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Melanie M. Acorlor: "Sign Your Name" - The Voice of Croatia - Season1 - Blind Auditions5
Melanie M. Acorlor: "Sign Your Name" - The Voice of Croatia - Season1 - Blind Auditions5
Published: 2015/02/14
Channel: The Voice Croatia
Geography Now! Croatia
Geography Now! Croatia
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: Geography Now
Tomislav Ivčić-Stop the war in Croatia (VIDEO HD)
Tomislav Ivčić-Stop the war in Croatia (VIDEO HD)
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: Glasbena Nostalgija
Croatia - the New Tourism Star of the European Union
Croatia - the New Tourism Star of the European Union
Published: 2013/04/24
Channel: Croatia Full Of life
Kids Answer "What is the Best Country in the World?"
Kids Answer "What is the Best Country in the World?"
Published: 2016/01/29
Channel: Jimmy Kimmel Live
Romantic Croatia-Music (Mini-Mix)
Romantic Croatia-Music (Mini-Mix)
Published: 2013/03/10
Channel: Damir Koren
Croatia Meaning
Croatia Meaning
Published: 2015/04/12
Channel: SDictionary
ASTONISHING Little Known Facts About Croatia
ASTONISHING Little Known Facts About Croatia
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: Talltanic
This is Croatia
This is Croatia
Published: 2016/11/14
Channel: Mr.Who
Croatian for kids DVD set - Children learning Croatian, hrvatski jezik, Croatia
Croatian for kids DVD set - Children learning Croatian, hrvatski jezik, Croatia
Published: 2013/05/10
Channel: Dino Lingo
The Iranian Origin of Croats - White Red and Green Croatia
The Iranian Origin of Croats - White Red and Green Croatia
Published: 2008/04/18
Channel: CroAryan
Did you know? - Croatia - Croatian Business Culture video
Did you know? - Croatia - Croatian Business Culture video
Published: 2013/09/24
Channel: Salford Business School
In the Name of the Family (Croatia) to the Irish people - Vote NO on May 22
In the Name of the Family (Croatia) to the Irish people - Vote NO on May 22
Published: 2015/05/11
Channel: UImeObitelji
Croatia - Zagreb
Croatia - Zagreb
Published: 2013/01/19
Channel: 1MusicFun2013
Discover wonderful and stunning CROATIA ( Best video of Croatia ever made )
Discover wonderful and stunning CROATIA ( Best video of Croatia ever made )
Published: 2013/04/20
Channel: Bosniak Croat
Fun with Names in Croatia w/ NameDrop
Fun with Names in Croatia w/ NameDrop
Published: 2016/04/14
Channel: NameDrop IO
SAILING CROATIA 2017 - Island Hopping Croatia
SAILING CROATIA 2017 - Island Hopping Croatia
Published: 2017/10/19
Channel: Nomadic Gear
Martinis Marchi Solta Croatia
Martinis Marchi Solta Croatia
Published: 2013/07/23
Channel: Eric Marcina
On the road in Croatia, long street names
On the road in Croatia, long street names
Published: 2016/05/01
Channel: julesriding
King Tomislav II of Croatia
King Tomislav II of Croatia
Published: 2009/11/19
Channel: Mad Monarchist
Slano in Croatia
Slano in Croatia
Published: 2014/07/29
Channel: Porvoolainen travel channel
Croatia Light Rock Fishing | Can you name this fish?
Croatia Light Rock Fishing | Can you name this fish?
Published: 2017/11/06
Channel: Gabriele Cecconello
CROATIA VLOG | PART 1 | Lucy Jessica Carter
CROATIA VLOG | PART 1 | Lucy Jessica Carter
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: Lucy Jessica Carter
Iron Maiden  " Hallowed Be Thy Name" . Split, Croatia.  27.07.2016
Iron Maiden " Hallowed Be Thy Name" . Split, Croatia. 27.07.2016
Published: 2016/07/29
Channel: Vlaho Mihočević
Driving directions in Croatia.   Did you catch the street name?
Driving directions in Croatia. Did you catch the street name?
Published: 2014/04/11
Channel: Amy Salgo
Bol - Croatia
Bol - Croatia
Published: 2015/01/21
Channel: THEWORLDOFTRAVEL
CROATIA VLOG | PART 3 | Lucy Jessica Carter
CROATIA VLOG | PART 3 | Lucy Jessica Carter
