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1
What Is Nationalization
What Is Nationalization
::2012/10/27::
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2
Why ANC Nationalization will destroy South Africa
Why ANC Nationalization will destroy South Africa
::2011/06/05::
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3
The reason why bank nationalization hasn
The reason why bank nationalization hasn't been done
::2009/03/03::
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4
Masters of the World: Intro to Nationalization
Masters of the World: Intro to Nationalization
::2013/05/08::
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5
News In Two Minutes - Nuclear Site - Nationalization - Train Derailment - Emerg MERS Meeting - CCD
News In Two Minutes - Nuclear Site - Nationalization - Train Derailment - Emerg MERS Meeting - CCD
::2014/05/10::
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6
Nationalization not expropriation
Nationalization not expropriation
::2008/02/12::
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7
Iran marks oil nationalization day
Iran marks oil nationalization day
::2012/03/19::
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8
401(k)  IRA  Nationalization *** Quietly Moves Forward
401(k) IRA Nationalization *** Quietly Moves Forward
::2010/06/22::
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9
History of BP Includes Role in 1953 Iran Coup After Nationalization of Oil
History of BP Includes Role in 1953 Iran Coup After Nationalization of Oil
::2010/05/07::
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10
401K Nationalization.mpg
401K Nationalization.mpg
::2012/08/18::
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11
Oman job-nationalization program is on the way
Oman job-nationalization program is on the way
::2014/02/18::
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12
"Chevron Rage" Richmond, CA Community Demands Justice And Nationalization of Energy
"Chevron Rage" Richmond, CA Community Demands Justice And Nationalization of Energy
::2012/08/09::
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13
Message to America: Task Force Delta Nationalization of US Treasury
Message to America: Task Force Delta Nationalization of US Treasury
::2014/07/26::
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14
Business Perspective - Nationalization: Sates Rights Vs. Expropriation
Business Perspective - Nationalization: Sates Rights Vs. Expropriation
::2011/11/08::
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15
The nationalization of mines with Pieter Steyn from Lex Africa
The nationalization of mines with Pieter Steyn from Lex Africa
::2010/08/11::
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16
Stiglitz: Temporary Nationalization Necessary to Save Troubled Banks
Stiglitz: Temporary Nationalization Necessary to Save Troubled Banks
::2009/02/25::
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17
Reza Shah , Nationalization of oil and Iranian Chelow Kebab versus British Fish & Chips !
Reza Shah , Nationalization of oil and Iranian Chelow Kebab versus British Fish & Chips !
::2012/11/11::
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18
Nationalization of Bill of Rights
Nationalization of Bill of Rights
::2014/05/08::
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19
Moors Nationalization!
Moors Nationalization!
::2010/07/13::
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20
Iran marks 63rd anniv. of oil industry nationalization
Iran marks 63rd anniv. of oil industry nationalization
::2014/03/20::
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21
Obama Kills Farmers....Organic Gardeners Now Terrorists HR875 and S425 Farm Nationalization
Obama Kills Farmers....Organic Gardeners Now Terrorists HR875 and S425 Farm Nationalization
::2009/03/06::
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22
Mervyn calls for nationalization of
Mervyn calls for nationalization of 'unsuccessful' parties
::2011/11/04::
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23
Bundy Ranch Reminder Of Stalin
Bundy Ranch Reminder Of Stalin's Collectivization, Nationalization
::2014/04/11::
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24
National Strategic Resources vs. Nationalization - A Basket Standard Model BUCHAN BULL VLOG 10.2
National Strategic Resources vs. Nationalization - A Basket Standard Model BUCHAN BULL VLOG 10.2
::2011/03/22::
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25
Petition against nationalization...
Petition against nationalization...
::2011/11/08::
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26
Nationalization of Banks
Nationalization of Banks
::2009/09/21::
