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NKVD Massacres across Eastern Europe
NKVD Massacres across Eastern Europe
Published: 2015/12/08
Channel: SLAVIC WORLD
21,768 murdered in Katyn massacre by the Soviet NKVD - April 1940 - Joseph Stalin Lavrentiy Beria
21,768 murdered in Katyn massacre by the Soviet NKVD - April 1940 - Joseph Stalin Lavrentiy Beria
Published: 2010/03/13
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NKVD Executions of Civilians in Lwow 1941
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Ukraine 1941 ▶ Lviv Lemberg Massacre - Execution by GPU Soviet NKVD
Ukraine 1941 ▶ Lviv Lemberg Massacre - Execution by GPU Soviet NKVD
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: GERMAN HISTORY ARCHIVE
Soviet children
Soviet children's Hospital and another NKVD massacre
Published: 2017/03/18
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Soviet NKVD Massacre of Tortured Bodies Tartu Dorpat Дерпт Estonia
Soviet NKVD Massacre of Tortured Bodies Tartu Dorpat Дерпт Estonia
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(WARNING-GRAPHIC) Katyn Forest Massacre - Soviet Union - NKVD (SECRET POLICE) Joseph Stalin.
(WARNING-GRAPHIC) Katyn Forest Massacre - Soviet Union - NKVD (SECRET POLICE) Joseph Stalin.
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Channel: Olyunka70
Katyn Forest Massacre - Execution of Polish Officers by the Soviet NKVD in 1940_WWII Documentary
Katyn Forest Massacre - Execution of Polish Officers by the Soviet NKVD in 1940_WWII Documentary
Published: 2013/03/25
Channel: The Best Film Archives
Prisoner Massacre
Prisoner Massacre
Published: 2015/03/01
Channel: Typokalypse
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KAYTAN FOREST MASSACRE POLAND / GERMAN PROPAGANDA FILM 3468
Published: 2013/08/06
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1957 British Home Office Film Katyn Forest NKVD Massacre of Polish Soldiers
1957 British Home Office Film Katyn Forest NKVD Massacre of Polish Soldiers
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Katyn Murder
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Execution of 10 American POW's
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The Man Who Personally Executed Over 7000 People in 28 Days, One at a Time
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Katyn - "Masskilling is masskilling"
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Vinnytsia massacre
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KATYN MASSACRE execution of Polish officers
KATYN MASSACRE execution of Polish officers
Published: 2009/03/30
Channel: Pampalini77
NKVD Massacre Vinnitsa Ukraine.
NKVD Massacre Vinnitsa Ukraine.
Published: 2013/08/16
Channel: Radagis2
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Russia 1943 ▶ Katyn Massacre Exhumation Mass Grave - Polish Officers Execution by NKVD
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: GERMAN HISTORY ARCHIVE
Great West Ukrainian Prison Massacre of 1941, Interview with Alexander Motyl​
Great West Ukrainian Prison Massacre of 1941, Interview with Alexander Motyl​
Published: 2016/11/22
Channel: UkeTube
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Channel: Lion brave
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Prisoner Massacre Slide Videos Sample
Published: 2015/02/15
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Joseph Stalin 15 -- Red Army War Crimes
Joseph Stalin 15 -- Red Army War Crimes
Published: 2013/03/06
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Jewish Soviet NKVD Murder of Polish Elite Katyn Forest Massacre Original Footage
Published: 2014/01/07
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Horrific Images of the 1941 Lviv Pogrom in Ukraine
Horrific Images of the 1941 Lviv Pogrom in Ukraine
Published: 2012/06/26
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Genocide in Katyn horror by soviets
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Винницкая трагедия - Mass graves in Ukraine - Vinnytsia massacre - Die Deutsche Wochenschau
Published: 2016/03/15
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Katyn massacre in Soviet union. Horror.
Katyn massacre in Soviet union. Horror.
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Did Stalin Start World War 2? The Secret Plans to Conquer Europe (2009)
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Published: 2015/02/06
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Mass Grave of Victims of NKVD Unearthed in Lutsk
Mass Grave of Victims of NKVD Unearthed in Lutsk
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Katyn Massacre by Red Army Rare Color
Katyn Massacre by Red Army Rare Color
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The Katyn massacre, a truth revealed
Published: 2012/12/12
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Katyn
Katyn
Published: 2008/09/27
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Katyn: the murders of Polish prisoners by the Soviet-Union in 1940
Katyn: the murders of Polish prisoners by the Soviet-Union in 1940
Published: 2008/12/31
Channel: maxime236
Винницкая трагедия NKVD Massacre Vinnitsa Ukraine
Винницкая трагедия NKVD Massacre Vinnitsa Ukraine
Published: 2016/03/15
Channel: Яр Бабин
Katyn Massacre , Катынский Pасстрел ,Zbrodnia katyńska, Film Dokumentalny , Czesc I
Katyn Massacre , Катынский Pасстрел ,Zbrodnia katyńska, Film Dokumentalny , Czesc I
Published: 2009/03/13
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KATYN: Slaughter and Silence     Rare Documentary True Story PT3/4
KATYN: Slaughter and Silence Rare Documentary True Story PT3/4
Published: 2011/04/10
Channel: Little Whore Records
Katyn Forest Massacre Movie Trailer
Katyn Forest Massacre Movie Trailer
Published: 2007/09/18
Channel: Maciek Ziolkowski
The Soviet Story
The Soviet Story
Published: 2017/01/11
Channel: History Tributes
Reaction to declassification of memos showing US hushed up Soviet massacre
Reaction to declassification of memos showing US hushed up Soviet massacre
Published: 2015/07/31
Channel: AP Archive
KATYN: Slaughter and Silence     Rare Documentary True Story PT1/4
KATYN: Slaughter and Silence Rare Documentary True Story PT1/4
Published: 2011/02/20
Channel: Little Whore Records
Between 15,000 and 20,000 were killed.
Between 15,000 and 20,000 were killed.
Published: 2007/09/17
Channel: RT
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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NKVD prisoner massacres
Victims of Soviet NKVD in Lvov, June 1941.jpg
Victims of Soviet NKVD in Lviv, June 1941
Date June 1941 (1941-06) - November 1941 (1941-11)
Location Occupied Poland, Ukrainian SSR, Belorussian SSR, the Baltic states, Bessarabia
Type Extrajudicial killings
Participants NKVD and NKGB (united 20 July 1941)
Deaths In excess of 100,000

