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National Association for the  Advancement of Colored People, Rev. SDixon2
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. SDixon2
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Alana McLaughlin3
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Alana McLaughlin3
::2012/03/09::
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. SDixon1
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. SDixon1
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Alana McLaughlin1
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Alana McLaughlin1
::2012/03/09::
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. SDixon3
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. SDixon3
::2012/05/02::
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. VDixon3
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. VDixon3
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. VDixon3
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. VDixon3
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. VDixon2
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. VDixon2
::2009/02/03::
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Dr. Charles Kimbrough and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Dr. Charles Kimbrough and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. VDixon4
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Rev. VDixon4
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People by zachary lemovitz   HD 720p
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People by zachary lemovitz HD 720p
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Alana McLaughlin2
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Alana McLaughlin2
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, BWood and RBartlett2
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, BWood and RBartlett2
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Eleciton 2008, Dr. CKimbrough2
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the Eleciton 2008, Dr. CKimbrough2
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History of the NAACP and Civil Rights
History of the NAACP and Civil Rights
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, BWood and RBartlett3
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, BWood and RBartlett3
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Dr. CKimbrough3
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, Dr. CKimbrough3
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Coal Blooded: Putting Profits Before People
Coal Blooded: Putting Profits Before People
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Colored People: A Memoir - Henry Louis Gates, Jr. on African-American History (1994)
Colored People: A Memoir - Henry Louis Gates, Jr. on African-American History (1994)
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Celebrating Diversity
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African Americans, the NAACP and the War in Korea, Dr. CKimbrough2
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NAACP Banns Conservative Blacks from Convention
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Brand Check: Do We Still Need NAACP?
Brand Check: Do We Still Need NAACP?
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Black Conservative Unloads On NAACP On Fox:
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U.S. House Rep. Mick Mulvaney attends NAACP town hall
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NAACP Chief Benjamin Jealous speaks at NPC Luncheon - Aug. 29, 2013
NAACP Chief Benjamin Jealous speaks at NPC Luncheon - Aug. 29, 2013
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NAACP paid tribute to Nelson Mandela in California
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Donald Sterling scheduled to receive NAACP
Donald Sterling scheduled to receive NAACP
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Georgia NAACP Director Rev. Francys Johnson
Georgia NAACP Director Rev. Francys Johnson
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NAACP and Environmental Pollution, BWood and RBartlett1
NAACP and Environmental Pollution, BWood and RBartlett1
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Harry Jackson: NAACP has left its Christian foundations; Liberty University... (UCNN #231)
Harry Jackson: NAACP has left its Christian foundations; Liberty University... (UCNN #231)
::2014/02/09::
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After Zimmerman verdict, NAACP calls for prayers and end to violence
After Zimmerman verdict, NAACP calls for prayers and end to violence
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United States Colored Troops and the Battle of Nashville, LLillard2
United States Colored Troops and the Battle of Nashville, LLillard2
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Angry Black Man 2 - Guilty Liberal Whites
Angry Black Man 2 - Guilty Liberal Whites
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Sharpton to NAACP: We will turn around
Sharpton to NAACP: We will turn around 'Stand Your Ground'
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NAACP:
NAACP: 'Immediate Action' on Sterling Award
::2014/04/29::
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The wise and the great: Zephanii Smith at TEDxSOAS
The wise and the great: Zephanii Smith at TEDxSOAS
::2012/05/20::
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DPN25 2/21/13 Bond Context of Civil Rights
DPN25 2/21/13 Bond Context of Civil Rights
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African Americans, NAACP and the War in Korea, Dr. CKimbrough1
African Americans, NAACP and the War in Korea, Dr. CKimbrough1
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White House 2012: Romney Addresses the NAACP
White House 2012: Romney Addresses the NAACP
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African Americans, the NAACP and the War in Korea, Dr. CKimbrough3
African Americans, the NAACP and the War in Korea, Dr. CKimbrough3
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National NAACP President visits Conn. Capitol
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Naacplogo.png
Abbreviation NAACP
Formation February 12, 1909
Purpose "To ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination."
Headquarters Baltimore, Maryland
Membership 300,000[1]
Chairwoman
Roslyn Brock
President/CEO
Cornell William Brooks
Budget $27,624,433[2]
Website naacp.org

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909.[3] Its mission is "to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate racial hatred and racial discrimination".[4] Its name, retained in accordance with tradition, uses the once common term colored people.

