Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
मुमताज और शाहजहाँ की प्रेम कहानी का हैरान करने वला सच… | Shah Jahan & Mumtaz Mahal Love Story
मुमताज और शाहजहाँ की प्रेम कहानी का हैरान करने वला सच… | Shah Jahan & Mumtaz Mahal Love Story
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: NEXT9NEWS हर खबर आप तक
Mumtaz Mahal Life History - Mystery Women
Mumtaz Mahal Life History - Mystery Women
Published: 2014/09/22
Channel: Vanitha Tv
Mumtaz Mahal Insan ka sar aur Janwar ka dhar
Mumtaz Mahal Insan ka sar aur Janwar ka dhar
Published: 2014/06/21
Channel: idesisms
Mumtaz Mahal 10
Mumtaz Mahal 10
Published: 2012/10/28
Channel: LAFZMedia
Mumtaz Mahal ( Hindi )
Mumtaz Mahal ( Hindi )
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: Mystery History
Do you know about Taj Mahal Love
Do you know about Taj Mahal Love
Published: 2015/05/17
Channel: DO YOU KNOW
तीन दिन देखिए Taj Mahal के तहखाने में बनीं Shahjahan और Mumtaj की असली कब्रें
तीन दिन देखिए Taj Mahal के तहखाने में बनीं Shahjahan और Mumtaj की असली कब्रें
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: NMF News
mumtaz begum
mumtaz begum
Published: 2014/06/27
Channel: 03091034
The Morning Show , 19th June 2014 , Full , With Sanam ,(Mumtaz Butt Insaan Hai Ya Janwar)
The Morning Show , 19th June 2014 , Full , With Sanam ,(Mumtaz Butt Insaan Hai Ya Janwar)
Published: 2014/06/19
Channel: Dua Malik
Taj Mahal - An Eternal Love Story - Mumtaz Tujhe Dekha
Taj Mahal - An Eternal Love Story - Mumtaz Tujhe Dekha
Published: 2009/05/15
Channel: zoom
Dunya News  Mumtaz Mahal  A distinct creature encaged in zoo gallows for the past 40 years
Dunya News Mumtaz Mahal A distinct creature encaged in zoo gallows for the past 40 years
Published: 2014/06/27
Channel: danish hameed darvaish
Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal
Published: 2013/04/03
Channel: bravofact
Mumtaz Mahal.mp4
Mumtaz Mahal.mp4
Published: 2010/12/12
Channel: ShoaibRehman1986
Mumtaz Mahal Part 1
Mumtaz Mahal Part 1
Published: 2014/03/12
Channel: Chrissy B Show
Taj Mahal India. HD The love of  Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal.
Taj Mahal India. HD The love of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal.
Published: 2014/01/31
Channel: Fenixtrip Odyssey
Mumtaz Ka Chutyapa
Mumtaz Ka Chutyapa
Published: 2016/08/25
Channel: AnTic Entertainment
News1st: Luxury vehicles parked at Mumtaz Mahal, Colombo remain a mystery
News1st: Luxury vehicles parked at Mumtaz Mahal, Colombo remain a mystery
Published: 2016/08/23
Channel: Newsfirst Sri Lanka
The Morning Show , 19th June 2014 , Part 3/5 , With Sanam ,(Mumtaz Butt Insaan Hai Ya Janwar)
The Morning Show , 19th June 2014 , Part 3/5 , With Sanam ,(Mumtaz Butt Insaan Hai Ya Janwar)
Published: 2014/06/19
Channel: Dua Malik
The untold love story of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal - Heritage Baithak by Delhi Karavan
The untold love story of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal - Heritage Baithak by Delhi Karavan
Published: 2015/10/03
Channel: Aditya Pathak
आज भी भटकती है मुमताज की आत्मा, यहां नहाने आती हैं मुमताज...?| Mumtaz Soul roaming here
आज भी भटकती है मुमताज की आत्मा, यहां नहाने आती हैं मुमताज...?| Mumtaz Soul roaming here
Published: 2017/06/19
Channel: NEXT9NEWS हर खबर आप तक
Ash To Play Mumtaz Mahal
Ash To Play Mumtaz Mahal
Published: 2010/06/19
Channel: Lehren TV
Shah Jahan & Mumtaz Mahal Mughal Portraits
Shah Jahan & Mumtaz Mahal Mughal Portraits
Published: 2014/11/16
Channel: ArtnIndia
Emperor Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal
Emperor Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal
Published: 2010/02/10
Channel: goldmananimation
Mumtaz Begum video - Pakistani Half Fox   Half Human
Mumtaz Begum video - Pakistani Half Fox Half Human 'Mumtaz Mahal Karachi zoo
Published: 2016/04/15
Channel: Neha Sharma
Mumtaz tujhe dekha... (Mahi)
Mumtaz tujhe dekha... (Mahi)
Published: 2013/04/05
Channel: Mahesh Nair
Who is the Architect Shah Jahan
Who is the Architect Shah Jahan's Taj Mahal in India | Mumtaz Mahal Full Documentary
Published: 2017/07/10
Channel: Most Popular
TAJ MAHAL 2 - Paul Horn. Mantra 1/Meditation; Mumtaz Mahal (HD)
TAJ MAHAL 2 - Paul Horn. Mantra 1/Meditation; Mumtaz Mahal (HD)
Published: 2016/04/09
Channel: davesk2
Taj Mahal History - Documentary on Eternal Love Story of Shahjahan and Mumtaj in Agra
Taj Mahal History - Documentary on Eternal Love Story of Shahjahan and Mumtaj in Agra
