Abu'l Faaiz Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam (28 June 1653 – 8 June 1707) commonly known as Azam Shah, was the titular Mughal emperor, who reigned from 14 March 1707 to 8 June 1707. He was the eldest son of the sixth Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (also known as Alamgir) and his empress consort Dilras Banu Begum.
Azam Shah and his three sons, Sultan Bidar Bakht, Shahzada Jawan Bakht Bahadur and Shahzada Sikandar Shan Bahadur were later defeated and killed by Azam Shah's elder step-brother, Prince Shah Alam (later crowned Bahadur Shah I), during the Battle of Jajau on 8 June 1707 .
Muhammad Azam was born on 28 June 1653 in Burhanpur to Prince Muhi-ud-Din (later known as Aurangzeb) and his first wife and chief consort Dilras Banu Begum, who died four years after giving birth to him. His mother was the daughter of Mirza Badi-uz-Zaman Safavi (titled Shah Nawaz Khan) and was a princess of the prominent Safavid dynasty of Persia (Iran). Therefore, Azam was not only a Timurid from his father's side, but also had in him the royal blood of the Safavid dynasty, a fact which Azam was extremely proud of and after the death of his younger brother, Prince Muhammad Akbar, the only son of Aurangzeb who could boast of being of the purest blood.
Azam's other half-brothers, Shah Alam (later Bahadur Shah I) and Kam Baksh being the sons of inferior and Hindu wives of Aurangzeb. According to Niccolao Manucci, the courtiers were very impressed by Azam's royal Persian ancestry and the fact that he was the grandson of Shah Nawaz Khan Safavi.
As Azam grew up, he was distinguished for his wisdom, excellence, and chivalrousness. Aurangzeb used to be extremely delighted with his son's noble character and excellent manners, and thought of him as his comrade. He often used to say,"between this pair of matchless friends, a separation is imminent". Azam's siblings included his elder sisters, the princesses: Zeb-un-Nissa, Zinat-un-Nissa, Zubdat-un-Nissa and his younger brother, Prince Muhammad Akbar.
Jahanzeb was his chief consort and his favourite wife, being greatly loved him. She gave birth to his eldest son on 4 August 1670. He was named 'Bidar Bakht' by his grandfather. Aurangzeb, throughout his life showed marks of exceptional love to Azam and Jahanzeb (who was also his favourite daughter-in-law) and to Prince Bidar Bakht, who was a gallant, discreet and ever successful general, on all three of whom he used to constantly lavish gifts. Bidar Bakht was also Aurangzeb's favourite grandson.
In a marriage of political alliance, Azam later married his third (and last) wife, Shahar Banu Begum (titled Padshah Bibi) in 1681. She was a princess of the Adil Shahi dynasty and was the daughter of King Ali Adil Shah II, the ruler of Bijapur. Despite his two other marriages, Azam's love for Jahanzeb remain unchanged. For when she died in 1705, he was filled with great sorrow and despair which darkened the remainder of his life.
In the year 1685 the Mughal EmperorAurangzeb dispatched his son Muhammad Azam Shah with a force of nearly 50,000 men to capture Bijapur Fort and defeat Sikandar Adil Shah the ruler of Bijapur who refused to be a vassal. The Mughals led by Muhammad Azam Shah could not make any advancements upon Bijapur Fort mainly due to the superior usage of cannon batteries on both sides. Outraged by the stalemate Aurangzeb himself arrived on September 4, 1686 and commanded the Siege of Bijapur after eight days of fighting the Mughals were victorious.
In third week of February 1707 in a bid to prevent a war of succession, Aurangzeb, separated Azam and his younger step-brother, Kam Baksh, whom Azam particularly loathed. He sent Azam to Malwa and Kam Baksh to Bijapur. A few days before his death he wrote farewell letters to Azam. The next morning, Azam who had tarried outside Ahmednagar instead of proceeding to Malwa, arrived at the imperial camp and conveyed his father's body for burial at his tomb at Daulatabad. Azam Shah proclaimed himself Emperor and seized the throne. In the political struggles following the disputed succession, he and his son Prince Bidar Bakht were defeated and killed on 8 June 1707 at the Battle of Jajau by his step-brother, Prince Muhammad Mu'azzam, who succeeded their father to the Mughal throne.
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