The NAACP bestows the annual Image Awards for achievement in the arts and entertainment, and the annual Spingarn Medals for outstanding positive achievement of any kind, on deserving black Americans. It has its headquarters in Baltimore, Maryland.[5]

Organization

The NAACP's headquarters is in Baltimore, with additional regional offices in California, New York, Michigan, Colorado, Georgia, Texas and Maryland.[6] Each regional office is responsible for coordinating the efforts of state conferences in the states included in that region. Local, youth, and college chapters organize activities for individual members.

In the U.S., the NAACP is administered by a 64-member board, led by a chairperson. The board elects one person as the president and one as chief executive officer for the organization; Benjamin Jealous is its most recent (and youngest) President, selected to replace Bruce S. Gordon, who resigned in March 2007. Civil Rights Movement activist and former Georgia State Senator Julian Bond was chairman until replaced in February 2010 by health-care administrator Roslyn Brock.[7]

Departments within the NAACP govern areas of action. Local chapters are supported by the 'Branch and Field Services' department and the 'Youth and College' department. The 'Legal' department focuses on court cases of broad application to minorities, such as systematic discrimination in employment, government, or education. The Washington, D.C., bureau is responsible for lobbying the U.S. government, and the Education Department works to improve public education at the local, state and federal levels. The goal of the Health Division is to advance health care for minorities through public policy initiatives and education.

As of 2007, the NAACP had approximately 425,000 paying and non-paying members.[8]

In 2011, the NAACP teamed up with the digital repository ProQuest to digitize and host the NAACP’s archives, which includes over 2 million pages of “internal memos, legal briefings and direct action summaries from national, legal and branch offices throughout the country — charts NAACP's work and delivers a first-hand view into crucial issues: lynching, school desegregation, and discrimination in the military, the criminal justice system, employment, and housing, among others.”[9] Modules are being added on a continual basis, with the NAACP Papers: Special Subjects being released in March 2014.[10]

Predecessor: The Niagara Movement

In 1905, a group of thirty-two prominent African-American leaders met to discuss the challenges facing people of color and possible strategies and solutions. They were particularly concerned by the Southern states' disfranchisement of blacks starting with Mississippi's passage of a new constitution in 1890. Through the early 1900s, legislatures dominated by white Democrats ratified new constitutions and laws creating barriers to voter registration and more complex election rules. Black voter registration and turnout dropped markedly in the South as a result. Men who had been voting for thirty years in the South were told they did not "qualify" to register.

Because hotels in the U.S. were segregated, the men convened in Canada at the Erie Beach Hotel[11] on the Canadian side of the Niagara River in Fort Erie, Ontario. As a result, the group came to be known as the Niagara Movement. A year later, three whites joined the group: journalist William E. Walling, social worker Mary White Ovington, and social worker Henry Moskowitz, then Associate Leader of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. They met in 1906 at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia, and in 1907 in Boston, Massachusetts.[12]

The fledgling group struggled for a time with limited resources and internal conflict, and disbanded in 1910.[13] Seven of the members of the Niagara Movement joined the Board of Directors of the NAACP, founded in 1909.[12] Although both organizations shared membership and overlapped for a time, the Niagara Movement was a separate organization. Historically it is considered to have had a more radical platform than the NAACP. The Niagara Movement was formed exclusively by African Americans. The meeting that inspired the NAACP included three European Americans.

History

Formation

The Race Riot of 1908 in Abraham Lincoln's hometown of Springfield, Illinois had highlighted the urgent need for an effective civil rights organization in the U.S. This event is often cited as the catalyst for the formation of the NAACP. Mary White Ovington, journalist William English Walling and Henry Moskowitz met in New York City in January 1909 and the NAACP was born.[14] Solicitations for support went out to more than 60 prominent Americans, and a meeting date was set for February 12, 1909. This was intended to coincide with the 100th anniversary of the birth of President Abraham Lincoln, who emancipated enslaved African Americans. While the meeting did not take place until three months later, this date is often cited as the founding date of the organization.

The NAACP was founded on February 12, 1909 by a diverse group composed of W. E. B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells, Archibald Grimké, Henry Moskowitz, Mary White Ovington, Oswald Garrison Villard, William English Walling (the last son of a former slave-holding family),[14][15] Florence Kelley, a social reformer and friend of Du Bois,[16] and Charles Edward Russell, a renowned muckraker and close friend of Walling who helped plan the NAACP and served as acting chairman of the National Negro Committee (1909), a forerunner to the NAACP.[17]

On May 30, 1909, the Niagara Movement conference took place at New York City's Henry Street Settlement House, from which an organization of more than 40 individuals emerged, calling itself the National Negro Committee. Du Bois played a key role in organizing the event and presided over the proceedings. Also in attendance was African-American journalist and anti-lynching crusader Ida B. Wells-Barnett. At its second conference on May 30, 1910, members chose as the organization's name the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and elected its first officers, who were:[18]

The NAACP was incorporated a year later in 1911. The association's charter delineated its mission:

To promote equality of rights and to eradicate caste or race prejudice among the citizens of the United States; to advance the interest of colored citizens; to secure for them impartial suffrage; and to increase their opportunities for securing justice in the courts, education for the children, employment according to their ability and complete equality before law.