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: Udti Khabar
History of Taj Mahal
History of Taj Mahal
Published: 2015/06/23
Channel: Realty Merchant
Shah Jahan
Shah Jahan's 357th Urs celebrated at Taj Mahal, Agra
Published: 2012/07/05
Channel: WildFilmsIndia
Mumtaz mahal mummy inside tajmahal
Mumtaz mahal mummy inside tajmahal
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: kshitij vyas
Gaurav Tandon at Mumtaz Mahal on Weekend Out
Gaurav Tandon at Mumtaz Mahal on Weekend Out
Published: 2011/02/07
Channel: kkompanymfze
Bulandshahr postmaster builds Taj Mahal in memory of his Mumtaz
Bulandshahr postmaster builds Taj Mahal in memory of his Mumtaz
Published: 2015/08/20
Channel: NYOOOZ TV
Mumtaz Mahal Insan ka sar aur Janwar ka dhar larki , a girl with animal body in Pakistan
Mumtaz Mahal Insan ka sar aur Janwar ka dhar larki , a girl with animal body in Pakistan
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: john neenan
Taj Mahal Secret: Shah Jahan had buried Mumtaz Mahal
Taj Mahal Secret: Shah Jahan had buried Mumtaz Mahal's dead body in Burhanpur
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: RECTV MYSTERY
Mumtaz Mahal
Mumtaz Mahal
Published: 2014/08/27
Channel: Audiopedia
BANGSAWAN MUMTAZ MAHAL babak 1
BANGSAWAN MUMTAZ MAHAL babak 1
Published: 2016/11/02
Channel: adiewan
Los secretos del Taj Mahal - Documental
Los secretos del Taj Mahal - Documental
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: DOCUMENTALIA
Taj Mahal | Full Hindi Movie | Popular Hindi Movies | Bina Rai - Pradeep Kumar
Taj Mahal | Full Hindi Movie | Popular Hindi Movies | Bina Rai - Pradeep Kumar
Published: 2016/03/11
Channel: 21CenturyProduction
Dil Ki Dharkan Bana Liya-Khurshid Bano-Mumtaz Mahal (1944).flv
Dil Ki Dharkan Bana Liya-Khurshid Bano-Mumtaz Mahal (1944).flv
Published: 2012/04/03
Channel: Bhooli Bisri Aawazen
.KHURSHEED Bano~Film~MUMTAZ MAHAL-(1944)-Jo Humpe Guzarti Hai-[ Great Rarest Gem ]
.KHURSHEED Bano~Film~MUMTAZ MAHAL-(1944)-Jo Humpe Guzarti Hai-[ Great Rarest Gem ]
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: JAVED RAJA- Melody is Always Queen
Paul Horn - Inside The Taj Mahal - 03 - Mumtaz Mahal
Paul Horn - Inside The Taj Mahal - 03 - Mumtaz Mahal
Published: 2014/11/21
Channel: Downloads NOW!
Taj Mahal Secret | Most Interesting Facts about Taj Mahal | Hidden truths behind the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal Secret | Most Interesting Facts about Taj Mahal | Hidden truths behind the Taj Mahal
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: Entertainment by Slevin
The famous "Snake Coffee" served at the Mumtaz Mahal Indian Restaurant in Muscat, Oman
The famous "Snake Coffee" served at the Mumtaz Mahal Indian Restaurant in Muscat, Oman
Published: 2009/04/02
Channel: Andrew Brown
Mumtaz Mahal [1957] Mere Dil Jhoom Zara Balbir
Mumtaz Mahal [1957] Mere Dil Jhoom Zara Balbir
Published: 2013/02/28
Channel: Kelly Mistry
షాజహాన్ తన కన్న కూతురి పై కూడా......! | Taj Mahal | Shah Jahan | Secrets in Telugu | Telugu Mojo
షాజహాన్ తన కన్న కూతురి పై కూడా......! | Taj Mahal | Shah Jahan | Secrets in Telugu | Telugu Mojo
Published: 2016/10/31
Channel: Telugu Mojo
Black Taj-Mahal is just a myth: Shahajan
Black Taj-Mahal is just a myth: Shahajan'd wanted to make a Moonlight Garden there
Published: 2016/07/07
Channel: infoMAX
AE DIL-E- BEQARAR. MUMTAZ MAHAL (1957). SUDHA MALHOTRA
AE DIL-E- BEQARAR. MUMTAZ MAHAL (1957). SUDHA MALHOTRA
Published: 2012/03/05
Channel: virag dave
shah jahan and mumtaz mahal love story full story of the world
shah jahan and mumtaz mahal love story full story of the world
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: Interesting Stories!
Burhanpur Shahi Fort The real place of Mughal Family
Burhanpur Shahi Fort The real place of Mughal Family
Published: 2012/06/27
Channel: rockyrock2021
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Mumtaz Mahal
Padshah Begum
Mumtaz Mahal.jpg
An artistic depiction of Mumtaz Mahal
Empress consort of the Mughal Empire
Tenure 19 January 1628 – 17 June 1631
Born Arjumand Banu
27 April 1593
Agra, India
Died 17 June 1631(1631-06-17) (aged 38)
Burhanpur, India
Burial Taj Mahal, Agra
Spouse Shah Jahan
Issue Hur-un-Nisa Begum
Jahanara Begum
Dara Shikoh
Shah Shuja
Roshanara Begum
Aurangzeb
Ahmad Bakhsh
Surayya Banu Begum
Unnamed son
Murad Baksh
Lutfu'llah
Daulat Afzal
Husnara Begum
Gauhara Begum
House Timurid (by marriage)
Father Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan
Mother Diwanji Begum
Religion Shia Islam

