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Dino Bios-Nanuqsaurus, The Polar T-Rex.
Dino Bios-Nanuqsaurus, The Polar T-Rex.
Published: 2015/12/22
Channel: EBLazerRex65
Science:Nanuqsaurus
Science:Nanuqsaurus
Published: 2016/06/06
Channel: The Science Guy
Nanuqsaurus: Dinosaur of the Day
Nanuqsaurus: Dinosaur of the Day
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: I Know Dino
Nanuqsaurus
Nanuqsaurus
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: PreFaN Z
Researchers find a tiny Arctic tyrannosaur: Nanuqsaurus
Researchers find a tiny Arctic tyrannosaur: Nanuqsaurus
Published: 2014/03/12
Channel: Nature Newsteam
Nanuqsaurus fact file
Nanuqsaurus fact file
Published: 2017/12/01
Channel: Paleo Freak
Dino Dana : Snakes and Dinosaurs - Episode Promo
Dino Dana : Snakes and Dinosaurs - Episode Promo
Published: 2017/07/01
Channel: Dino Kids
New Dinosaurs & Creatures in Dino Dana
New Dinosaurs & Creatures in Dino Dana
Published: 2017/06/03
Channel: Dino Kids
New nanuqsaurus stk.
New nanuqsaurus stk.
Published: 2015/01/24
Channel: spinosaurus Fan
Prehistoric News : The Pygmy Tyrannosaur
Prehistoric News : The Pygmy Tyrannosaur
Published: 2014/03/31
Channel: ThePrehistoricMaster
Walking With Dinosaurs: Prehistoric Planet - Official Trailer
Walking With Dinosaurs: Prehistoric Planet - Official Trailer
Published: 2016/04/07
Channel: GiantScreenFilmsInfo
Dino Dana : Dinomite - Episode Promo
Dino Dana : Dinomite - Episode Promo
Published: 2017/06/10
Channel: Dino Kids
Dinosaurs From the Ice?
Dinosaurs From the Ice?
Published: 2016/01/04
Channel: The Living Past
My drawings, Episode II part 3 : Cretaceous #2
My drawings, Episode II part 3 : Cretaceous #2
Published: 2016/12/29
Channel: RaptorGorilla
Mesozoic Massacre! Cryolophosaurus vs. Nanuqsaurus
Mesozoic Massacre! Cryolophosaurus vs. Nanuqsaurus
Published: 2015/01/08
Channel: NecroRaptor101
Nanuqsaurus test
Nanuqsaurus test
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: spinoraptorrex productions
Paleo Speedsketching Test 2# Nanuqsaurus
Paleo Speedsketching Test 2# Nanuqsaurus
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: Joschua Knüppe
Prehistoric Facts Special #102: Deinotherium & Nanuqsaurus
Prehistoric Facts Special #102: Deinotherium & Nanuqsaurus
Published: 2017/11/20
Channel: Christopher Grall
Dino Facts Nanuqsaurus
Dino Facts Nanuqsaurus
Published: 2017/12/24
Channel: Zandalf The Dino Guy
OBM - Dinosaur - Nanuqsaurus
OBM - Dinosaur - Nanuqsaurus
Published: 2016/12/30
Channel: Our Best Moments
Nanuqsaurus hoglundi
Nanuqsaurus hoglundi
Published: 2014/03/22
Channel: LegitEliminator
VR 360 Dinosaurs at the ROM with Dino Dana!
VR 360 Dinosaurs at the ROM with Dino Dana!
Published: 2017/05/24
Channel: Dino Kids
Top 10 Carnivorous Dinosaurs
Top 10 Carnivorous Dinosaurs
Published: 2015/06/29
Channel: LegitEliminator
NANUQSAURUS CAPTURE (episode glacial)
NANUQSAURUS CAPTURE (episode glacial)
Published: 2017/12/06
Channel: matsley systems