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27
Nationalization efforts credited for poverty reduction in Bolivia
Nationalization efforts credited for poverty reduction in Bolivia
::2013/10/22::
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28
Interview/Panel Discussion on Nationalization of YPF - Press TV 19-April-2012
Interview/Panel Discussion on Nationalization of YPF - Press TV 19-April-2012
::2012/04/20::
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29
Business Perspective: Nationalization - Economic Impact and Litigation Cost
Business Perspective: Nationalization - Economic Impact and Litigation Cost
::2011/11/11::
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30
Proposed Nationalization of Bolivian Companies (Dispatch)
Proposed Nationalization of Bolivian Companies (Dispatch)
::2012/06/04::
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31
CCJ to hear Belize
CCJ to hear Belize's utilities nationalization cases
::2014/07/23::
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32
Nationalization of oil refinery at Abadan, Iran. HD Stock Footage
Nationalization of oil refinery at Abadan, Iran. HD Stock Footage
::2014/06/16::
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33
1933 - 1934 Nationalization of gold to devalue the US dollar by President Roosevelt
1933 - 1934 Nationalization of gold to devalue the US dollar by President Roosevelt
::2012/07/30::
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34
Malayalee community to be worst hit due to nationalization in Saudi
Malayalee community to be worst hit due to nationalization in Saudi
::2013/03/28::
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35
Americian Tyranny and Retirement fund Nationalization
Americian Tyranny and Retirement fund Nationalization
::2010/10/15::
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36
AIM: Rep. John Campbell on the nationalization of the auto industry
AIM: Rep. John Campbell on the nationalization of the auto industry
::2009/06/23::
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37
Nationalization of Industry and Shortages in Industrialized Sectors
Nationalization of Industry and Shortages in Industrialized Sectors
::2014/05/05::
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38
Iran
Iran's oil nationalization and takeover of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) r...HD Stock Footage
::2014/06/04::
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39
Masters of the World: Intro to Sector Growth, Nationalization, Famine
Masters of the World: Intro to Sector Growth, Nationalization, Famine
::2013/04/09::
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40
Gamal Abdel Nasser announces nationalization of the Suez Canal (07.26.1956)
Gamal Abdel Nasser announces nationalization of the Suez Canal (07.26.1956)
::2013/07/02::
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41
Gordon S. Orians Excerpt: Proposed Nationalization of the Wilson Botanical Garden
Gordon S. Orians Excerpt: Proposed Nationalization of the Wilson Botanical Garden
::2014/01/02::
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42
Nationalization of GM--Good or Bad?
Nationalization of GM--Good or Bad?
::2009/06/06::
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43
Max Keiser:Bank Nationalization
Max Keiser:Bank Nationalization
::2008/11/25::
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44
solution for the economy ( Max Keiser ) 401k pension funds nationalization recession depression
solution for the economy ( Max Keiser ) 401k pension funds nationalization recession depression
::2008/12/23::
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45
Dan Gross Mythbuster on Bank Nationalization
Dan Gross Mythbuster on Bank Nationalization
::2009/02/25::
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46
Economic Collapse, Tunnels Collapse, Peter DeFazio
Economic Collapse, Tunnels Collapse, Peter DeFazio's Nationalization of a Dead End Railroad
::2011/07/07::
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47
Another nationalization ceremony held in Belmopan
Another nationalization ceremony held in Belmopan
::2012/01/13::
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48
Economic Nationalization in America by Ruth Dupont Esser
Economic Nationalization in America by Ruth Dupont Esser
::2013/06/23::
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49
Nationalization By Taxation
Nationalization By Taxation
::2011/04/19::
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Cramer: Nationalization Would Crush America
Cramer: Nationalization Would Crush America
::2009/02/24::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Not to be confused with Naturalization.