The NKVD prisoner massacres were a series of mass executions carried out by the Soviet NKVD secret police during World War II against political prisoners across Eastern Europe, primarily Poland, Ukraine, the Baltic states, Bessarabia and other parts of the Soviet Union from which the Red Army was retreating following the Nazi German attack on the Soviet positions in occupied Poland, known as Operation Barbarossa.[1]

Estimates of the death toll vary between locations; nearly 9,000 in the Ukrainian SSR,[2] 20,000–30,000 in eastern Poland (now part of Western Ukraine),[1] with the total number reaching approximately 100,000 victims of extrajudicial executions in the span of a few weeks.[3]

Overview[edit]

The launch of Operation Barbarossa surprised the NKVD, whose jails and prisons in territories annexed by the Soviet Union in the aftermath of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact were crowded with political prisoners. In occupied eastern Poland, the NKVD was given the responsibility of evacuating and liquidating over 140,000 prisoners (NKVD evacuation order No. 00803). In Ukraine and Western Belarus 60,000 people were forced to evacuate on foot. By official Soviet count more than 9,800 were reportedly executed in the prisons, 1,443 were executed in the process of evacuation, 59 were killed for attempting to escape, 23 were killed by German bombs, and 1,057 died from other causes.[4]

“It was not only the numbers of the executed,” historian Yuri Boshyk writes of the murders, “but also the manner in which they died that shocked the populace. When the families of the arrested rushed to the prisons after the Soviet evacuation, they were aghast to find bodies so badly mutilated that many could not be identified. It was evident that many of the prisoners had also been tortured before death; others were killed en masse.”[5]

Approximately two thirds of the total number of 150,000 prisoners[1] were murdered; most of the rest were transported into the interior of the Soviet Union, but some were abandoned inside the prisons if there was no time to execute them and others managed to escape.[6]