Nanuqsaurus: Dinosaur of the Day
Nanuqsaurus: Dinosaur of the Day
Published: 2017/12/08
Channel: Richard Vanbrunt
Dino Dana: New Season Opening
Dino Dana: New Season Opening
Published: 2017/05/08
Channel: Dino Kids
Prehistoric Art - Polar Tyrants Hunting
Prehistoric Art - Polar Tyrants Hunting
Published: 2014/04/11
Channel: Allosaurus Rex
Prehistoric File 2  Nanuqsaurus Hoglundi
Prehistoric File 2 Nanuqsaurus Hoglundi
Published: 2016/04/30
Channel: ZootycoonnerThailand
Dino Dana - Now Streaming on Amazon Prime
Dino Dana - Now Streaming on Amazon Prime
Published: 2017/06/01
Channel: Dino Kids
Nanuqsaurus custom
Nanuqsaurus custom
Published: 2016/08/12
Channel: Boba The Fett
PPBA Daspletosaurus vs Pachyrhinosaurus
PPBA Daspletosaurus vs Pachyrhinosaurus
Published: 2015/03/14
Channel: Parasaurolophus 67
T rex
T rex's little cousin 3D computer model of pygmy tyrannosaur
Published: 2014/03/18
Channel: murmer2001
Nanuqsaurus: I Know Dino Podcast Episode 11
Nanuqsaurus: I Know Dino Podcast Episode 11
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: I Know Dino
Dino Dana : Be My Dino Baby - Episode Promo
Dino Dana : Be My Dino Baby - Episode Promo
Published: 2017/07/22
Channel: Dino Kids
Nanuqsaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Nanuqsaurus - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/08/05
Channel: Wiz Science™
Dino Dana : Dino Days of Summer - Episode Promo
Dino Dana : Dino Days of Summer - Episode Promo
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: Dino Kids
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Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: Sinking Ship Kids
Gorgosaurus vs Pachyrhinosaurus!
Gorgosaurus vs Pachyrhinosaurus!
Published: 2016/12/11
Channel: Prehistoric Monsters
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Published: 2016/09/05
Channel: LinkoGame
Annonce live vendredi 25 aout 2017 a 21h40: suite conception des dinosaures du paleo movie!
Annonce live vendredi 25 aout 2017 a 21h40: suite conception des dinosaures du paleo movie!
Published: 2017/08/25
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Alaskan Tyrannosaur, Giant Turtle, Spider Walks Again! Paleo News 1/6/15
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Channel: Intoxicating Science
ILUSTRACIONES DE NATHAN E. ROGERS | PaleoArte
ILUSTRACIONES DE NATHAN E. ROGERS | PaleoArte
Published: 2017/09/07
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LKMMPRATDIIITK_MIATRIUTAMI_05161042
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Nanuqsaurus
Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 69.1 Ma
Nanuqsaurus at Perot Museum.jpg
Reconstructed skull with cast of the holotype in place, Perot Museum
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Clade: Dinosauria
Order: Saurischia
Suborder: Theropoda
Family: Tyrannosauridae
Subfamily: Tyrannosaurinae
Genus: Nanuqsaurus
Fiorillo & Tykoski, 2014
Type species
Nanuqsaurus hoglundi
Fiorillo & Tykoski, 2014