Mumtaz Mahal ([mumˈt̪aːz mɛˈɦɛl]; meaning "the elect of the palace"; born Arjumand Banu) (27 April 1593 – 17 June 1631)[1] was Empress consort of the Mughal Empire from 19 January 1628 to 17 June 1631 and was the chief consort of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. The UNESCO World Heritage Site, Taj Mahal in Agra, often cited as one of the Wonders of the World,[2] was commissioned by her husband to act as her final resting place.[3]

Mumtaz Mahal was born Arjumand Banu Begum in Agra to a family of Persian nobility. She was the daughter of Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan, a wealthy Persian noble who held high office in the empire, and the niece of Nur Jahan, the wife of Emperor Jahangir and the power behind the emperor.[4] She was married at the age of 19 on 30 April 1612 to Prince Khurram,[5] later known by his regnal name, Shah Jahan, who conferred upon her the title "Mumtaz Mahal". Although betrothed to Shah Jahan since 1607, she ultimately became his second wife in 1612. Mumtaz bore her husband fourteen children, including Jahanara Begum (Shah Jahan's favorite daughter), and the Crown prince Dara Shikoh, the heir-apparent, anointed by his father, who temporarily succeeded him, until deposed by Mumtaz Mahal's sixth child, Aurangzeb, who ultimately succeeded his father as the sixth Mughal emperor.