Nationalization(American English), (British and Commonwealth spelling nationalisation) is the process of taking a private industry or private assets into public ownership by a national government or state.[1] Nationalization usually refers to private assets, but may also mean assets owned by lower levels of government, such as municipalities, being transferred to be the state. The opposite of nationalization is usually privatization or de-nationalization, but may also be municipalization. Industries that are usually subject to nationalization include transport, communications, energy, banking and natural resources.

Renationalization occurs when state-owned assets are privatized and later nationalized again, often when a different political party or faction is in power. A renationalization process may also be called reverse privatization. Nationalization has been used to refer to either direct state-ownership and management of an enterprise or to a government acquiring a large controlling share of a nominally private, publicly listed corporation.[citation needed]

Nationalization was one of the major means advocated by reformist socialists for transitioning from capitalism to socialism. Socialist ideologies that favor nationalization are typically called state socialism. In this context, the goals of nationalization were to dispossess large capitalists and redirect the profits of industry to the public purse, as a precursor to the long-term goals of establishing worker-management and reorganizing production toward use.[2]

Nationalized industries, charged with operating in the public interest, may be under strong political and social pressures to give much more attention to externalities. They may be obliged to operate loss-making activities where it is judged that social benefits are greater than social costs — for example, rural postal and transport services. The government has recognized these social obligations and, in some cases, provides subsidies for such non-commercial operations.

Since nationalized industries are state owned, the government is responsible for meeting any debts. The nationalized industries do not normally borrow from the domestic market other than for short-term borrowing. If they are profitable, the profit is often used to finance other state services, such as social programs and government research, which can help lower the tax burden.

Nationalization may occur with or without compensation to the former owners. Nationalization is distinguished from property redistribution in that the government retains control of nationalized property. Some nationalizations take place when a government seizes property acquired illegally. For example, in 1945 the French government seized the car-makers Renault because its owners had collaborated with the Nazi occupiers of France.[3]

Compensation[edit]

The traditional Western stance on compensation was expressed by United States Secretary of State Cordell Hull during the 1938 Mexican nationalization of the petroleum industry that compensation should be "prompt, effective and adequate." According to this view, the nationalizing state is obligated under international law to pay the deprived party the full value of the property taken.

The opposing position has been taken mainly by developing countries, claiming that the question of compensation should be left entirely up to the sovereign state, in line with the Calvo Doctrine. Socialist states have held that no compensation is due, based on the view that the former owners acquired ownership through exploitation, or that private ownership over socialized assets is illegitimate and exploitative of employees.

In 1962, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Resolution 1803, "Permanent Sovereignty over National Resources", which states that in the event of nationalization, the owner "shall be paid appropriate compensation in accordance with international law." In doing so, the UN rejected the traditional Calvo-doctrinist view and the Communist view. The term "appropriate compensation" represents a compromise between the traditional views, taking into account the need of developing countries to pursue reform even without the ability to pay full compensation, and the Western concern for protection of private property.

In the United States, the Fifth Amendment requires just compensation if private property is taken for public use.

Political support[edit]

In the United Kingdom after the second world war, nationalization gained support by the Labour party and some social democratic parties throughout Europe.

Notable nationalizations by country[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Australia[edit]

Bolivia[edit]

Most utilities were nationally owned before being privatized in 1994.

  • 2006 On May 1, 2006, newly elected Bolivian president Evo Morales announced plans to nationalize the country's natural gas industry; foreign-based companies were given six months to renegotiate their existing contracts.
  • 2008 On May 1, 2008, the nationalization of Bolivia's leading telecommunications company Entel was completed, previously having been owned by Telecom Italia.[5]
  • 2010 On May 1, 2010, the government nationalized the country's main hydroelectric plant, thereby assuming control over most of Bolivia's electrical generation and end-user sales.[5]
  • 2012 On May 1, 2012, the Morales government nationalized power grid operator Transportadora de Electricidad (TDE), until then 99.94% owned by Red Eléctrica de España. TDE owns and runs 73% of the power lines in Bolivia.[5]

Canada[edit]

Channel Islands[edit]

  • 2003 Aurigny Air Services was bought by the States of Guernsey to keep precious routes from the island to London.

Chile[edit]

Croatia[edit]

On the break-up of Yugoslavia, The HDZ government nationalized private agricultural property and rezoned it under the guise of forest statesmanship, when their publicly professed agenda was to only complete the nationalization of the communists. Much of this land is in the process of being reinstated and the model rethought.