The massacres[edit]

The NKVD and the Red Army killed prisoners in many places from Poland to Crimea.[7] Immediately after the start of the German invasion, the NKVD commenced the execution of large numbers of prisoners in most of their prisons, and the evacuation of the remainder in death marches.[8][9] Most of them were political prisoners, imprisoned and executed without a trial. The massacres were later documented by the occupying German authorities and used in anti-Soviet and anti-Jewish propaganda.[10][11][12] After the war and in recent years, the authorities of Germany, Poland, Belarus and Israel identified no fewer than 25 prisons whose prisoners were killed — and a much larger number of mass execution sites.[8]

Memorials
Entrance to memorial in Piatykhatky
Katyn-Kharkiv memorial
Katyn-Kharkiv memorial

Estonia[edit]

  • Tartu: on July 9, 1941, almost 250 detainees were shot in Tartu prison and the Gray House courtyard; their bodies were dumped in makeshift graves and in the prison well.[13]

Lithuania[edit]

  • Vilnius (Wilno in pre-war Poland): after the German invasion, the NKVD murdered a large number of prisoners of the infamous Lukiškės Prison.[14]
  • Rainiai near Telšiai: up to 79 political prisoners were killed in what is called the Rainiai massacre, on June 24 and the following day.
  • Pravieniškės prison, near Kaunas: in June 1941, the NKVD murdered 260 political prisoners and all Lithuanian working personnel in the prison.
  • Lithuanian prisoners were evacuated to Belarus and part of them murdered, e.g. near Chervyen’ (Červenės žudynės) and Bigosovo.

Poland[edit]

By 1941, a large part of the ethnically Polish population living under Soviet rule in the eastern half of Poland had already been deported to remote areas of the USSR. Others, including a large number of Polish civilians of other ethnicities (mostly Belarusians and Ukrainians), were held in provisional prisons in the towns of the region, where they awaited deportation either to NKVD prisons in Moscow or to the Gulag. It is estimated that out of 13 million people living in eastern Poland, roughly half a million were jailed, and more than 90% of them were men. Thus approximately 10% of adult males were imprisoned at the time of the German offensive.[8] Many died in prisons from torture or neglect.[8] Methods of torture included scalding victims in boiling water and cutting off ears, noses and fingers.[15] Timothy Snyder estimates that the NKVD shot some 9,817 imprisoned Polish citizens following the German invasion of the USSR in 1941.[16]

  • NKVD massacre sites in pre-war Poland are now in Lithuania (see above), Belarus and Ukraine (see below).

Belarus[edit]

  • Hrodna (Grodno in pre-war Poland): on June 22, 1941, the NKVD executed several dozen people at the local prison. The mass execution of the remaining 1,700 prisoners was not possible due to the advance of the German army and hurried retreat of the NKVD executioners.[17]
  • Hlybokaye (Berezwecz in pre-war Poland), near Vitebsk:[9] on June 24, the NKVD executed approximately 800 prisoners, most of them Polish citizens. Several thousands more perished during a death march to Nikolaevo near Ulla.[18]
  • Chervyen’ near Minsk: in late June, the NKVD started the evacuation of all prisons in Minsk. Between June 24 and June 27, several thousand people were killed in Cherven and during the death marches.[19]
  • Vileyka (Wilejka in pre-war Poland): several dozen people, mostly political prisoners, sick, and wounded, were executed prior to the departure of the Soviet guards on June 24, 1941.[20]

Ukraine[edit]