Mumtaz Mahal died in 1631 in Burhanpur, Deccan (present-day Madhya Pradesh), during the birth of her fourteenth child, a daughter named Gauhara Begum.[6] Shah Jahan had the Taj Mahal built as a mausoleum for her, which is considered to be a monument of "undying love".[7]

Family and early life[edit]

Mumtaz Mahal was born Arjumand Banu Begum on 27 April 1593[8] in Agra to Abdul Hasan Asaf Khan and his wife Diwanji Begum, the daughter of a Persian noble, Khwaja Ghias-ud-din of Qazvin.[9] Asaf Khan was a wealthy Persian noble who held high office in the Mughal Empire. His family had come to India impoverished in 1577, when his father Mirza Ghias Beg, was taken into the service of Emperor Akbar in Agra.[4] Asaf Khan was also the older brother of Nur Jahan, making Mumtaz a niece, and later, a stepdaughter-in-law of Empress Nur Jahan, the chief consort of Emperor Jahangir, Shah Jahan's father.[10] Her older sister, Parwar Khanum, married Sheikh Farid, the son of Nawab Qutubuddin Koka, the governor of Badaun who was also the emperor Jahangir's foster brother.[11]

Mumtaz was remarkable in the field of learning and was a talented and cultured lady.[12] She was well-versed in Arabic and Persian languages and could compose poems in the latter.[13][12] She was a rare combination of modesty and candor, a woman warmly straightforward yet bemusedly self-possessed. Early in adolescence, she attracted the attention of important nobles of the realm. Jahangir must've heard about her, since he readily consented to Shah Jahan's engagement with her.[14]

Marriage[edit]

Mumtaz Mahal was betrothed to Shah Jahan on 30 January 1607,[15] when she was 13 years old at the time and he was 15. They were, however, married five years after the year of their betrothal on 30 April 1612.[15] The marriage was a love-match.[16] After their wedding celebrations, Shah Jahan, "finding her in appearance and character elect among all the women of the time", gave her the title "Mumtaz Mahal" Begum ("Chosen One of the Palace").[17] During the intervening years between their betrothal and marriage, Shah Jahan had gotten married to his first wife in 1609 and in 1617, after marrying Mumtaz, took a third wife.[18][19] But by all accounts however, Shah Jahan was so taken with Mumtaz that he showed little interest in exercising his polygamous rights with his two other wives, other than dutifully siring a child with each.[20]

According to the official court chronicler, Motamid Khan, as recorded in his Iqbal Namah-e-Jahangiri, the relationship with his other wives "had nothing more than the status of marriage. The intimacy, deep affection, attention and favour which His Majesty had for the Cradle of Excellence (Mumtaz) exceeded by a thousand times what he felt for any other."[17][21] Upon his accession to the throne in 1628, Shah Jahan designated Mumtaz as his chief empress with the title of 'Malika-i-Jahan' ("Lady of the World")[15] and 'Malika-uz-Zamani' ("Lady of the Age").[22] Shah Jahan bestowed Mumtaz with luxuries that no other empress was given. For example, no other empress' residence was as decorated as Khas Mahal (part of Agra Fort), where Mumtaz lived with Shah Jahan. It was decorated with pure gold and precious stones and had rose water fountains of its own. Each wife of the Mughal emperor was given regular monthly allowance for her gastos (housekeeping or travelling expenses). The highest allowance on record is 10 lakh rupees per year given to Mumtaz Mahal under Shah Jahan.[23]

Mumtaz had a loving marriage with Shah Jahan. Even during her lifetime, poets would extol her beauty, grace, and compassion. She was Shah Jahan's trusted companion, traveling with him all over the Mughal Empire. His trust in her was so great that he gave her the highest honour of the land — his imperial seal, the Mehr Uzaz,[24] which validated imperial decrees.[25] Mumtaz was portrayed as having no aspirations to political power, in contrast to her aunt, Empress Nur Jehan, the chief consort of Emperor Jahangir, who had wielded considerable influence in the previous reign.[26]