Cuba[edit]

The Castro government gradually expropriated all foreign-owned private companies after the Cuban Revolution of 1959. Most of these companies were owned by U.S. corporations and individuals. Bonds at 4.5% interest over twenty years were offered to U.S. companies, but the offer was rejected by U.S. ambassador Philip Bonsal, who requested the compensation up front.[6] Only a minor amount, $1.3 million, was paid to U.S. interests before deteriorating relations ended all cooperation between the two governments.[6] The United States established a registry of claims against the Cuban government, ultimately developing files on 5,911 specific companies. The Cuban government has refused to discuss the effective and adequate compensation of U.S. claims. The United States government continues to insist on compensation for U.S. companies. In 1966-68, the Castro government nationalized all remaining privately owned business entities in Cuba, down to the level of street vendors.

Czechoslovakia[edit]

  • 1945 Large manufacturing enterprises.
  • 1948 All manufacturing enterprises.

Egypt[edit]

France[edit]

Nationalization dates back to the 'regies' or state monopolies organized under the Ancien Régime, for example, the monopoly on tobacco sales. Communications companies France Telecom and La Poste are relics of the state postal and telecommunications monopolies.

There was a major expansion of the nationalised sector following World War II.[7] A second wave followed in 1982.

  • 1938 Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Français (SNCF) (originally a 51% State holding, increased to 100% in 1982)[7]
  • 1945 Several nationalizations in France, including most important banks and Renault.[7] The firm was seized for Louis Renault's alleged collaboration with Nazi Germany, although this condemnation was without judgement and after his death, making this case remarkable and rare. A later judgement (1949) admitted that Renault's plant never collaborated. Renault was successful but unprofitable whilst nationalised and remains successful today, after having been privatized in 1996.
  • 1946 Charbonnages de France, Electricite de France (EdF), Gaz de France (GdF)
  • 1982 A large part of the banking sector and industries of strategic importance to the state, especially in electronics and communications, were nationalized under the new president François Mitterrand and the PS-led government. Many of those companies were privatized again after 1986.

The Paris regional transport operator, Regie Autonome des Transports Parisiens (RATP), can also be counted as a nationalised industry.

Germany[edit]

The railways were nationalised after World War I. Partial privatisation of Deutsche Bahn is currently underway, as of 2008.

Most enterprises in East Germany were nationalised following World War II. After reunification, an agency, Treuhand, was established to return them to private ownership. However, due to structural and economic problems inherent in the previous regime, many of these had to be liquidated.

  • 2008 Renationalization of the "Bundesdruckerei" (Federal Print Office), which had been privatized in 2001.

Greece[edit]

Iceland[edit]

India[edit]

The nationalised banks were credited by some, including Home minister P. Chidambaram, to have helped the Indian economy withstand the global financial crisis of 2007-2009.[8][9]

Iran[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Railways were nationalised in the 1940s as Coras Iompair Eireann.

  • 2007 On August 3, 2007, the Irish government were offered a stake in Eircom's copper network infrastructure.[10] Ireland's telephone networks were privatised in 1999.
  • 2009 On January 16, 2009, the Irish Government nationalised Anglo Irish Bank to secure the bank's viability.[11]
  • 2010 State-owned Anglo Irish Bank is to take majority control of one of Ireland's largest companies QUINN group bringing it under Public ownership.[12]

Israel[edit]

Italy[edit]

The regime of Benito Mussolini extended nationalisation, creating the Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (IRI) as a State holding company for struggling firms, including the car maker Alfa Romeo. A parallel body, Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi (Eni) was set up to manage State oil and gas interests.

Japan[edit]

Lithuania[edit]

In 2011 Snoras bank was nationalized.

Latvia[edit]

In 2008 Parex Bank was nationalized.

Malta[edit]

Mexico[edit]

  • 1938 The Expropriation of the Petroleum Industry: President Lázaro Cárdenas issued a decree that the petroleum companies were in rebellion against the government and under the powers granted him under the Expropriation Act passed by the Congress of Mexico in late 1936 expropriated them. March 19, 1938, union personnel took control of the properties.[13]
  • 1982 The nationalization of the Mexican banking system made by President José López Portillo in response to the debt crisis. Under the Carlos Salinas de Gortari presidency (1988–1994) the nationalized banks were privatized very rapidly between 1991 and 1992 to Mexican family groups privatized.[14]

The Netherlands[edit]

  • 2008 The state nationalizes the Dutch activities of Belgian-Dutch banking and insurance company Fortis, which had come in solvability problems due to the international financial crisis.
  • 2013 SNS Bank is nationalized. It had been in trouble for more than a year, not able to find a private investor. On Febuari 1st 2013, Jeroen Dijselbloem (Dutch minister of Finance) declares SNS nationalized.