Victims on street of Lviv
Ethnic Germans murdered at a Ternopil GPU prison, as German troops approached, are being identified by their relatives on July 10, 1941
  • Berezhany (Brzeżany in pre-war Poland) near Ternopil (Tarnopol): between June 22 and July 1 the crew of the local NKVD prison executed approximately 300 Polish citizens, among them a large number of Ukrainians.[17]
  • Dubno (in pre-war Poland): All the prisoners in Dubno's three-story prison, including women and children, were executed.[3]
  • Ivano-Frankivsk (Stanisławów in pre-war Poland): Over 500 Polish prisoners (including 150 women with dozens of children) were shot by the NKVD and buried in several mass graves at Dem'ianiv Laz.
  • Lutsk (Łuck in pre-war Poland): After the prison was hit by German bombs, the Soviet authorities promised amnesty to all political prisoners, in order to prevent escapes. As they lined up outside they were machine-gunned by Soviet tanks. They were told: "Those still alive get up." Some 370 stood up and were forced to bury the dead, after which they were murdered as well. The Nazi foreign ministry claimed 1500 Ukrainians were killed while the SS and Nazi military intelligence claimed 4000.[2]
  • Lviv (Lwów in pre-war Poland): the massacres in this city began immediately after German attack, on June 22 and continued until June 28, culminating in the Lviv pogroms. The NKVD executed several thousand inmates in a number of provisional prisons. Among the common methods of extermination were shooting the prisoners in their cells, killing them with grenades thrown into the cells or starving them to death in the cellars. Some were simply bayoneted to death.[3] It is estimated that over 4000 people were murdered that way, while the number of survivors is estimated at approximately 270.[17] A Ukrainian uprising briefly forced the NKVD to retreat, but it soon returned to kill the remaining prisoners in their cells.[21] In the aftermath, medical students described the scene at one of the prisons: “From the courtyard, doors led to a large space, filled from top to bottom with corpses. The bottom ones were still warm. The victims were between 15 and 60 years old, but most were 20-35 years old. They laid in various poses, with open eyes and masks of terror on their faces. Among them were many women. On the left wall, three men were crucified, barely covered by clothing from their shoulders, with severed male organs. Underneath them on the floor in half-sitting, leaning positions – two nuns with those organs in their mouths. The victims of the NKVD’s sadism were killed with a shot in the mouth or the back of the head. But most were stabbed in the stomach with a bayonet. Some were naked or almost naked, others in decent street clothes. One man was in a tie, mostly likely just arrested.”[22]
  • Sambir (Sambor in pre-war Poland): 570 killed.[23]
  • Donetsk Rutchenkovo Field
  • Kharkiv tragedy - 1,200 prisoners were burned
  • Vinnitsa: over 9,000 executed.[5]
  • Simferopol: on October 31, the NKVD shot a number of people in the NKVD building and in the city prison. In Yalta, on November 4, the NKVD shot all the prisoners in the city prisons.[7]
Soviet statistics for 78 Ukrainian prisons:
  • evacuated 45 569
  • killed inside the prisons 8789
  • killed runaways 48
  • killed legally 123
  • killed illegally 55
  • left alive 3536

[24]

Russia[edit]

Balkaria[edit]