The conference resulted in a more influential and diverse organization, where the leadership was predominantly white and heavily Jewish American. In fact, at its founding, the NAACP had only one African American on its executive board, Du Bois himself. It did not elect a black president until 1975, although executive directors had been African American. The Jewish community contributed greatly to the NAACP's founding and continued financing. Jewish historian Howard Sachar writes in his book A History of Jews in America of how, "In 1914, Professor Emeritus Joel Spingarn of Columbia University became chairman of the NAACP and recruited for its board such Jewish leaders as Jacob Schiff, Jacob Billikopf, and Rabbi Stephen Wise."[19] Early Jewish-American co-founders included Julius Rosenwald, Lillian Wald, Rabbi Emil G. Hirsch and Wise.

According to Pbs.org "Over the years Jews have also expressed empathy (capability to share and understand another's emotion and feelings) with the plight of Blacks. In the early 20th century, Jewish newspapers drew parallels between the Black movement out of the South and the Jews' escape from Egypt, pointing out that both Blacks and Jews lived in ghettos, and calling anti-Black riots in the South "pogroms". Stressing the similarities rather than the differences between the Jewish and Black experience in America, Jewish leaders emphasized the idea that both groups would benefit the more America moved toward a society of merit, free of religious, ethnic and racial restrictions."[20] Pbs.org further states, "The American Jewish Committee, the American Jewish Congress, and the Anti-Defamation League were central to the campaign against racial prejudice. Jews made substantial financial contributions to many civil rights organizations, including the NAACP, the Urban League, the Congress of Racial Equality, and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee. About 50 percent of the civil rights attorneys in the South during the 1960s were Jews, as were over 50 percent of the Whites who went to Mississippi in 1964 to challenge Jim Crow Laws."[20]

As a member of the Princeton chapter of the NAACP, Albert Einstein corresponded with Du Bois, and in 1946 Einstein called racism "America's worst disease".[21][22] Du Bois continued to play a pivotal role in the organization and served as editor of the association's magazine, The Crisis, which had a circulation of over 30,000.

Moorfield Storey, who was white, was the president of the NAACP from its founding to 1915. Storey was a long-time classical liberal and Grover Cleveland Democrat who advocated laissez-faire free markets, the gold standard, and anti-imperialism. Storey consistently and aggressively championed civil rights, not only for blacks but also for Native Americans and immigrants (he opposed immigration restrictions).

Anti-lynching campaigns

Jim Crow and disfranchisement

An African American drinks out of a segregated water cooler designated for "colored" patrons in 1939 at a streetcar terminal in Oklahoma City.

In its early years, the NAACP concentrated on using the courts to overturn the Jim Crow statutes that legalized racial segregation. In 1913, the NAACP organized opposition to President Woodrow Wilson's introduction of racial segregation into federal government policy, offices, and hiring.

By 1914, the group had 6,000 members and 50 branches. It was influential in winning the right of African Americans to serve as officers in World War I. Six hundred African-American officers were commissioned and 700,000 men registered for the draft. The following year, the NAACP organized a nationwide protest, with marches in numerous cities, against D. W. Griffith's silent movie Birth of a Nation, a film that glamorized the Ku Klux Klan. As a result, several cities refused to allow the film to open.

The NAACP began to lead lawsuits targeting disfranchisement and racial segregation early in its history. It played a significant part in the challenge of Guinn v. United States (1915) to Oklahoma's discriminatory grandfather clause that disfranchised most black citizens while exempting many whites from certain voter registration requirements. It persuaded the Supreme Court of the United States to rule in Buchanan v. Warley in 1917 that state and local governments cannot officially segregate African Americans into separate residential districts. The Court's opinion reflected the jurisprudence of property rights and freedom of contract as embodied in the earlier precedent it established in Lochner v. New York.

In 1916, when the NAACP was just seven years old, chairman Joel Spingarn invited James Weldon Johnson to serve as field secretary. Johnson was a former U.S. consul to Venezuela and a noted scholar and columnist. Within four years, Johnson was instrumental in increasing the NAACP's membership from 9,000 to almost 90,000. In 1920, Johnson was elected head of the organization. Over the next ten years, the NAACP escalated its lobbying and litigation efforts, becoming internationally known for its advocacy of equal rights and equal protection for the "American Negro".