Nanuqsaurus (meaning "polar bear lizard") is an extinct genus of carnivorous tyrannosaurid theropod known from the Late Cretaceous (early Late Maastrichtian stage) Prince Creek Formation of the North Slope of Alaska, USA. It contains a single species, Nanuqsaurus hoglundi, known only from a partial skull.

Description[edit]

Restoration of the head

Nanuqsaurus has been estimated to have been about six meters (twenty feet) long, about half the length of Tyrannosaurus rex.[1] This diminutive size was postulated by Fiorillo and Tykoski as being an adaptation to its high-latitude habitat.[2]

Nanuqsaurus bears a particularly shaped ridge on its head indicating the carnivore was related to Tyrannosaurus rex. The length of the reconstructed skull, based on the proportions of related animals, is 60–70 cm (24–28 in).[2]

Classified as a tyrannosaurine, Nanuqsaurus is diagnosed by: a thin, rostrally forked, median spur of the fused parietals on the dorsal skull roof that overlaps and separates the frontals within the sagittal crest, frontals with a long, rostrally pointed process separating the prefrontal and lacrimal facets and that the first two dentary teeth are much smaller than the dentary teeth behind them.[2]

Discovery and naming[edit]

In 2006, at the Kikak-Tegoseak Quarry, in North Slope Borough in the north of Alaska, fossils were found of a medium-sized theropod, with an estimated skull length of 600–700 mm (24–28 in). These were first referred to Gorgosaurus and later to Albertosaurus. After preparation in the Perot Museum of Nature and Science (Dallas Museum of Natural History) it was recognised these represented a species new to science.[2] The holotype, DMNH 21461, has been found in a layer of the Prince Creek Formation, dated at 69.1 million years. It consists of a partial skull with a lower jaw, which were found very close together. It contains the nasal branch of the right maxilla; a partial skull roof including partial parietals, frontals and a right laterosphenoid; and the front of the left dentary.[2] The specimen is from a fully mature individual, as it has a smooth nasal contact.[2]

Nanuqsaurus was first described and named by Anthony R. Fiorillo and Ronald S. Tykoski in 2014. The type species is Nanuqsaurus hoglundi. The generic name is derived from the Iñupiaq word for "polar bear", nanuq, and the Greek word sauros, meaning "lizard". The specific name honours the philanthropist Forrest Hoglund, for his work on philanthropy and cultural institutions.[2]

Classification[edit]

Holotype fossils
Size of Nanuqsaurus (A, blue) compared to other theropods.

Nanuqsaurus is a highly derived tyrannosaurine. It is considered the sister taxon to a clade containing Tyrannosaurus, Tarbosaurus, and probably Zhuchengtyrannus. Below is a cladogram illustrating the relationships of all tyrannosaurid genera:[2]

Tyrannosauridae
Albertosaurinae

Albertosaurus



Gorgosaurus



Tyrannosaurinae


Daspletosaurus



Two Medicine taxon





Teratophoneus




Bistahieversor




Lythronax




Nanuqsaurus





Tarbosaurus



Zhuchengtyrannus




Tyrannosaurus









Paleobiology[edit]

CT slice through the partial left dentary, showing the replacement teeth present in the jaw bone

According to paleontologists, about 70 million years ago northern Alaska was a part of an ancient subcontinent called Laramidia and experienced cold weather and long periods of darkness and light, in addition to seasons in which food was not readily available. Prey availability likely would have increased suddenly during the summer, but then declined in the dark winter, leaving predators with little to eat.[2]

Fiorillo stated that this lack of food might explain Nanuqsaurus's unusually small size, as a large animal cannot survive on scarce resources. However, it was also found that the normal length of Troodon increased by 50% in Alaska, although it was speculated this was caused by a larger eye size, leading to better competition. Nanuqsaurus likely shrunk in size because of the decrease in year-round food supply, caused by the colder temperatures.[2]

Senses[edit]

The shape of its skull suggested it had an inflated area of its brain devoted to smell, which suggests the animal relied heavily on scent to hunt its prey, similar to Tyrannosaurus rex. The heightened sense of smell in tyrannosaurines suggests that it is more likely that they actively hunted prey instead of scavenging carcasses.[2]

Paleoecology[edit]

Nanuqsaurus in its environment

The holotype specimen assigned to Nanuqsaurus comes from the Maastrichtian age Prince Creek Formation. At an age of 71–68 million years ago, the Kikak-Tegoseak Quarry region Prince Creek Formation dates to the early Late Maastrichtian. An average age found in dating rocks from the formation is 69.1 ± 0.3 million years ago, so it is likely that Nanuqsaurus is from around that age. The formation is along the Colville River on the North Slope Borough, and is made up of alluvial sediments. It is one of a few dinosaurs to live at very high-latitude areas.[2]

In popular culture[edit]

In Prehistoric Planet 3D (2014), a shortened, dialogue-less, re-release of 2013's Walking With Dinosaurs 3D, the Gorgosaurus from the original film are referred to as Nanuqsaurus, though they still have the same appearance and behavior as the Gorgosaurus. This was most likely an effort to make the film's fauna more accurate, as Gorgosaurus are not currently known from Alaska (aside from a few possible remains, though these are too fragmentary to be a determinate).[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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