Published: 2017/06/18
Channel: Lucy Jessica Carter
Neuer Intro mit der Name Chlas of Croatia!!!
Neuer Intro mit der Name Chlas of Croatia!!!
Published: 2016/08/17
Channel: SplinterFreak
Google Translate Songs with Miley Cyrus
Google Translate Songs with Miley Cyrus
Published: 2017/06/15
Channel: The Tonight Show Starring Jimmy Fallon
Bruno + Lucia - Zouktime Dance Holiday Croatia 2016 - Say My Name
Bruno + Lucia - Zouktime Dance Holiday Croatia 2016 - Say My Name
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: Kuna Malik Hamad
Croatia A319 GREAT CAT III zero visibility takeoff, Zagreb-Paris [AirClips full flight series]
Croatia A319 GREAT CAT III zero visibility takeoff, Zagreb-Paris [AirClips full flight series]
Published: 2015/03/20
Channel: Air-Clips.com
Spring Break Island 2016 (Official Aftermovie, Zrce Beach, Croatia)
Spring Break Island 2016 (Official Aftermovie, Zrce Beach, Croatia)
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Spring Break Island
Bon Jovi - You Give Love A Bad Name (Live in Zagreb, Croatia) OFFICIAL VIDEO HQ audio
Bon Jovi - You Give Love A Bad Name (Live in Zagreb, Croatia) OFFICIAL VIDEO HQ audio
Published: 2011/07/16
Channel: aibgt
Croatia fans celebrate team
Croatia fans celebrate team's win over Spain
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: AP Archive
Croatia group
Croatia group
Published: 2015/06/04
Channel: European Way
Can anybody name this tune/ song/ music  from croatia
Can anybody name this tune/ song/ music from croatia
Published: 2008/07/10
Channel: Jody Knight
Nama yajna, Kirtan   Holy name evening, Bjelovar, Croatia, part 2
Nama yajna, Kirtan Holy name evening, Bjelovar, Croatia, part 2
Published: 2017/02/26
Channel: omm man
Love from Osijek, Slavonia, Croatia
Love from Osijek, Slavonia, Croatia
Published: 2012/06/25
Channel: Erekton99
Croatia - where the streets have no name
Croatia - where the streets have no name
Published: 2010/05/11
Channel: FortitudoCroatorum
Fans reax as Turkey beats Croatia on penalties
Fans reax as Turkey beats Croatia on penalties
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
WHO IS THE BEST FASHION BLOGGER IN CROATIA? | VLOG #013
WHO IS THE BEST FASHION BLOGGER IN CROATIA? | VLOG #013
Published: 2016/10/16
Channel: Adriana Kuprešak
Dalmatians Islands - Croatia
Dalmatians Islands - Croatia
Published: 2010/06/24
Channel: THEWORLDOFTRAVEL
CROATIA: PROTEST AGAINST WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATION
CROATIA: PROTEST AGAINST WAR CRIMES INVESTIGATION
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Kotor, Montenegro & Dubrovnik, Croatia:  "Down to Dalmatia" circa 1920 deRochemont & Glenn
Kotor, Montenegro & Dubrovnik, Croatia: "Down to Dalmatia" circa 1920 deRochemont & Glenn
Published: 2014/11/26
Channel: Jeff Quitney
Ram
Ram's holly name is everywhere in Croatia Zadar.
Published: 2017/03/28
Channel: Hari Das Raphael.
Flying to Croatia | Leahs life !!!
Flying to Croatia | Leahs life !!!
Published: 2017/08/25
Channel: Leahs Life !!!
Border restrictions in force at Slovenia-Croatia border
Border restrictions in force at Slovenia-Croatia border
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
Rab Island - Croatia
Rab Island - Croatia
Published: 2010/06/23
Channel: THEWORLDOFTRAVEL
Kayaking in the Zrmanja River - Croatia
Kayaking in the Zrmanja River - Croatia
Published: 2013/07/11
Channel: thiago1029
U2 - Pride (In the name of love), Zagreb, Croatia, 10.8.2009.
U2 - Pride (In the name of love), Zagreb, Croatia, 10.8.2009.
Published: 2009/08/11
Channel: akonjhodzic
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The name of Croatia (Croatian: Hrvatska) derives from Medieval Latin Croātia, itself a derivation of the native ethnonym, earlier Xъrvatъ and modern-day Croatian: Hrvat.