A great influence on him, apparently often intervening on behalf of the poor and destitute, she also enjoyed watching elephant and combat fights performed for the court. Mumtaz also patronized a number of poets, scholars and other talented persons. A noted Sanskrit poet Vansidhara Mishra was the Empress' favorite.[12] On the recommendation of her principal lady-in-waiting, Sati-un-Nissa, Mumtaz Mahal provided pensions and donations to the daughters of poor scholars, theologians, and pious men.[27] It was quite common for women of noble birth to commission architecture in the Mughal Empire, so Mumtaz devoted some time to a riverside garden in Agra, which is now known as Zahara Bagh. It is the only architectural foundation which can be connected to her patronage.[28]

Despite her frequent pregnancies, Mumtaz travelled with Shah Jahan's entourage throughout his earlier military campaigns and the subsequent rebellion against his father. She was his constant companion and trusted confidant, leading court historians to go to unheard lengths to document the intimate and erotic relationship the couple enjoyed. In their nineteen years of marriage, they had fourteen children together (eight sons and six daughters),[29] seven of whom died at birth or at a very young age.[6]

Death and aftermath[edit]

A UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Taj Mahal is the final resting place of Mumtaz Mahal and Shah Jahan.

Mumtaz Mahal died in Burhanpur on 17 June 1631 while giving birth to her fourteenth child.[6][8] She had been accompanying her husband while he was fighting a campaign in the Deccan Plateau. Her body was temporarily buried at Burhanpur in a walled pleasure garden known as Zainabad originally constructed by Shah Jahan's uncle Daniyal on the bank of the Tapti River.[30] The contemporary court chroniclers paid an unusual amount of attention to Mumtaz Mahal's death and Shah Jahan's grief at her demise. In the immediate aftermath of his bereavement, the emperor was reportedly inconsolable.[31] Apparently after her death, he went into secluded mourning for a year.[31] When he appeared again, his hair had turned white, his back was bent, and his face worn.[7] His eldest daughter, Jahanara Begum, gradually brought him out of grief and took her mother's place at court.[32]

Her personal fortune (valued at ten million rupees) was divided by Shah Jahan between Jahanara Begum, who received half and the rest of her surviving children.[33] Burhanpur was never intended by her husband as his wife's final resting spot. As a result, her body was disinterred in December 1631 and transported in a golden casket escorted by her son Shah Shuja and the deceased Empress' head lady-in-waiting back to Agra.[34] There it was interred in a small building on the banks of the Yamuna River. Shah Jahan stayed behind in Burhanpur to conclude the military campaign that had originally brought him to the region. While there, he began planning the design and construction of a suitable mausoleum and funerary garden in Agra for his wife. It was a task that would take 22 years to complete: the Taj Mahal.[35] A crater was named in her honour on asteroid 433 Eros,[36] along with another one after her husband.

The Taj Mahal[edit]

Cenotaph of Mumtaz Mahal
Tomb of Mumtaz Mahal in the Taj Mahal, alongside her husband Shah Jahan

The Taj Mahal was commissioned by Shah Jahan to be built as a mausoleum for Mumtaz Mahal. It is seen as an embodiment of undying love and marital devotion. English poet, Sir Edwin Arnold describes it as "Not a piece of architecture, as other buildings are, but the proud passion of an emperor's love wrought in living stones." The beauty of the monument is also taken as a representation of Mumtaz Mahal's beauty and this association leads many to describe Taj Mahal as feminine.[37] Since Muslim tradition forbids elaborate decorations on graves, the bodies of Mumtaz and Shah Jahan are placed in a relatively plain crypt beneath the inner chamber with their faces turned right and towards Mecca.[38]

The Ninety Nine Names of God are found as calligraphic inscriptions on the sides of the tomb of Mumtaz Mahal in the crypt including, “O Noble, O Magnificent, O Majestic, O Unique, O Eternal, O Glorious…".[39] There are many theories about the origin of the name of this tomb and one of them suggests that 'Taj' is an abbreviation of the name Mumtaz. European travelers, such as François Bernier, who observed its construction, were among the first to call it the Taj Mahal. Since it is unlikely that they came up with the name, it is suggested that they might have picked it up from the locals of Agra who called the Empress 'Taj Mahal' and thought the tomb was named after her and the name began to be used interchangeably. However, there is no firm evidence to suggest this. Shah Jahan had not intended to entomb another person in the Taj Mahal; however, Aurangzeb had Shah Jahan buried next to the tomb of Mumtaz Mahal rather than build a separate tomb for his father.[40][41] This is evident from the asymmetrical placement of Shah Jahan's grave on one side of his wife's grave which is in the centre.[42]