The NAACP devoted much of its energy during the interwar years to fighting the lynching of blacks throughout the United States by working for legislation, lobbying and educating the public. The organization sent its field secretary Walter F. White to Phillips County, Arkansas, in October 1919, to investigate the Elaine Race Riot. More than 200 black tenant farmers were killed by roving white vigilantes and federal troops after a deputy sheriff's attack on a union meeting of sharecroppers left one white man dead. White published his report on the riot in the Chicago Daily News.[23] The NAACP organized the appeals for twelve black men sentenced to death a month later based on the fact that testimony used in their convictions was obtained by beatings and electric shocks. It gained a groundbreaking Supreme Court decision in Moore v. Dempsey 261 U.S. 86 (1923) that significantly expanded the Federal courts' oversight of the states' criminal justice systems in the years to come. White investigated eight race riots and 41 lynchings for the NAACP and directed its study Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States.[24]

NAACP leaders Henry L. Moon, Roy Wilkins, Herbert Hill, and Thurgood Marshall in 1956.

The NAACP also spent more than a decade seeking federal legislation against lynching, but Southern white Democrats voted as a block against it or used the filibuster in the Senate to block passage. Because of disfranchisement, there were no black representatives from the South in Congress. The NAACP regularly displayed a black flag stating "A Man Was Lynched Yesterday" from the window of its offices in New York to mark each lynching.

In alliance with the American Federation of Labor, the NAACP led the successful fight to prevent the nomination of John Johnston Parker to the Supreme Court, based on his support for denying the vote to blacks and his anti-labor rulings. It organized support for the Scottsboro Boys. The NAACP lost most of the internecine battles with the Communist Party and International Labor Defense over the control of those cases and the strategy to be pursued in that case.

The organization also brought litigation to challenge the "white primary" system in the South. Southern states had created white-only primaries as another way of barring blacks from the political process. Since southern states were dominated by the Democrats, the primaries were the only competitive contests. In 1944 in Smith v. Allwright, the Supreme Court ruled against the white primary. Although states had to retract legislation related to the white primaries, the legislatures soon came up with new methods to limit the franchise for blacks.

Legal Defense Fund

The board of directors of the NAACP created the Legal Defense Fund in 1939 specifically for tax purposes. It functioned as the NAACP legal department. Intimidated by the Department of the Treasury and the Internal Revenue Service, the Legal and Educational Defense Fund, Inc., became a separate legal entity in 1957, although it was clear that it was to operate in accordance with NAACP policy. After 1961 serious disputes emerged between the two organizations, creating considerable confusion in the eyes and minds of the public.[25]

Desegregation

Locals viewing the bomb-damaged home of Arthur Shores, NAACP attorney, Birmingham, Alabama, on September 5, 1963. The bomb exploded on September 4th, the previous day, injuring Shores' wife.

With the rise of private corporate litigators like the NAACP to bear the expense, civil suits became the pattern in modern civil rights litigation. The NAACP's Legal department, headed by Charles Hamilton Houston and Thurgood Marshall, undertook a campaign spanning several decades to bring about the reversal of the "separate but equal" doctrine announced by the Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson.

The NAACP's Baltimore chapter, under president Lillie Mae Carroll Jackson, challenged segregation in Maryland state professional schools by supporting the 1935 Murray v. Pearson case argued by Marshall. Houston's victory in Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada (1938) led to the formation of the NAACP Legal Defense fund in 1940.

The campaign for desegregation culminated in a unanimous 1954 Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education that held state-sponsored segregation of elementary schools was unconstitutional. Bolstered by that victory, the NAACP pushed for full desegregation throughout the South. Starting on December 5, 1955, NAACP activists, including Edgar Nixon, its local president, and Rosa Parks, who had served as the chapter's Secretary, helped organize a bus boycott in Montgomery, Alabama. This was designed to protest segregation on the city's buses, two-thirds of whose riders were black. The boycott lasted 381 days.

The State of Alabama responded by effectively barring the NAACP from operating within its borders because of its refusal to divulge a list of its members. The NAACP feared members could be fired or face violent retaliation for their activities. Although the Supreme Court eventually overturned the state's action in NAACP v. Alabama, 357 U.S. 449 (1958), the NAACP lost its leadership role in the Civil Rights Movement while it was barred from Alabama.

New organizations such as the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) rose up with different approaches to activism. These newer groups relied on direct action and mass mobilization to advance the rights of African Americans, rather than litigation and legislation. Roy Wilkins, NAACP's executive director, clashed repeatedly with Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and other civil rights leaders over questions of strategy and leadership within the movement.

