National City Corporation was a regional bank holding company based in Cleveland, Ohio, USA, founded in 1845; it was once one of the ten largest banks in America in terms of deposits, mortgages and home equity lines of credit. Subsidiary National City Mortgage is credited for doing the first mortgage in America. The company operated through an extensive banking network primarily in Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Florida, and Wisconsin, and also served customers in selected markets nationally. Its core businesses included commercial and retail banking, mortgage financing and servicing, consumer finance, and asset management. The bank reached out to customers primarily through mass advertising and offered comprehensive banking services online. In its last years, the company was commonly known in the media by the abbreviated NatCity, with its investment banking arm even bearing the official name NatCity Investments.
In 2007, National City Corp. ranked number 188 on the Fortune 500 list, and 9th in terms of revenue in the U.S. commercial banking industry with total assets of about $140 billion.
PNC Financial Services announced October 24, 2008, its purchase of National City for about $5.2 billion in stock with funds from the U.S. Treasury. At the time of the acquisition, National City had been the 7th largest bank in the United States, two spots ahead of acquirer PNC. The deal was finalized on December 31, 2008, and the National City name was retired on June 14, 2010.
On June 10, 2008, National City Corp. confirmed that it had reached agreements with regulators "regarding capital levels, risk-management practices and other aspects of its business." The company stated that there had been no material developments in these areas since these memorandums of understanding were signed in April and May 2008.
National City Bank was founded on May 17, 1845, when a group of Cleveland businessmen pooled $50,000 to organize the City Bank of Cleveland, the first bank opened under the Ohio Bank Act of 1845 in a small town with no gas, electricity, public waterworks, or railroad. Reuben Sheldon and Theodoric C. Severance, formerly of the Fireman's Insurance Company, organized The City Bank of Cleveland. The city's only bank at the time, opened its doors to the public at No. 52 Superior Street.
In April 1973, National City Corporation was formed as the holding company for the National City Bank of Cleveland to allow the company to expand outside of Cuyahoga County through the purchase of other banks.
In February 1992, National City announced that all member banks would change over to operate under the National City name within three years. Up to this time, all acquired banks had continued to operate under the same name that they were using at the time of their acquisition. This change would allow a unified brand through the company and simplify advertizing.
In March 1975, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Cleveland-based Bank of Cleveland for an undisclosed amount. The acquisition was completed in January 1976.
In December 1975, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Elyria-based First National Bank of Elyria for $4.6 million in cash. The acquisition was completed in August 1976.
In April 1977, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Dayton-based First National Bank of Dayton for $40 million.
In July 1979, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Norwalk-based Huron County Banking Company for an undisclosed price. The acquisition was completed in May 1979.
In September 1981, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Akron-based Goodyear Bank for an undisclosed price.
In December 1981, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Toledo-based Ohio Citizens Bancorp for $64 million in cash and notes.
In March 1984, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Columbus-based BancOhio Bancorp for $310 million in stock and cash.
In May 1986, the troubled Cleveland-based Broadview Savings & Loan Company announced that it was selling 18 of its 38 offices to National City for $24 million.
In June 1989, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the insolvent Dayton-based Gem Savings Association without the assistance of Federal aid. The acquisition was completed in January 1990.
In April 1993, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Youngstown-based Ohio Bancorp for $200 million in stock and cash and integrating it into National City Bank, Northeast. The acquisition was completed in October 1993.
In February 2004, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Cincinnati-based Provident Financial Group, with its lead bank Provident Bank and offices located in Southwestern Ohio and Northern Kentucky, for $2.1 billion in stock. The acquisition was completed in July 2004.
In June 2004, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Wooster-based Wayne Bancorp for $180 million in cash. The acquisition was completed in October 2004.
In January 1988, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Louisville-based First Kentucky National Corporation for $660 million in stock. The acquisition was completed in July 1988 and it gave National City a strong presence in Kentucky plus a token presence in southern Indiana.
In February 1993, First Kentucky National Corp., a wholly own subsidiary of National City Corp., was renamed National City Bank Kentucky.
In January 1995, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Lexington-based United Bancorp of Kentucky Inc. for $63 million in stock.
In October 1991, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Indianapolis-based Merchants National Corporation for $604 million in stock. The acquisition was completed in May 1992.
In July 1994, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Kokomo-based Central Indiana Bancorp for $48 million in stock.
In January 1998, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Fort Wayne-based Fort Wayne National Corporation for $800 million in stock. The acquisition was completed in March 1998.