New Zealand[edit]

Pakistan[edit]

  • 1972: On January 2, 1972, Prime minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, after East Pakistan broke away, announced the nationalisation of all major industries, including iron and steel, heavy engineering, heavy electricals, petrochemicals, cement and public utilities except textiles industry and lands.[15]

Philippines[edit]

During the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, important companies such as Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT), Philippine Airlines, Meralco and the Manila Hotel were nationalized. Other companies were sometimes absorbed into these government-owned corporations, as well as other companies, such as National Power Corporation (Napocor) and the Philippine National Railways, which in their own right are monopolies (exceptions are Meralco and the Manila Hotel). Today, these companies have been reprivatized and some, such as PLDT and Philippine Airlines, have been de-monopolized. Others, like government-owned and controlled corporation Napocor, are in the process of privatization.

Poland[edit]

  • 1946 Following World War II the government nationalized all enterprises with over 50 employees.

Portugal[edit]

  • 1974 In the years following the Carnation Revolution, the Junta de Salvação Nacional and Provisional Governments nationalized all the banking, insurance, petrol and industrial companies. Among those companies were Companhia União Fabril (CUF), the assets of the Champalimaud family and SONAE. Along with the telecommunications companies, which were state-owned even before the Revolution, many of the nationalized companies were reprivatized in the 1980s and 1990s. In the agricultural sector, according to government estimates, about 900,000 hectares (2,200,000 acres) of agricultural land were occupied between April 1974 and December 1975 in the name of land reform; about 32% of the occupations were ruled illegal. In January 1976, the government pledged to restore the illegally occupied land to its owners, and in 1977, it promulgated the Land Reform Review Law. Restoration of illegally occupied land began in 1978.[18][19]

Romania[edit]

  • 1948 With the Decree 119 of June 11, 1948, the new communist regime nationalised all private companies and their assets leading to the transformation of the economy from a market economy to a planned economy.
  • 1950 With the Decree 92 of April 19, 1950, a huge number of private houses and lands are confiscated.

Russia[edit]

  • 1998 The Yeltsin government began seizing Gazprom assets, claiming that the company owed back taxes. Privatization of Gazprom from the mid-1990s had been reduced to 38.37% with the intention of achieving full privatization. However, the stake of the Russian Government in Gazprom has since been increased to 50% with Vladimir Putin's plan to increase the stake to a controlling position. Gazprom is also buying up both Russian and other international utility companies.
  • 2013 The space industry is being renationalized. The government created a new corporation—United Rocket and Space Corporation—in August 2013 because of a string of recent rocket launch failures. According to Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin, "The failure-prone space sector is so troubled that it needs state supervision to overcome its problems."[20] The October 2013 plan calls for re-nationalization of the space industry, with sweeping reforms including a new unified command structure and reducing redundant capabilities.[21]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

  • The government nationalized the oil producer company Aramco in 1980.

South Korea[edit]

  • 1946 USAMGIK nationalized all railroad companies and made Department of Transportation. This now becomes Korail.

Soviet Union[edit]

  • 1918 All manufacturing enterprises, many retailing enterprises, any private enterprises, the whole bank system, agrarian sector, others. Later the government of Lenin introduced the New Economic Policy that shifted the country somewhat towards market economics until the end of the revolutionary period and Stalin's acquisition of power.

Spain[edit]

  • 1941 Railways were nationalised, as RENFE, in the aftermath of the Spanish Civil War.
  • 1983 Nationalization without compensation of Rumasa. Separate business were later privatized.