The NAACP continued to use the Supreme Court's decision in Brown to press for desegregation of schools and public facilities throughout the country. Daisy Bates, president of its Arkansas state chapter, spearheaded the campaign by the Little Rock Nine to integrate the public schools in Little Rock, Arkansas.

By the mid-1960s, the NAACP had regained some of its preeminence in the Civil Rights Movement by pressing for civil rights legislation. The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom took place on August 28, 1963. That fall President John F. Kennedy sent a civil rights bill to Congress before he was assassinated.

President Lyndon B. Johnson worked hard to persuade Congress to pass a civil rights bill aimed at ending racial discrimination in employment, education and public accommodations, and succeeded in gaining passage in July 1964. He followed that with passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, which provided for protection of the franchise, with a role for federal oversight and administrators in places where voter turnout was historically low.

After Kivie Kaplan died in 1975, scientist W. Montague Cobb became President of the NAACP and served until 1982. Benjamin Hooks, a lawyer and clergyman, was elected as the NAACP's executive director in 1977, after the retirement of Roy Wilkins.

The 1990s

In the 1990s, the NAACP ran into debt. The dismissal of two leading officials further added to the picture of an organization in deep crisis.

In 1993 the NAACP's Board of Directors narrowly selected Reverend Benjamin Chavis over Reverend Jesse Jackson to fill the position of Executive Director. A controversial figure, Chavis was ousted eighteen months later by the same board that had hired him. They accused him of using NAACP funds for an out-of-court settlement in a sexual harassment lawsuit.[26] Following the dismissal of Chavis, Myrlie Evers-Williams narrowly defeated NAACP chairperson William Gibson for president in 1995, after Gibson was accused of overspending and mismanagement of the organization's funds.

In 1996 Congressman Kweisi Mfume, a Democratic Congressman from Maryland and former head of the Congressional Black Caucus, was named the organization's president. Three years later strained finances forced the organization to drastically cut its staff, from 250 in 1992 to just fifty.

In the second half of the 1990s, the organization restored its finances, permitting the NAACP National Voter Fund to launch a major get-out-the-vote offensive in the 2000 U.S. presidential elections. 10.5 million African Americans cast their ballots in the election. This was one million more than four years before,[26] and the NAACP's effort was credited by observers as playing a significant role in Democrat Al Gore's winning several states where the election was close, such as Pennsylvania and Michigan.[26]

Lee Alcorn controversy

During the 2000 Presidential election, Lee Alcorn, president of the Dallas NAACP branch, criticized Al Gore's selection of Senator Joe Lieberman for his Vice-Presidential candidate because Lieberman was Jewish. On a gospel talk radio show on station KHVN, Alcorn stated, "If we get a Jew person, then what I'm wondering is, I mean, what is this movement for, you know? Does it have anything to do with the failed peace talks?" ... "So I think we need to be very suspicious of any kind of partnerships between the Jews at that kind of level because we know that their interest primarily has to do with money and these kind of things."[27]

NAACP President Kweisi Mfume immediately suspended Alcorn and condemned his remarks. Mfume stated, "I strongly condemn those remarks. I find them to be repulsive, anti-Semitic, anti-NAACP and anti-American. Mr. Alcorn does not speak for the NAACP, its board, its staff or its membership. We are proud of our long-standing relationship with the Jewish community and I personally will not tolerate statements that run counter to the history and beliefs of the NAACP in that regard."[27]

Alcorn, who had been suspended three times in the previous five years for misconduct, subsequently resigned from the NAACP and started his own organization called the Coalition for the Advancement of Civil Rights. Alcorn criticized the NAACP, saying, "I can't support the leadership of the NAACP. Large amounts of money are being given to them by large corporations that I have a problem with."[27] Alcorn also said, "I cannot be bought. For this reason I gladly offer my resignation and my membership to the NAACP because I cannot work under these constraints."[28]

Alcorn's remarks were also condemned by the Reverend Jesse Jackson, Jewish groups and George W. Bush's rival Republican presidential campaign. Jackson said he strongly supported Lieberman's addition to the Democratic ticket, saying, "When we live our faith, we live under the law. He [Lieberman] is a firewall of exemplary behavior."[27] Al Sharpton, another prominent African-American leader, said, "The appointment of Mr. Lieberman was to be welcomed as a positive step."[29] The leaders of the American Jewish Congress praised the NAACP for its quick response, stating that: "It will take more than one bigot like Alcorn to shake the sense of fellowship of American Jews with the NAACP and black America... Our common concerns are too urgent, our history too long, our connection too sturdy, to let anything like this disturb our relationship."[30]

George W. Bush

Louisiana NAACP leads Jena 6 March.