In December 1997, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Kalamazoo-based First of America Bank Corporation, with offices in Michigan, Illinois and Indiana, for $7.1 billion in stock. The acquisition was completed in March 1998.
In November 2003, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the St. Louis-based Allegiant Bancorp for $475 million in stock. The acquisition was completed in April 2004 for $500 million in stock.
In May 2007, National City Corp. announced that it was acquiring the Clarendon Hills-based MAF Bancorp, with offices in Chicago and Milwaukee, for $1.9 billion in stock. The acquisition was completed in September 2007.
National City went on an acquisition spree from 2004 through 2008, headed by its $2.1 billion purchase of Cincinnati-based Provident Financial Group. Provident Financial Group's banking arm, Provident Bank, specialized in warehouse lending facilities whereby it extended commercial credit lines to mortgage banking firms so that the mortgage banking firms could make loans to their customers and either keep those loans or sell them in the secondary market to government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) or other institutional investors. After the acquisition, National City renamed the division National City Warehouse Resources. The warehouse lending division was a profit center and did not contribute to the Bank's downfall. In addition, in 2005, National City acquired Allegiant Bancorp to secure a presence in the St. Louis, Missouri market. In 2006, they acquired Fidelity Bankshares Inc. for an estimated $1 billion deal that was half cash, half stock. The bank also acquired Harbor Florida Bancshares Inc. through a $1.1 billion stock deal, with both acquired banks located in Florida; these acquisitions gave National City $7.4 billion of assets and 94 branches in Florida.
In May 2007, National City announced the purchase of MAF Bancorp Inc., the holding company for MidAmerica Bank. As of June 30, 2006, MidAmerica Bank had the 9th-ranked market share in the Chicago metropolitan area (Chicago-Joliet-Naperville) at 2.18%. Following the merger using the same dataset, the combined National City and MidAmerica Banks were expected to rank 4th in the Chicago market with a market share of 3.96% and deposits of more than $10 billion.
In the late 1990s, under former CEO David Daberko, National City began a strategy to increase the yields on it assets. In 1999, the company purchased First Franklin Financial Corp., a large subprime mortgage lender. Instead of selling the loans, as most mortgage companies do, National City retained many of the loans to enhance its net interest spreads. It also aggressively originated loans brought to the company by third-party mortgage brokers, as well as originating a large number of home equity loans. The amount of residential mortgage loans grew rapidly and came to exceed the level of commercial loans. By 2003, National City was the sixth-largest mortgage lender in the country. The company did sell its First Franklin Financial subsidiary in December 2006, but retained a large volume of loans that had been originated by the subsidiary. Management failed to recognize the extent of problems in the subprime market and did not take sufficient aggressive actions to reduce its real estate mortgage portfolio. National City subsequently made several other strategic mistakes, including buying back $3 billion of its stock in early 2007, thereby reducing its level of capital, and expanding into the Florida market in late 2006, just before the real estate market there went into a severe decline. As the subprime mortgage market began going into free fall in mid-2007 and continued into 2008, loan losses mounted. In the third quarter of 2007, the company suffered a net loss of $19 million. By the second quarter of 2008, the company had a net loss of $1.8 billion.
The acquisition was a stock purchase transaction to be completed before the end of 2008. National City would be merged into PNC, and the National City brand would be dissolved. The deal was approved by shareholders of both banks on December 23, 2008 and the acquisition was completed on December 31.
Although employees at the branches being sold off were retained, there were still heavy layoffs at National City's headquarters in Cleveland. PNC originally stated that 5,800 employees would be laid off corporate-wide across the new organization. In actuality, over 15,000 employees were laid off, all of them from the previous National City, with PNC losing customer and deposit market share in the Cleveland area as a result. National City Bank had been the largest bank in the Cleveland market and held the largest deposit share of all of its competitors. After the PNC merger, crosstown rival KeyBank became the largest bank in Cleveland, gaining a significant share of deposits once held by National City; KeyBank would later buy First Niagara and move into PNC's home market of Pittsburgh with the former National City branches PNC had to sell off.
The National City name lasted into 2010, since it would take PNC some time to integrate the two banks together. Despite the branch closures and the sale of others to First Niagara and Emclaire, PNC still ended up with a 46% market share in Pittsburgh, over three times the market share of second-place Citizens Financial Group, with 13%. PNC began to convert the National City branches that were not sold off or closed on November 7, 2009, starting with Pennsylvania (where the two had the most overlap), Florida, and the Youngstown & Steubenville, Ohio regions. The conversion of National City to PNC was completed in June 2010, in the following phases:
1845: Reuben Sheldon and Theodoric C. Severance, formerly of the Fireman's Insurance Company, organize The City Bank of Cleveland.
