shah Alam (later crowned Bahadur Shah I), during the Battle of Jajau on 8 June 1707.

Early life[edit]

Muhammad Azam was born on 28 June 1653, in Burhanpur, to Prince Aurangzeb and his first wife and chief consort Dilras Banu Begum, who died four years after giving birth to him. His mother was the daughter of Mirza Badi-uz-Zaman Safavi (titled Shah Nawaz Khan) and was a princess of the prominent Safavid dynasty of Iran. Therefore, Azam was not only a Timurid from his father's side, but also had in him the royal blood of the Safavid dynasty, a fact which Azam was extremely proud of and after the death of his younger brother, Prince Muhammad Akbar, the only son of Aurangzeb who could boast of being of the purest blood.

Azam's other half-brothers, Shah Alam (later Bahadur Shah I) and Kam Baksh being the sons of inferior and Hindu wives of Aurangzeb.[2] According to Niccolao Manucci, the courtiers were very impressed by Azam's royal Persian ancestry and the fact that he was the grandson of Shah Nawaz Khan Safavi.[3]

As Azam grew up, he was distinguished for his wisdom, excellence, and chivalrousness.[4] His father, Aurangzeb, used to be extremely delighted with his son's noble character and excellent manners, and thought of him as his comrade. He often used to say "Between this pair of matchless friends, a separation is imminent".[5] Azam's siblings included his elder sisters, the princesses: Zeb-un-Nissa, Zinat-un-Nissa, Zubdat-un-Nissa and his younger brother, Prince Muhammad Akbar.

Marriage[edit]

Azam was at first betrothed to be married to his cousin, Iran Dukht Rahmat Banu (titled Bibi Pari), the beloved daughter of Shaista Khan, who was Aurangzeb's maternal uncle. However, the marriage did not take place due to Bibi Pari's sudden death in 1685 at Dacca.[6] Later, Azam married his first cousin, Jahanzeb Banu Begum on 3 January 1669, she was the daughter of his eldest uncle Dara Shikoh and his aunt Nadira Banu Begum.

Jahanzeb was his chief consort and his favourite wife, being greatly loved him. She gave birth to his eldest son on 4 August 1670. He was named 'Bidar Bakht' by his grandfather, Aurangzeb.[7] Aurangzeb, throughout his life showed marks of exceptional love to these two and to their eldest son, Prince Bidar Bakht, a gallant, discreet and ever successful general, on all three of whom he used to constantly lavish gifts.[8] Bidar Bakht was Aurangzeb's favourite grandson.[9]

In a marriage of political alliance, Azam later married his third (and last) wife, Shahar Banu Begum (titled Padshah Bibi) in 1681. She was a princess of the Adil Shahi dynasty and was the daughter of King Ali Adil Shah II, the ruler of Bijapur.[10] Though Azam's love for Jahanzeb remain unchanged. For when she died in 1705, Azam was filled with great sorrow and despair which darkened the remainder of his life.[8]

History[edit]

Siege of Bijapur[edit]

Muhammad Azam with his son, Prince Bidar Bakht
Main article: Siege of Bijapur

In the year 1685 the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb dispatched his son Muhammad Azam Shah with a force of nearly 50,000 men to capture Bijapur Fort and defeat Sikandar Adil Shah the ruler of Bijapur who refused to be a vassal. The Mughals led by Muhammad Azam Shah could not make any advancements upon Bijapur Fort mainly due to the superior usage of cannon batteries on both sides. Outraged by the stalemate Aurangzeb himself arrived on September 4, 1686 and commanded the Siege of Bijapur after eight days of fighting the Mughals were victorious.