Sri Lanka[edit]

  • 1958 The Government nationalised bus transport, creating the Ceylon Transport Board. Colombo Port was nationalised the same year.
  • 1961 The local subsidiaries of the foreign-owned petroleum companies Caltex, Esso and Shell had formed a cartel, to break which they were nationalised. The Insurance companies and the Bank of Ceylon were nationalised in the same year.
  • 1971 Graphite mines nationalised.
  • 1972 Locally owned Tea and Rubber plantations were nationalised under the Land Reform law.
  • 1975 Sterling plantation companies (owned by British plantation companies) were nationalised.
  • 2009 Seylan Bank nationalised to prevent its collapse.
  • 2011 The Expropriation Act was passed. The government will take over "underperforming or underutilized assets of 37 enterprises".[22]

Sweden[edit]

  • 1939-1948 Nationalisation of most of the private railway companies.
  • 1957 The mining company LKAB is nationalized. The state had owned 50% of the corporation's shares, with options to buy the remainder, since 1907.[23]
  • 1992 A large part of the banking sector is nationalized.[24]

Tanzania[edit]

The Arusha Declaration was proclaimed in 1967 by President Julius Nyerere, which aimed to achieve self-reliance through nationalising key sectors of the economy such as banks, large industries and plantations were therefore nationalised. This failed, worsening Tanzania's economic problems until foreign aid and liberalisation took effect in the 1980s and 1990s.[25]

Turkey[edit]

After the abolition of Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), foreign concessions were suppressed, rail transport, electric power generation and distribution, telephone network and other big industrial firms were nationalized by Turkish government between 1928 and 1940.[26]

United Kingdom[edit]

Nationalization was a key feature of the first post World War II Labour government, from 1945 to 1951 under Clement Attlee. The coal and steel industries were just two of many industries or services to be nationalised, while the formation of the National Health Service in 1948 entitled everyone to free healthcare. The subsequent Conservative governments led by Winston Churchill, Anthony Eden, Harold Macmillan, Alec Douglas-Home and Edward Heath allowed practically all of the nationalized industries and services to remain in public ownership, as did subsequent Labour prime ministers Harold Wilson and James Callaghan. However, the election victory of Margaret Thatcher's Conservatives in 1979 saw the vast majority of nationalized industries, services and utilities privatized within a decade. The Labour Party in opposition, led by Michael Foot and later Neil Kinnock, initially opposed privatization, but the party's commitment to nationalization had been abandoned by the time it swept back into government with a landslide in the 1997 election under Tony Blair.[37] However, in February 2008, Blair's successor Gordon Brown nationalized the failing Northern Rock bank in the first stages of the credit crunch, which sparked a severe recession.[38] The much larger Royal Bank of Scotland and Halifax Bank of Scotland were part nationalized for the same reason in October of that year. After nearly four years in public ownership, Northern Rock was sold to Virgin Money and Royal Bank of Scotland agreed a branch sale to the Santander Group in November 2011. However, Royal Bank of Scotland and Lloyds remain in public ownership five years later and in November 2012 the Public Accounts Committee warned that it could be many years before the banks are sold and the £66 billion so far invested in these banks may never be recovered.[39]

British assets nationalised by other countries[edit]

United States[edit]

Venezuela[edit]

  • 2007 On May 1, 2007, the government stripped the world's biggest oil companies of operational control over massive Orinoco Belt crude projects, a controversial component in President Hugo Chávez's nationalization drive.
  • 2008 On April 3, 2008, Chávez ordered the nationalization of the cement industry.[47]
  • 2008 On April 9, 2008, Chávez ordered the nationalization of Venezuelan steel mill Sidor, in which Luxembourg-based Ternium currently holds a 60% stake. Sidor employees and the Government hold a 20% stake respectively.[48]
  • 2008 On August 19, 2008, Chávez ordered the take-over of a cement plant owned and operated by Cemex, an international cement producer. While shares of Cemex fell on the New York Stock Exchange, the cement plant comprises only about 5% of the company's business, and is not expected to adversely affect the company's ability to produce in other markets. Chávez has been looking to nationalize the concrete and steel industries of his country to meet home building and infrastructure goals.[49]
  • 2009 On February 28, 2009, Chávez ordered the army to take over all rice processing and packaging plants.[50]
  • 2010 On January 20, 2010, Chávez signed an ordinance to nationalize six supermarkets under the system of retail stores of a French company because of increasing price and speculation hoarding illicit.[51]
  • 2010 On June 24, 2010, Venezuela announced the intention to nationalize oil drilling rigs belonging to the U.S. company Helmerich & Payne.[52]
  • 2010 On October 25, 2010, Chávez announced that the government was nationalizing two U.S.-owned Owens-Illinois glass-manufacturing plants.[53]
  • 2010 On October 31, 2010, Chávez said his government will take over the Sidetur steel manufacturing plant. Sidetur is owned by Vivencia, which had two mineral plants appropriated by the government in 2008.[53]