1865: City Bank of Cleveland becomes National City Bank of Cleveland, receiving a national charter that includes the right to print federal money. This responsibility lasts until the 20th century, when the Federal Reserve assumes the function of printing all U.S. currency.
1881: National City Bank records more than $1 million in assets.
1901: National City Bank passes $2 million in assets.
1912–1913: National City Bank's assets rise from $2.5 million to $4.5 million.
1914–1918: National City Bank purchases $100 million in U.S. Bonds to help finance World War I and sees its own assets increase to $15.5 million.
1929: National City Bank accumulates $40 million in assets.
1933: National City Bank is the only bank in Cleveland giving 100 cents on the dollar to its depositors, while for several weeks most other banks are providing only five cents on the dollar. When many other banks are forced to shut down permanently following Roosevelt's banking moratorium, National City Bank is deemed to be solid, and is permitted to resume full operations.
1945: Nearing $500 million in assets, National City Bank celebrates its 100th Anniversary.
1972: National City Bank's assets pass $2 billion.
1973: A new holding company, National City Corporation, is created with National City Bank (its name shortened from National City Bank of Cleveland) as its lead bank and primary subsidiary.
1975: National City Bank purchases the assets of the failing Northern Ohio Bank for $3.7 million.
1976: National City Bank spends $3.8 million acquiring The Bank of Cleveland.
1977: The First National Bank of Dayton is the corporation's first major acquisition. Two banks had merged to create the Dayton Bank in 1961: Merchant's National Bank (1871) and People's Bank & Trust Co. (1957).
1978: The Huron County Banking company in Norwalk, Ohio, is acquired. The bank is renamed National City Bank, Norwalk in 1985.
1980: National City Bank moves its headquarters to the newly constructed 35-story National City Center, as does its parent company, National City Corporation.
1982: Ohio Citizens Bancorp in Toledo is acquired.
1982: Beginning in May, National City Bank becomes one of two Cleveland banks to link its Visa and MasterCardcredit card interest rates to the cost of money, changing interest fees every six months according to the fluctuations of Treasury Bill Rates.
1982: National City Bank reports a resumption of growth in annual earnings.
1984: National City Corporation acquires BancOhio Corporation of Columbus to create the state's largest bank holding company. Together their assets total $12.5 billion, with a banking network encompassing 350 branches in 52 of the state's 88 counties.
1986: National City Bank acquires 14 area offices and $460 million in deposits of the Broadview Savings and Loan Company.
1988: National City Corporation expands into the Kentucky market by acquiring First Kentucky National Corporation of Louisville. Member banks of First Kentucky include First National bank of Louisville (1863); American National Bank & Trust Company, Bowling Green (1886); Crestwood State Bank (1896); Central Bank and Trust Company, Owensboro (1890); third National Bank of Ashland (1916); and First National Bank of Indiana, New Albany (1904). The largest, Commerce National in Lexington, resulted from a merger of Bank of Commerce (1911) and Second National Bank (1883).
1989: National City Mortgage Company acquires Shawmut Mortgage Company in Miamisburg, Ohio.
1990: National City corporation establishes National City Investment Corporation, allowing the corporation to offer investment choices equal to that of a full-service brokerage.
1990: Gem Savings Association, a $1.6 billion asset savings and loan company with 25 branches in Dayton and Cincinnati, is acquired.
1991: In October, National City Corporation announces it has reached an agreement with Merchants National Corporation to acquire the Indianapolis-based holding company. Member banks of Merchants National consist of: Anderson Banking Company (1890); Batesville State Bank (1889); Central National Bank of Greencastle (1883); Citizens National Bank of Tipton (1904); Elston Bank & Trust Company (1853); Farmers National Bank of Shelbyville (1886); Fayette Bank and Trust Company (1902); First National Bank of East Chicago (1909); First National Bank of Indiana, Logansport (1931); Hancock Bank & Trust Company, Greenfield (1874); Madison Bank & Trust Company (1833); Mid State Bank, Zionsville (1882); Mid State Bank of Hendricks County, Danville (1904); The National Bank of Greenwood (1934); The Seymour National Bank (1891); and Union State Bank, Carmel (1923).