NKVD massacred about 1500 Balkar civilians in Cherek valley between November 27 and November 30, 1942.[25][26][27]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Piotrowski, Tadeusz (1998). Poland's Holocaust (Google Books preview). Jefferson: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. McFarland, 2007 reprint, (Google Books search inside). ISBN 0786429135. 
  2. ^ a b Berkhoff, Karel Cornelis (2004). Harvest of Despair. Harvard University Press via Google Books. p. 14. ISBN 0674020782. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  3. ^ a b c Robert Gellately. Lenin, Stalin, and Hitler: The Age of Social Catastrophe. Knopf, 2007 ISBN 1-4000-4005-1 p. 391
  4. ^ "Никита Васильевич Петров. История империи "Гулаг"" [History of the "Gulag" Empire]. Chapter 9. Pseudology.org. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  5. ^ a b Richard Rhodes (2002). Masters of Death: The SS-Einsatzgruppen and the Invention of the Holocaust. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-40900-9.  Barbarossa surprised the NKVD, whose jails and prisons in the annexed territories (despite earlier deportations) were crowded with political prisoners. Rather than releasing their prisoners as they hurriedly retreated during the first week of the war, the Soviet secret police killed most of them execution style. In the first week of Barbarossa NKVD prisoner executions totaled some ten thousand in western Ukraine and more than nine thousand in Vinnytsia, eastward toward Kiev. Comparable numbers of prisoners were executed in eastern Poland, Byelorussia, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia. The Soviet areas had already sustained losses numbering in the hundreds of thousands from the Stalinist purges of 1937-38. “It was not only the numbers of the executed,” historian Yuri Boshyk writes of the evacuation murders, “but also the manner in which they died that shocked the populace. When the families of the arrested rushed to the prisons after the Soviet evacuation, they were aghast to find bodies so badly mutilated that many could not be identified. It was evident that many of the prisoners had also been tortured before death; others were killed en masse.”
  6. ^ Nagorski, Andrew. The Greatest Battle. Google Books. p. 84. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  7. ^ a b Edige Kirimal, "Complete Destruction of National Groups as Groups - The Crimean Turks", from Genocide in the USSR: Studies in Group Destruction (1958), published by the Institute for the Study of the USSR in Munich.
  8. ^ a b c d Militargeschichtliches Forschungsamt (corporate author); Gottfried Schramm; Jan T. Gross; Manfred Zeidler; et al. (1997). Bernd Wegner, ed. From Peace to War: Germany, Soviet Russia and the World, 1939-1941. Berghahn Books. pp. 47–79. ISBN 1-57181-882-0. 
  9. ^ a b (in Polish) Encyklopedia PWN, Zbrodnie Sowickie W Polsce'':After the outbreak of the German-Soviet war, in June 1941, thousands of prisoners have been murdered in mass executions in prisons (among others in Lviv and Berezwecz) and during the evacuation (so-called death marches)
  10. ^ "Blutige Ouvertüre". Zeit.de. June 21, 2001. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  11. ^ "German Soldiers Write from the Soviet Union". Calvin.edu. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  12. ^ "During World War II and Afterwards". JewishGen.org. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  13. ^ Steenie Harvey, "The Dark Side of Tartu", at ExpatExchange.com
  14. ^ Bolesław Paszkowski (2005), Golgota Wschodu (The Eastern Golgotha). (in Polish)
  15. ^ Paul, Allen. Katyn: Stalin's Massacre and the Seeds of Polish Resurrection. Naval Institute Press, 1996. ISBN 1-55750-670-1 p. 155
  16. ^ Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic Books, 2010. ISBN 0-465-00239-0 p. 194
  17. ^ a b c Gałkiewicz, Anna (2001). "Informacja o śledztwach prowadzonych w OKŚZpNP w Łodzi w sprawach o zbrodnie popełnione przez funkcjonariuszy sowieckiego aparatu terroru". Biuletyn Instytut Pamięci Narodowej / IPN (in Polish) (7 - August 2001). pp. 20ff. Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  18. ^ (in Polish) Encyklopedia PWN, BEREZWECZ
  19. ^ Joanna Januszczak, Żalbiny w Czerwieni k. Mińska in: Wspólnota Polska monthly. (in Polish)
  20. ^ Julian Siedlecki (1990). Losy Polaków w ZSRR w latach 1939-1986 (in Polish). Edward Raczyński (3 ed.). London: Gryf Publications. p. 59.  as cited in: Tadeusz Krahel. "Zginęli w końcu czerwca 1941 roku". Czas Miłosierdzia. Retrieved 2006-06-02. 
  21. ^ Nagorski, Andrew. The Greatest Battle. Google Books. p. 83. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  22. ^ "Lviv museum recounts Soviet massacres", Natalia A. Feduschak. CDVR. 2010. Retrieved 6 feb 2017
  23. ^ Helena Kowalik (November 2004). "Jaki znak twój?". Przegląd (in Polish). 47/2004 (2004–11–15). 
  24. ^ Тимофеев В. Г. Уголовно-исполнительная система России: цифры, факты и события. Учебное пособие. — Чебоксары, 1999
  25. ^ Haunting history
  26. ^ Черекская трагедия.
  27. ^ Черекская трагедия 1942 года

Further reading[edit]

  • Bogdan Musical Konterrevolutionäre Elemente sind zu erschießen. Die Brutalisierung des deutsch-sowjetischen Krieges im Sommer 1941 Berlin Propyläen Verlag 349 S. 2000 ISBN 3-549-07126-4 (in German)

External links[edit]

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