Subahdar of Bengal[edit]

Crown Prince Azam, stands before his father, Emperor Aurangzeb

Prince Azam was appointed the Governor (Subahdar) of Berar Subah, Malwa and Bengal from 1678-1701 upon the death of his predecessor, Azam Khan Koka.[11] He successfully captured the Kamarupa region in February 1679. He founded the incomplete Lalbagh Fort in Dhaka. During his administration, Mir Maula was appointed Diwan and Muluk Chand as Huzur-Navis for revenue collection.[11] Prince Azam was recalled by Aurangzeb and left Dhaka on 6 October 1679.[11] Berar Subah and Malwa were annexed by the plundering Marathas; Bengal went under administration of the Nawabs of Murshidabad.

He later became the Governor (Subahdar) of Gujarat from 1701-1706.

Accession[edit]

In third week of February 1707 in a bid to prevent a war of succession, Aurangzeb, separated Azam and his younger step-brother, Kam Baksh, whom Azam particularly loathed. He sent Azam to Malwa and Kam Baksh to Bijapur. A few days before his death he wrote farewell letters to Azam. The next morning, Azam who had tarried outside Ahmednagar instead of proceeding to Malwa, arrived at the imperial camp and conveyed his father's body for burial at his tomb at Daulatabad.[12] Azam Shah proclaimed himself Emperor and seized the throne. In the political struggles following the disputed succession, he and his son Prince Bidar Bakht were defeated and killed on 8 June 1707 at the Battle of Jajau by his step-brother, Prince Muhammad Mu'azzam, who succeeded their father to the Mughal throne.[13]

Full title[edit]

Padshah-i-Mumalik Abu'l Faaiz Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam Shah-i-Ali Jah Ghazi

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sir Jadunath Sarkar (1925). Anecdotes of Aurangzib. M.C. Sarkar & Sons. p. 21. 
  2. ^ Sir Jadunath Sarkar (1933). Studies in Aurangzib's reign: (being Studies in Mughal India, first series). Orient Longman. p. 43. 
  3. ^ Krynicki, Annie Krieger (2005). Captive Princess : Zebunissa, daughter of Emperor Aurangzeb. Oxford University Press. p. 102. ISBN 9780195798371. 
  4. ^ Elliot, Henry Miers (1959). The History of India: 1959 Volume 30 of The History of India: As Told by Its Own Historians; the Muhammadan Period; the Posthumous Papers of H. M. Elliot, Sir Henry Miers Elliot. Susil Gupta (India) Private. p. 48. 
  5. ^ Saqi Musta'idd Khan, Jadunath Sarkar (1947). Maasir-i-'Alamgiri: A History of the Emperor Aurangzib-'Alamgir. Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal. p. 320. 
  6. ^ Mohammad Shujauddin, Razia Shujauddin (1967). The Life and Times of Noor Jahan. Caravan Book House. p. 138. 
  7. ^ Commissariat, Mānekshāh Sorābshāh (1957). A History of Gujarat: Mughal period, from 1573 to 1758. Longmans, Green & Company. p. 214. 
  8. ^ a b Sir Jadunath Sarkar (1933). Studies in Aurangzib's reign: (being Studies in Mughal India, first series). Orient Longman. pp. 43, 53, 56. 
  9. ^ Sir Jadunath Sarkar. History of Aurangzib: mainly based on Persian sources, Volume 3. Orient Longman. p. 31. 
  10. ^ Sardesai, H. S. (2002). Shivaji, the Great Maratha (1. publ. ed.). Cosmo Publication. p. 789. ISBN 9788177552874. 
  11. ^ a b c Abdul Karim, Muhammad Azam (Prince), Banglapedia: The National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Retrieved: 2011-05-24
  12. ^ Eraly, Abraham (2000). Emperors of the peacock throne : the saga of the great Mughals ([Rev. ed.]. ed.). New Delhi: Penguin books. pp. 510–513. ISBN 9780141001432. 
  13. ^ Mughal dynasty
Muhammad Azam Shah
Born: 28 June 1653 Died: 8 June 1707
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Aurangzeb
Mughal Emperor
1707
Succeeded by
Bahadur Shah I
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