Vietnam[edit]

  • According to the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1980, land ownership of farmers disappeared, the State owned land across the country and people have the right to temporary use of land, as a slow result of the Land reform in North Vietnam from 1953 to 1956.[54][55]
  • After the Fall of Saigon in 1975, the government nationalized nearly all the property of the "landlords" and "comprador" in South Vietnam, property of the church and of the government of South Vietnam. All private enterprise was nationalized without compensation down to the street vendors, however "shadow companies" continued to operate.

Zimbabwe[edit]

  • Zimbabwe has nationalized its food distribution infrastructure.

Other countries[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/nationalization
  2. ^ The Economics of Feasible Socialism Revisited, by Nove, Alexander. 1991. (P.176): "The original notion was that nationalization would achieve three objectives. One was to dispossess the big capitalists. The second was to divert the profits from private appropriation to the public purse. Thirdly, the nationalized sector would serve the public good rather than try to make private profits...To these objectives some (but not all) would add some sort of workers' control, the accountability of management to employees."
  3. ^ Chrisafis, Angelique (December 14, 2011). "Renault descendants demand payout for state confiscation". The Guardian (London). 
  4. ^ The Constitutional Centre of Western Australia | The Role of The High Court
  5. ^ a b c "Bolivia announces nationalization of electrical grid". The Washington Post. 1 May 2012. Retrieved 1 May 2012. [dead link]
  6. ^ a b Thomas, Hugh (March 1971). Cuba; the Pursuit of Freedom. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 224, p252. ISBN 0-06-014259-6. 
  7. ^ a b c Myers (1949)
  8. ^ PSU banks' policies saved India from financial blushes: Chidambaram
  9. ^ The importance of public banking
  10. ^ Eircom and State in broadband swap?
  11. ^ Government nationalises 'fragile' Anglo Irish Bank
  12. ^ Anglo Irish Bank's €700m Quinn plan
  13. ^ The Expropriation of the Petroleum Industry of Mexico in 1938
  14. ^ Marois, Thomas (2008). "The 1982 Mexican Bank Statization and Unintended Consequences for the Emergence of Neoliberalism". Canadian Journal of Political Science 41 (1): 143–167. doi:10.1017/s0008423908080128. 
  15. ^ US Country Studies. "Zulfikar Ali Bhutto" (PHP). Retrieved 2006-11-07. 
  16. ^ Syed Fazl-e-Haider (May 3, 2012). "The state-owned Pakistan Steel Mills". Asia Times. Retrieved 31 May 2012. 
  17. ^ a b Iftikhar Firdous (December 15, 2011). "Railways, Steel Mills taken off the chopping block". The Tribune Express, Iftikhar Firdous. Retrieved 31 May 2012. "In a major blow to the economic liberals in government, the federal cabinet decided against the privatisation of eight of the largest state-owned companies, including Pakistan Steel Mills" 
  18. ^ "Portugal". Country Studies (U.S. Library of Congress). "In the mid-1980s, agricultural productivity was half that of the levels in Greece and Spain and a quarter of the EC average. The land tenure system was polarized between two extremes: small and fragmented family farms in the north and large collective farms in the south that proved incapable of modernizing. The decollectivization of agriculture, which began in modest form in the late 1970s and accelerated in the late 1980s, promised to increase the efficiency of human and land resources in the south during the 1990s." 
  19. ^ "Portugal Agriculture". The Encyclopedia of the Nations 