In 2004, President George W. Bush (president from 2001–2009) declined an invitation to speak to its national convention.[31] The White House originally said the president had a schedule conflict with the NAACP convention,[32] slated for July 10–15, 2004. On July 10, 2004, however, Bush's spokesperson said that Bush had declined the invitation to speak to the NAACP because of harsh statements about him by its leaders.[32] In an interview, Bush said, "I would describe my relationship with the current leadership as basically nonexistent. You've heard the rhetoric and the names they've called me."[32] Bush also mentioned his admiration for some members of the NAACP and said he would seek to work with them "in other ways."[32]

On July 20, 2006, Bush addressed the NAACP national convention. He made a bid for increasing support by African Americans for Republicans, in the midst of a midterm election.[33][34]

Tax exempt status

The Internal Revenue Service informed the NAACP in October 2004 that it was investigating its tax-exempt status based on Julian Bond's speech at its 2004 Convention in which he criticized President George W. Bush as well as other political figures.[35][36] In general, the US Internal Revenue Code prohibits organizations granted tax-exempt status from "directly or indirectly participating in, or intervening in, any political campaign on behalf of (or in opposition to) any candidate for elective public office."[37] The NAACP denounced the investigation as retaliation for its success in increasing the number of African Americans who vote.[35][38] In August 2006, the IRS investigation concluded with the agency's finding "that the remarks did not violate the group's tax-exempt status."[39]

LGBT rights

As the American LGBT rights movement gained steam after the Stonewall riots of 1969, the NAACP became increasingly affected by the movement to suppress or deny rights to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people. Bond, while chairman of the NAACP, became an outspoken supporter of the rights of gays and lesbians, publicly stating his support for same-sex marriage. Most notably he boycotted the 2004 funeral services for Coretta Scott King on the grounds that the King children had chosen an anti-gay megachurch. This was in contradiction to their mother's longstanding support for the rights of gay and lesbian people.[40] In a 2005 speech in Richmond, Virginia, Bond stated:

African Americans... were the only Americans who were enslaved for two centuries, but we were far from the only Americans suffering discrimination then and now.... Sexual disposition parallels race. I was born this way. I have no choice. I wouldn't change it if I could. Sexuality is unchangeable.[41]

In a 2007 speech on the Martin Luther King Day Celebration at Clayton State University in Morrow, GA, Bond said, "If you don't like gay marriage, don't get gay married." His positions have pitted elements of the NAACP against religious groups in the Black Civil Rights movement who oppose gay marriage mostly within the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) who was blamed partly for the success of the 2008 gay marriage ban amendment in California.[citation needed] The NAACP became increasingly vocal in opposition against state-level constitutional amendments to ban same-sex marriage and other rights, with state NAACP leaders such as William J. Barber, II of North Carolina participating actively against (the ultimately-successful) North Carolina Amendment 1 in 2012.

On May 19, 2012, the NAACP's board of directors formally endorsed same-sex marriage as a civil right, voting 62-2 for the policy in a Miami, Florida quarterly meeting.[42][43] Benjamin Jealous, the organization's president, said of the decision, "Civil marriage is a civil right and a matter of civil law.... The NAACP's support for marriage equality is deeply rooted in the 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution and equal protection of all people." Possibly significant in the NAACP's vote was its concern with the HIV/AIDS crisis in the black community; while AIDS support organizations recommend that people live a monogamous lifestyle, the government did not recognize same-sex relationships.[44]

As a result of the endorsement of same-sex marriage, Rev. Keith Ratliff Sr. of Des Moines, Iowa resigned from the NAACP board.[45]

Current activities

Benjamin Jealous, president of the NAACP from 2008 to 2013.

Youth

This aspect of the NAACP came into existence in 1936 and now is made of over 600 groups and totaling over 30,000 individuals. The NAACP Youth & College Division is a branch of the NAACP in which youth are actively involved. The Youth Council is composed of hundreds of state, county, high school and college operations where youth (and college students) volunteer to share their voices or opinions with their peers and address issues that are local and national. Sometimes volunteer work expands to a more international scale. Committing to the Youth Council may reward young people with travel opportunities or scholarships.

In 2003, NAACP President and CEO, Kweisi Mfume, appointed Brandon Neal, the National Youth and College Division Director.[46] Currently, Stefanie L. Brown serves as the NAACP's National Youth & College Division Director. A graduate and former Student Government President at Howard University, Stefanie previously served as the National Youth Council Coordinator of the NAACP.

Youth & College Division

"The mission of the NAACP Youth & College Division shall be to inform youth of the problems affecting African Americans and other racial and ethnic minorities; to advance the economic, education, social and political status of African Americans and other racial and ethnic minorities and their harmonious cooperation with other peoples; to stimulate an appreciation of the African Diaspora and other people of color's contribution to civilization; and to develop an intelligent, militant effective youth leadership."