1993: National City acquires Ohio Bancorp, Youngstown. Its member banks are: The Dollar Savings and Trust Company, Youngstown (1887); The Potters Bank and Trust Company, East Liverpool (1881); Peoples Banking Company, Martins Ferry (1891); Bank 2000, Minerva (1915); and The Miners and Mechanics Savings and Trust Company, Steubenville (1913).
1995: Central Indiana Bancorp, Kokomo and United Bancorp of Lexington, Kentucky are acquired.
1995: National City celebrates its 150th Anniversary with $32 billion in assets, 640 branches and 20,000 employees.
1997: National City merges with First of America creating the 13th-largest banking organization in the U.S. at that time in terms of total assets. First of America is a $22 billion asset bank holding company headquartered in Kalamazoo, Michigan. The combined company had assets of $74.4 billion, deposits of $48.4 billion and stockholders' equity of $6.1 billion.
1997: National City purchases certain assets of the mortgage loan origination businesses owned by First National Mortgage Corporation and Eastern Mortgage Services, Inc, and American Mortgage Source, Inc.
1998: National City acquires Fort Wayne National Corporation with assets of $3.3 billion.
1999: National City closes on acquisition of First Franklin Financial Companies.
2004: National City completes $2.1 billion purchase of Cincinnati-based Provident Financial Group.
2004: National City acquired Wayne Bancorp, a bank holding company headquartered in Wooster, Ohio which operated 26 branches and had $825 million in assets. Also acquired Allegiant Bancorp to enter the St. Louis market, adding 36 branch locations to National City's network of 1,100 retail offices located throughout the Midwest.
2006: National City acquires Fidelity Bankshares. Headquartered in West Palm Beach, Fidelity had $4.2 billion in total assets and operated 52 branches.
2006: National City acquires Harbor Florida Bancshares, the holding company for Harbor Federal Savings Bank. Harbor Florida is the fifth-largest publicly traded banking institution based in Florida. Headquartered in Fort Pierce, Harbor Florida has total assets of $3.2 billion and 40 branches.
2007: National City acquires MAF Bancorp, Inc., the holding company for MidAmerica Bank, which operated 82 branches throughout Chicago and Milwaukee and surrounding areas. MidAmerica was the 11th largest banking institution in the Chicago market with $5.7 billion in deposits and 58 branches and the fifth largest in Milwaukee with $1.3 billion in deposits and 24 branches.
2007: Peter Raskind succeeds David A. Daberko as President and CEO of the company, after Daberko was criticized for his expansion into subprime mortgages, bank acquisitions and share buybacks.
Merger with PNC and last actions as independent bank
2007: National City announces that their Wholesale Mortgage Division will cease operations effective December 31, 2007 in the face of record foreclosures. Employees were notified via email and conference call from Buck Bibb, head of National City Mortgage.
2008: National City Corp. disclosed in a regulatory filing that it is the subject of an "informal" Securities and Exchange Commission investigation related to matters including loan underwriting, bank regulatory matters, and the sale of a subprime subsidiary, First Franklin Financial Corporation, to Merrill Lynch & Co. for $1.3 Billion in 2006.
2008: On October 24, 2008 PNC Bank announced that it had purchased National City. The deal was approved by shareholders of both banks on December 23, 2008. According to a press release by PNC group, PNC intends to merge National City's banking affiliates into PNC Bank and they will assume the PNC Bank name. The merged entity will have its headquarters in Pittsburgh, PA.
2008: On December 9, 2008 Shareholders of National City Corp. filed lawsuits to halt the sale of the commercial bank to PNC Bank
2009: By the end of Labor Day Weekend, the branches sold off were taken over by their respective buyers. The remaining National City branches still remain under PNC for a few more months before their own conversion to PNC.
2010: The National City name is retired in June 2010.
^"Stockholders Meeting Briefs". Wall Street Journal. March 13, 1973. p. 39. (Subscription required (help)). National City Bank of Cleveland holders approved the previously proposed formation of a multibank holding company known as National City Corp. Officials said two shares of the new company would be exchanged for each outstanding share of the bank, subject to approval of regulatory authorities. Effective date is expected to be April 30, they added.Alternate Link via ProQuest.