Earliest record[edit]

The Branimir Inscription, c. 888

The first attestation of the term is in the Latin charter of duke Trpimir from 852 AD, whose original has been lost. A copy has been preserved in a 1568 transcript; Lujo Margetić has proposed in 2002 that the document is in fact of legislative character, dating to AD 840.[1] In it is mentioned:

Dux Chroatorum iuvatus munere divino […] Regnum Chroatorum

The oldest stone inscription is the Latin Branimir Inscription (found in Šopot near Benkovac), where Duke Branimir is mentioned:

BRANIMIRO COM […] DUX CRUATORVM COGIT […]

The earliest written monument in Croatian language, containing the ethnonym *xъrvatъ (khŭrvatŭ, IPA xŭrva:tŭ) is the Baška tablet from 1100 AD, which reads: zvъnъmirъ kralъ xrъvatъskъ ("Zvonimir, king of Croats").[2]

Etymology[edit]

The Tanais Tablet B containing the word Χοροάθος (Khoroáthos).

The exact origin and meaning of the ethnonym Hrvat (Proto-Slavic *Xъrvátъ[3][4]) is poorly known and currently subject to scientific disagreement. It is believed that the word might not be of native Slavic lexical stock, but a borrowing.[5][6] Common theories from the 20th century derive it from an Iranian origin,[7] the root word being a third-century Scytho-Sarmatian form attested in the Tanais Tablets as Χοροάθος (Khoroáthos, alternate forms comprise Khoróatos and Khoroúathos).[2]

This form was used to substantiate the derivation of Proto-Slavic *xъrvatъ from the Old Persian xaraxwat-, attested by the Old Iranian toponym Harahvait-, the native name of Arachosia.[4] "Arachosia" is the Latinized form of Ancient Greek Ἀραχωσία (Arachosíā); in Old Persian inscriptions, the region is referred to as Harahuvatiš (harauvatiiša).[8] In Indo-Iranian it actually means "one that pours into ponds", which derives from the name of the mythological Sarasvati River.[9] However, although the somewhat suggestive similarity, the connection to the name of Arachosia is etymologically incorrect.[9]

The first etymological thesis about the name of the Croats stems from Constantine Porphyrogennetos (tenth century), who connected the different names of the Croats, Βελοχρωβάτοι and Χρωβάτοι (Belokhrobatoi and Khrobatoi), with the Greek word χώρα (khṓra, "land"): "Croats in Slavic language means those who have many lands". In the 13th century, Thomas the Archdeacon considered that it was connected with the name of inhabitants of the Krk isle, which he gave as Curetes, Curibantes. In the 17th century, Juraj Ratkaj found a reflexion of the verb hrvati (se) "to wrestle" in the name.[10]

In the 19th century, many different propositions were given, in order to interpret the Croatian ethnonym:

The 20th century gave rise to many new interpretations of the origin of the name of the Croats:

  • A. I. Sobolevski derived it from the Iranian words hu- "good", ravah- "space, freedom" and suffix -at-;
  • G. A. Ilyinsky derived it from *kher- "cut", as seen in the Greek word kárkharos "sharp", kharah "tough, sharp", and xorbrъ "brave";
  • Hermann Hirt saw a connection with the name of a Germanic tribe Harudes (Χαροῦδες);
  • A. Bruckner linked it with Slovak charbati se "to oppose" or via skъrv-/xъrv- to the Lithuanian šárvas "armor";
  • K. Oštir considered valid the connection with an unspecified Thraco-Illyrian word xъrvata- "hill";
  • Max Vasmer first considered it as a loanword from Old-Iranian, haurvatā "shepherd" (Avestan haurvaiti means "pasturage"), later also from Old-Iranian hu-urvatha- "friend" (also accepted by N. Zupanič).[10]
  • Zupanič additionally proposed Lezgian origin from Xhurava (community) and plural suffix -th, meaning "municipalities, communities".[12]
  • M. Budimir saw in the name a reflexion of Indo-European *skwos "gray, grayish", which in Lithuanian gave širvas;
  • S. K. Sakač linked it with the Avestan name Harahvaitī, which once signified the southwestern part of modern Afghanistan, the province Arachosia.[3]
  • G. Vernadsky considered a connection to the Chorasmí from Khwarezm,[13] while F. Dvornik a link to the Krevatades or Krevatas located in the Caucasus mentioned in the De Ceremoniis (tenth century).[13]
  • V. Miller saw in the Croatian name the Iranian hvar- "sun" and va- "bed", while P. Tedesco had a similar interpretation from Iranian huravant "sunny";
  • O. Kronsteiner derived it from Tatar-Bashkir *chr "free" and *vata "to fight, to wage war".[3]

From the Iranian theses the most accepted is the derivation by Oleg Trubachyov from *xar-va(n)t (feminine, rich in women, ruled by women), which derives from the etymology of Sarmatians name,[14][7] the Indo-Aryan *sar-ma(n)t "feminine", in both Indo-Iranian adjective suffix -ma(n)t/wa(n)t, and Indo-Aryan and the Indo-Iranian *sar- "woman", which in Iranian gives *har-.[14] According to Radoslav Katičić this thesis doesn't entirely abide with the Croatian ethnonym, as the original form was Hrъvate not Hъrvate,[15] and the vowel "a" in the desired Iranian harvat- is short, while in Slavic Hrъvate it is long.[16] Katičić concluded that of all the etymological considerations the Iranian is at least unlikely.[16][17]