In popular culture[edit]

Literature
  • Nina Epton's novel Beloved Empress Mumtaz Mahal (1996) is based on the life of Mumtaz Mahal. It is a reconstruction of the life of Arjumand Banu (later Mumtaz Mahal) through the purported memoirs of her principal lady-in-waiting, Sati-un-Nissa, from the fairytale meeting of Arjumand Banu and Shah Jahan, to their marriage and eventful life together.
  • Arjumand Banu (Mumtaz Mahal) is a principal character in Indu Sundaresan's novel The Feast of Roses (2003) as well as in its sequel Shadow Princess (2010).
  • Mumtaz Mahal is a main character in Sonja Chandrachud's novel Trouble at the Taj (2011).
  • Mumtaz Mahal is a principal character in John Shors' novel Beneath a Marble Sky (2013). In the book, her daughter, Princess Jahanara, tells the extraordinary story of how the Taj Mahal came to be, describing her own life as an agent in its creation and as a witness to the fateful events surrounding its completion.
  • Mumtaz Mahal is a main character in Ruchir Gupta's novel Mistress of the Throne (2014).
Films

Music

  • Jorge Ben Jor brazilian MPB singer wrote the famous song Taj Mahal, about the love between Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Maha (1972).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pickthall, Marmaduke William; Asad, Muhammad (1 January 1975). "Islamic Culture". 49. Islamic Culture Board: 196. Retrieved 13 April 2017. 
  2. ^ Tillotson, Giles (2008). Taj Mahal. London: Profile Books. p. 11. ISBN 9781847652478. 
  3. ^ Phillips, Rhonda; Roberts, Sherma, eds. (2013). Tourism, Planning, and Community Development Community Development – Current Issues Series. Routledge. p. 128. ISBN 9781135711887. 
  4. ^ a b Thackeray, Frank W.; editors, John E. Findling, (2012). Events that formed the modern world : from the European Renaissance through the War on Terror. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. p. 254. ISBN 9781598849011. 
  5. ^ Findly, Ellison Banks (1993). Nur Jahan, empress of Mughal India. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 39. ISBN 9780195360608. 
  6. ^ a b c Kumar, Anant (January–June 2014). "Monument of Love or Symbol of Maternal Death: The Story Behind the Taj Mahal". Case Reports in Women's Health. Elsevier. 1: 4–7. doi:10.1016/j.crwh.2014.07.001. Retrieved 21 December 2015. 
  7. ^ a b Begley, Wayne E. "The Myth of the Taj Mahal and a New Theory of Its Symbolic Meaning" (PDF). The Art Bulletin. 61. 
  8. ^ a b Mullah Muhammad Saleh Kamboh: Shah Jahan-Nama, Lahore, 2013, p. 159
  9. ^ Ahmad, Moin-ud-din (1924). The Taj and Its Environments: With 8 Illus. from Photos., 1 Map, and 4 Plans. R. G. Bansal. p. 101. 
  10. ^ Abu Fazl 'Allami, Áín i Akbarí
  11. ^ "Waqf board handles Muslim rulers' property". The Times Of India. 2 October 2010. Retrieved 30 June 2011. 
  12. ^ a b c Nath, Renuka (1990). Notable Mughal and Hindu women in the 16th and 17th centuries A.D. (1. publ. in India. ed.). New Delhi: Inter-India Publ. p. 115. ISBN 9788121002417. 
  13. ^ Sharma, Sudha (2016). The Status of Muslim Women in Medieval India. SAGE Publications India. ISBN 9789351505655. Mumtaz Mahal was equally adept in Persian and Arabic as well as in writing poetry, besides being a patron of the learned and scholars. 
  14. ^ Hansen, Waldemar (1972). The peacock throne : the drama of Mogul India. (1. Indian ed., repr. ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 38. ISBN 9788120802254. 
  15. ^ a b c Findly 1993, p. 39.
  16. ^ Findly 1993, p. 164.
  17. ^ a b Koch, page 18.
  18. ^ Findly 1993, p. 308.