ACT-SO program

Since 1978 the NAACP has sponsored the Afro-Academic, Cultural, Technological and Scientific Olympics (ACT-SO) program for high school youth around the United States. The program is designed to recognize and award African American youth who demonstrate accomplishment in academics, technology, and the arts. Local chapters sponsor competitions in various categories of achievement for young people in grades 9–12. Winners of the local competitions are eligible to proceed to the national event at a convention held each summer at locations around the United States. Winners at the national competition receive national recognition along with cash awards and various prizes.[47]

Criticism

When right-wing media maven Andrew Breitbart publicized a maliciously edited video of a speech at a NAACP-sponsored Georgia event by USDA worker Shirley Sherrod, the mainstream press recycled his libel without properly vetting it, and the organization itself piled on without properly checking what had happened.[48] NAACP president and CEO has since apologized.

See also

References

  1. ^ naacp.org, 4 August 2011, "NAACP Passes Resolution Supporting Strong Clean Air Act". Accessed 8 December 2011.
  2. ^ Charitynavigator.org
  3. ^ Kwame Anthony Appiah, Henry Louis Gates, Jr., eds. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, in articles "Civil Rights Movement" by Patricia Sullivan (pp 441-455) and "National Association for the Advancement of Colored People" by Kate Tuttle (pp 1,388-1,391). ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
  4. ^ "NAACP - Our Mission". Retrieved 2008-09-05. [dead link]
  5. ^ "Contact Us". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Retrieved November 17, 2009. [dead link]
  6. ^ NAACP, "Youth and College - Advisor's Manual", p 9.
  7. ^ Ian Urbina, "Health Executive Named Chairwoman of N.A.A.C.P.", The New York Times, February 21, 2010, p. 4.
  8. ^ Texeira, Erin (March 5, 2007). "NAACP president to step down, cites discord with board". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 2007-03-04. 
  9. ^ Dempsey, Beth. "NAACP Archives Go Digital". ProQuest. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  10. ^ "History Vault: 2014 Releases". March 27, 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2014. 
  11. ^ "Niagara Movement First Annual Meeting". Retrieved 2012-11-27. 
  12. ^ a b "The story of the Niagara Movement and the N.A.A.C.P.". 
  13. ^ "Niagara Movement". W.E.B. DuBois Papers, Special Collections and University Archives W.E.B Du Bois Library, UMass, Amherst, MA. 
  14. ^ a b "NAACP Timeline". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 
  15. ^ Simkin, John. "William English Walling biography". Spartacus Educational. 
  16. ^ Kathryn Kish Sklar, "Florence Kelley", Women Building Chicago, 1790-1990: A Biographical Dictionary, Rima Lunin Schultz and Adele Hast, eds., Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, 2001, p. 463
  17. ^ Library of Congress. "NAACP Founder Charles Edward Russell". Library of Congress. 
  18. ^ "NAACP - How NAACP Began". 
  19. ^ Howard Sachar. "Working to Extend America's Freedoms: Jewish involvement in the Civil Rights movement". Excerpt from A History of Jews in America, published by Vintage Books. MyJewishLearning.com. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  20. ^ a b PBS.org
  21. ^ Fred Jerome, Rodger Taylor (2006) Einstein on Race and Racism Rutgers University Press, 2006
  22. ^ Warren Washington (2007) Odyssey in Climate Modeling, Global Warming, and Advising Five Presidents
  23. ^ Kenneth Robert Janken, Walter White: Mr. NAACP, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2006, p.49
  24. ^ Kenneth Robert Janken, Walter White: Mr. NAACP, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 2006, p.2 and 42
  25. ^ Benjamin L. Hooks, "Birth and Separation of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund," Crisis 1979 86(6): 218-220. 0011-1422
  26. ^ a b c Marable, Manning (August 2002). "The NAACP's 93rd Convention: An Assessment (archived copy)" (PDF). Along the Color Line. Archived from the original on 2007-01-06. 
  27. ^ a b c d "NAACP Leader Quits Under Fire". CBS News. August 9, 2000. 
  28. ^ "Bush campaign denounces Dallas NAACP comments on Lieberman". CNN. August 9, 2000. 
  29. ^ Duncan Campbell (August 10, 2000). "Black leader suspended for anti-semitic Lieberman slur". London: The Guardian. 
  30. ^ AJCongress on Statement by NAACP Chapter Director on Lieberman, American Jewish Congress (AJC), August 9, 2000.
  31. ^ "Editorial: No mutual respect: Mr. Bush unwisely forgoes NAACP meeting". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 2004-07-17. 
  32. ^ a b c d Allen, Mike (2004-07-10). "Bush Criticizes NAACP's Leadership". The Washington Post. p. A05. 
  33. ^ "President Bush addresses the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's (NAACP) national convention" (video). FORA.tv. 2006-07-20. 
  34. ^ Bush invokes civil rights in NAACP speech, Associated Press (reprinted by MSNBC.com), July 20, 2006. (retrieved on October 14, 2008).
  35. ^ a b Janofsky, Michael (2004-10-29). "Citing July Speech, I.R.S. Decides to Review N.A.A.C.P.". The New York Times. 
  36. ^ "NAACP chairman calls for Bush's ouster". CNN. 2004-07-13. 
  37. ^ "Election Year Activities and the Prohibition on Political Campaign Intervention for Section 501(c)(3) Organizations". Internal Revenue Service. February 2006. 
  38. ^ Anderson, Makebra M (2005-02-08). "NAACP says IRS has no "Legitimate" Claim". National Newspaper Publishers Association (Amsterdam News). 
  39. ^ Fears, Darryl (2006-09-01). "IRS Ends 2-Year Probe Of NAACP's Tax Status". The Washington Post. 
  40. ^ Black Voices Q&A 09/25/06 http://www.blackvoices.com/black_news/canvas_directory_headlines_features/_a/bv-qanda-with-julian-bond/20060908115409990002
  41. ^ "NAACP chair says 'gay rights are civil rights'". Washington Blade. 2004-04-08. Archived from the original on March 21, 2006. Retrieved 2009-09-24. 
  42. ^ Michael Barbaro (May 19, 2012). "N.A.A.C.P. Endorses Same-Sex Marriage". The Caucus/The New York Times. 
  43. ^ "NAACP Passes Resolution in Support of Marriage Equality". NAACP. May 19, 2012. 
  44. ^ Castellanos, Dalina (May 19, 2012). "NAACP endorses same-sex marriage, says it's a civil right". Los Angeles Times. 
  45. ^ After NAACP's Gay Marriage Stance, Discord And Discussion. NPR (2012-06-08). Retrieved on 2014-05-24.
  46. ^ Jet Magazine, April 2003
  47. ^ "NAACP Proudly Announces 30th Anniversary ACT-SO Medalists". National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  48. ^ Rich, Frank (May 28, 2012). "Post-Racial Farce". New York. 