The Medieval Latin name "Croātia" is derived from North-West Slavic xrovat-, by liquid metathesis from Common Slavic *xorvat-, from Proto-Slavic, i. e. Iranian, *xarwāt-.[18] The Croatian ethnonym Hrvat in the Kajkavian dialect also comes in the form Horvat, while in the Chakavian dialect in the form Harvat.[19]

Distribution[edit]

Croatian place names can be found in northern Slavic regions such as Moravia and Slovakia, along the river Saale in Germany, in Austria and Slovenia, and in the south in Greece and Albania.[20]

Thus in the Duchy of Carinthia one can find Hrvatski kotar and Chrowat along upper Mura;[21] in Middle Ages the following place names have been recorded: Krobathen, Krottendorf, Krautkogel;[21] Kraut (before Chrowat and Croat) near Spittal.[21] In the Duchy of Styria there are toponyms such as Chraberstorf and Krawerspach near Murau, Chrawat near Laas in Judendorf, Chrowat, Kchrawathof and Krawabten near Leoben.[21][22] Along middle Mura Krawerseck, Krowot near Weiz, Krobothen near Stainz and Krobathen near Straganz.[21][23]

In Slovenia there are Hrovate and Hrovača;[21] in Germany along Saale river there were Chruuati near Halle) in 901 AD, Chruuati in 981 AD,[24] Chruazis in 1012 AD,[24] Churbate in 1055 AD,[24] Grawat in 1086 AD,[24] Curewate (now Korbetha), Großkorbetha (Curuvadi and Curuuuati 881-899 AD) and Kleinkorbetha,[24] and Korbetha west of Leipzig;[21][25][3] In Moravia are Charwath[26] or Charvaty near Olomouc, in Slovakia are Chorvaty and Chrovátice near Varadka.[21] The Charvatynia near Kashubians in district Neustadt is debatable.[26]

In the southern Balkans, the Republic of Macedonia has a place named Arvati (Арвати) situated near lower Prespa;[21] in Greece there is a Charváti (Χαρβάτι) in Attica and Harvation in Argolis, as well as Charváta (Χαρβάτα) on Crete;[21][25] and Hirvati in Albania.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Antić, Sandra-Viktorija (November 22, 2002). "Fascinantno pitanje europske povijesti" [Fascinating question of European history]. Vjesnik (in Croatian). 
  2. ^ a b Gluhak 1990, p. 131.
  3. ^ a b c d Gluhak 1990, p. 130.
  4. ^ a b Gluhak 1993.
  5. ^ Gluhak 1990, p. 130–134.
  6. ^ Gluhak 1993, p. 270.
  7. ^ a b Matasović 2008, p. 44.
  8. ^ "The same region appears in the Avestan Vidēvdāt (1.12) under the indigenous dialect form Haraxvaitī- (whose -axva- is typical non-Avestan)."Schmitt, Rüdiger (1987), "Arachosia", Encyclopædia Iranica, 2, New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 246–247 
  9. ^ a b Katičić 1999, p. 12.
  10. ^ a b Gluhak 1990, p. 129f..
  11. ^ Gluhak 1990, p. 129.
  12. ^ Sakač, Stjepan K. (1937), "O kavkasko-iranskom podrijetlu Hrvata" [About Caucasus-Iranian origin of Croats], Renewed Life (in Croatian), Zagreb: Filozofski institut Družbe Isusove, 18 (1) 
  13. ^ a b Marčinko 2000, p. 184.
  14. ^ a b Gluhak 1990, p. 131f..
  15. ^ Gluhak 1990, p. 229.
  16. ^ a b Katičić 1999, p. 11.
  17. ^ Marčinko 2000, p. 193.
  18. ^ Gluhak 1990, p. 95.
  19. ^ Velagić, Zoran (1997), "Razvoj hrvatskog etnonima na sjevernohrvatskim prostorima ranog novovjekovlja" [Development of the Croatian ethnonym in the Northern-Croatian territories of the early modern period], Migration and Ethnic Themes (in Croatian), Bjelovar, 3 (1-2): 54 
  20. ^ Goldstein 2003.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Gračanin 2006, p. 85.
  22. ^ Marčinko 2000, p. 181.
  23. ^ Marčinko 2000, p. 181-182.
  24. ^ a b c d e Marčinko 2000, p. 183.
  25. ^ a b Vasmer 1941.
  26. ^ a b Marčinko 2000, p. 182.

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

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