  19. ^ Sarker, Kobita (2007). Shah Jahan and his paradise on earth : the story of Shah Jahan's creations in Agra and Shahjahanabad in the golden days of the Mughals (1. publ. ed.). Kolkata: K.P. Bagchi & Co. p. 38. ISBN 9788170743002. 
  20. ^ Koch, Ebba (2006). The complete Taj Mahal and the riverfront gardens of Agra. Bookwise (India) Pvt. Ltd. p. 18. 
  21. ^ Qazwini. fol. 233a translated by Begley and Desai (1984), page 14.
  22. ^ Mehta, Jaswant Lal (1986). Advanced Study in the History of Medieval India. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. p. 425. ISBN 9788120710153. 
  23. ^ Findly 1993, p. 320.
  24. ^ Arya, Somraj (2013). 100 YEARS LIFE SKETCH: Pathway to Spiritual Journey. Trafford Publishing. p. 121. ISBN 9781490719603. 
  25. ^ Smith, ed. by Bonnie G. (2005). Women's history in global perspective : volume 2. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 109. ISBN 9780252072499. 
  26. ^ Koch, page 19.
  27. ^ Wade, Bonnie C. (1998). Imaging sound : an ethnomusicological study of music, art, and culture in Mughal India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 16. ISBN 9780226868400. 
  28. ^ editor, general; editors, Salma K. Jayyusi ; special; Holod, Renata; Petruccioli, Attilio; Raymond, André (2008). The city in the Islamic world. Leiden: Brill. p. 571. ISBN 9789004162402. 
  29. ^ Tillotson 2012, p. 30.
  30. ^ Preston, page 171.
  31. ^ a b Koch, page 20.
  32. ^ Robinson, Annemarie Schimmel ; translated by Corinne Attwood ; edited by Burzine K. Waghmar ; with a foreword by Francis (2005). The empire of the Great Mughals : history, art and culture (Revised ed. ed.). Lahore: Sang-E-Meel Pub. p. 151. ISBN 9781861891853. 
  33. ^ Preston, page 175.
  34. ^ Preston, page 176.
  35. ^ Britannica Student Encyclopedia. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 2014. p. 11. ISBN 9781625131720. 
  36. ^ Bergeron, edited by Jacqueline (1994). Reports on Astronomy Transactions of the International Astronomical Union Volume XXIIA. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. p. 599. ISBN 9789401111003. 
  37. ^ Tillotson 2012, p. 4.
  38. ^ Khatri, Vikas (2012). Greatest Wonders of the World. V S Publishers. p. 128. ISBN 9381588309. 
  39. ^ "Taj Mahal Calligraphy". Taj Mahal. Retrieved 2016-11-27. 
  40. ^ Tillotson 2012, p. 40.
  41. ^ Tillotson 2012, p. 69.
  42. ^ Diana; Preston, Michael (2007). Taj Mahal : passion and genius at the heart of the Moghul empire (1st U.S. ed. ed.). New York: Walker & Co. p. 268. ISBN 9780802715111. 
  43. ^ Raheja, Dinesh. "Suraiya: a success story". www.rediff.com. Retrieved 12 April 2017. 
  44. ^ Kardar, Abdul Rashid (1 January 2000). "Shahjehan". IMDB. Retrieved 12 April 2017. 
  45. ^ Kaur, Devinder Bir (December 20, 2009). "Bewitching Bina". The Tribune. Retrieved 12 April 2017. 
  46. ^ "Finding the protagonists". The Hindu. Dec 17, 2002. Retrieved 12 April 2017. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Koch, Ebba. The Complete Taj Mahal: And the Riverfront Gardens of Agra (Hardback) (First ed.). Thames & Hudson Ltd. pp. 288 pages. ISBN 0-500-34209-1. 
  • Preston, Diana & Michael (2007). A Teardrop on the Cheek of Time (Hardback) (First ed.). London: Doubleday. pp. 354 pages. ISBN 978-0-385-60947-0. 
  • Tillotson, Giles (2008). Taj Mahal. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674063655. 
  • Banks Findley, Ellison (11 Feb 1993). Nur Jahan: Empress of Mughal India. Oxford, UK: Nur Jahan : Empress of Mughal India. ISBN 9780195074888. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Mumtaz Mahal at Wikimedia Commons

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license