Further reading

  • Alexander, Shawn Leigh. An Army of Lions: The Civil Rights Struggle Before the NAACP. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012.
  • Dalfiume, Richard. "The Forgotten Years of the Negro Revolution," Journal of American History 55 (June 1969): 99-100. fulltext in JSTOR
  • Fleming, Cynthia Griggs. In the Shadow of Selma: The Continuing Struggle for Civil Rights in the Rural South. Rowman and Littlefield, 2004.
  • Goings, Kenneth W. The NAACP Comes of Age: The Defeat of Judge John J. Parker. (1990).
  • Hughes, Langston. Fight for Freedom: The Story of the NAACP. (1962)
  • Janken, Kenneth Robert. White: The Biography of Walter White, Mr. NAACP. New York: The New Press, 2003.
  • Jonas, Gilbert S. Freedom's Sword: The NAACP and the Struggle against Racism in America, 1909-1969. (Routledge, 2005).
  • Lewis, David Levering. W.E.B. DuBois. In Two Volumes. (1994, 2001).
  • Mosnier, L. Joseph. Crafting Law in the Second Reconstruction: Julius Chambers, the NAACP Legal Defense Fund, and Title VII. University of North Carolina, 2005.
  • Ross, Barbara Joyce. J. E. Spingarn and the Rise of the NAACP, 1911-1939. (1972)
  • Sartain, Lee. Borders of Equality: The NAACP and the Baltimore Civil Rights Struggle, 1914-1970. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2013.
  • St. James, Warren D. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People: A Case Study in Pressure Groups. (1958)
  • Schneider, Mark Robert. We Return Fighting: The Civil Rights Movement in the Jazz Age. (2001)
  • Sullivan, Patricia. Lift Every Voice: The NAACP and the Making of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: The New Press, 2010.
  • Topping, Simon; "'Supporting Our Friends and Defeating Our Enemies': Militancy and Nonpartisanship in the NAACP, 1936-1948," Journal of African American History, Vol. 89, 2004 in JSTOR
  • Verney, Kevern and Lee Sartain, eds. Long Is the Way and Hard: One Hundred Years of the NAACP. (2009), 16 new essays by scholars
  • Zangrando, Robert. The NAACP Crusade Against Lynching, 1909-1950. (1980)

External links

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