^"Fallen Bank Linked to Doore". Detroit Free Press. March 6, 1975. p. 3 – via Newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)). Northern Ohio Bank, a five-year-old Cleveland bank with assets of over $100 million, collapsed Feb. 14 under loans that exceeded its capital and net worth. A number of the defaulted loans reportedly were made to Michigan firms. Northern Ohio Bank has been purchased by National City Bank of Cleveland, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. has taken charge of the loans, amid reports that some of them were secured by worthless stock and $200,000 in stolen municipal bonds.
^"Goodyear Bank Merger Sought". New York Times. September 23, 1981. The National City Corporation, the holding company of Cleveland's second-largest bank, said it intended to buy the Goodyear Bank of Akron, a subsidiary of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, for an undisclosed price.
^Reiff, Rick (May 20, 1986). "NCB to Purchase Broadview Branches". Akron Beacon Journal. p. B5. (Subscription required (help)). Broadview Savings & Loan Co. has agreed to sell 18 offices, almost half its branch network, to subsidiaries of National City Corp., including the National City Bank of Akron... The sale of the Akron and Stow offices would give National City Bank of Akron 30 branches. The Broadview offices in Twinsburg and Brunswick would become part of the National City Bank of Cleveland. The transfers would leave Broadview with 19 branches in Cuyahoga County and one in Geuaga County, as well as service terminals at Pick-N-Pay and other grocery stores in the Cleveland area.
^Mitchell, Jacqueline (June 24, 1989). "National City to Acquire Dayton S&L". Akron Beacon Journal. p. A9. (Subscription required (help)). National City Corp. of Cleveland announced Friday, an agreement to acquire Gem Savings Association, an insolvent savings and loan in Dayton, in a deal valued at up to $102 million.
^Bennett, Robert A. (January 28, 1988). "National City in Accord To Add First Kentucky". New York Times. The National City Corporation of Cleveland, the second-largest bank holding company in Ohio, announced yesterday that it had reached agreement to acquire the First Kentucky National Corporation of Louisville, the largest banking company in that state. If the $660 million transaction is completed, as expected, the combined institution would be the 34th-largest bank holding company in the United States, with about $20 billion in assets.
^"Bank". The Courier-Journal. February 12, 1993. p. 26 – via Newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)). On March 29, First Kentucky National Corp. will be dissolved as a holding company and replaced by National City Bank Kentucky, which will serve as an umbrella for the banks that are currently part of First Kentucky National.
^Jordan, Jim (January 17, 1995). "National City Bank Merges With United Bancorp Of Ky.". Lexington Herald-Leader. p. A1. (Subscription required (help)). Eight banks in Central and southeast Kentucky controlled by Lexington businessman James L. Rose will become branches of National City Bank under an agreement announced yesterday. National City's parent company, Cleveland-based National City Corp., plans to issue 2.5 million shares of its common stock, valued at about $63 million, in connection with the merger with Rose's United Bancorp of Kentucky Inc... The United banks will be merged into National City Bank, Kentucky, which has $6.6 billion in assets. National City has banks in Ashland, Bowling Green, Lexington, Louisville, Oldham County and Owensboro in Kentucky, and Corydon, Jeffersonville, New Albany and Salem in Indiana.
^"Cleveland Bank Expanding". Evansville Courier & Press. July 27, 1994. p. C5. (Subscription required (help)). National City Corp. has announced plans to purchase Central Indiana Bancorp in Kokomo in a deal valued at $48 million. National City, based in Cleveland, will expand its presence in Indiana from 11 to 13 counties with its latest purchase. The company first entered the market with the 1992 purchase of Merchants National Bank in Indianapolis. Central Indiana Bancorp is the thrift holding company of First Federal Savings Bank, which has five branches in Howard and Miami counties. The holding company's assets total $243 million... The deal is expected to close early next year.
^"Integra Bank Purchased By National City". Erie Times-News. August 28, 1995. (Subscription required (help)). Integra Financial Corp., one of the largest banks in Erie and western Pennsylvania, reportedly will be sold to National City Corp. of Cleveland, Ohio. The two banks planned a teleconference from the Pittsburgh Hilton at noon today to announce the $2.1 billion stock acquisition.
^"Integra Passes From The Scene". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. May 4, 1996. pp. B–9. (Subscription required (help)). The signs won't come down until May 31, but Integra Bank and $14.4 billion-asset parent Integra Financial Corp. officially ceased to exist yesterday. National City Corp. said it had completed the $2.4 billion acquisition, making it Pittsburgh's new No. 3. The Cleveland-based bank said it expects to finish paring 1,200 of Integra's 5,200 workers by month's end.