  20. ^ Messier, Doug (2013-08-30). "Rogozin: Russia to Consolidate Space Sector into Open Joint Stock Company". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2013-08-31. 
  21. ^ Messier, Doug (2013-10-09). "Rogozin Outlines Plans for Consolidating Russia’s Space Industry". Parabolic Arc. Retrieved 2013-10-11. 
  22. ^ Lanka risks losing image, investment
  23. ^ A Historic Journey Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag, April 2006
  24. ^ Stopping a Financial Crisis, the Swedish Way
  25. ^ "BBC: Tanzania profile". BBC. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2013. 
  26. ^ "Mustafa Kemal Atatürk". guide-martine.com. 17 October 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2014. 
  27. ^ Schifferes, Steve (February 18, 2008). "The lessons of nationalisation". BBC News. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  28. ^ http://www.historytoday.com/dt_main_allatonce.asp?gid=9859&g9859=x&g9857=x&g30026=x&g20991=x&g21010=x&g19965=x&g19963=x&amid=9859
  29. ^ SN 1825 -Nationalisation of the UK Coal Royalties, 1938 : Compensation Payments
  30. ^ Robert A. Brady (1950). Crisis in Britain. Plans and Achievements of the Labour Government. University of California Press. , detailed coverage of nationalisation programs 1945-50
  31. ^ http://www.uksteel.org.uk/history.htm
  32. ^ a b "What was the last nationalisation?", BBC News, 18 February 2008
  33. ^ House of Commons Hansard Written Answers for 12 February 2002 (pt 16)
  34. ^ "Northern Rock to be nationalised". BBC News. February 17, 2008. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  35. ^ "HIGHLIGHTS-Britain nationalises Bradford & Bingley". Reuters. September 29, 2008. 
  36. ^ "Network Rail to become public sector body in 2014". Railnews. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  37. ^ Schifferes, Steve (February 18, 2008). "The lessons of nationalisation". BBC News. 
  38. ^ "Northern Rock to be nationalised". BBC News. February 17, 2008. 
  39. ^ "MPs: Sale of RBS or Lloyds 'not for years'". BBC News. November 16, 2012. 
  40. ^ US rescue of Fannie, Freddie poses taxpayer risks
  41. ^ Diamond and Kashyap on the Recent Financial Upheavals
  42. ^ a b Baxter, Lawrence; Brown, Bill; Cox, Jim (February 27, 2009). "Finally, A Bridge to Somewhere". Huffington Post. 
  43. ^ Nature of Citi stake debatable
  44. ^ Am I the Last Capitalist? Obama Falters on Rick Wagoner, GM, and the Auto Industry - Mary Kate Cary (usnews.com)
  45. ^ "If, in fact, Wagoner resigned because somebody in government said, 'You have to resign,' then I think we have nationalized the auto industry, at least GM, and I think that's bad to have the government have a socialized car industry," -Sen. Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa)
  46. ^ The Washington Post http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/06/01/AR2009060101480.html |url= missing title (help). [dead link]
  47. ^ Al Jazeera English - Americas - Chavez nationalises cement industry
  48. ^ "Venezuela to nationalize steelmaker Sidor: union". Reuters. April 9, 2008. 
  49. ^ "Venezuela Seizes Cemex - Forbes.com". [dead link]
  50. ^ "Chavez sends army to rice plants". BBC News. March 1, 2009. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  51. ^ Venezuela quốc hữu hóa 6 siêu thị ngoại quốc (Vietnamese)
  52. ^ Frank Jack Daniel (June 24, 2010). "Venezuela to nationalize U.S. firm's oil rigs". Reuters. 
  53. ^ a b the CNN Wire Staff (November 2, 2010). "Venezuela nationalizes private steel plant". CNN.com. 
  54. ^ Development of Propert Law in Cambodia, Vietnam and China
  55. ^ Ownership regimes in Vietnam

Bibliography[edit]

On banks nationalization[edit]

External links[edit]

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