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What is Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM)?
What is Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM)?
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: NSM Lab
Semantic Primes and NSM
Semantic Primes and NSM
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Jake Goldwasser
NSM, non-translatability, and
NSM, non-translatability, and 'happiness' in Chinese
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: NSM Lab
What is metalanguage?
What is metalanguage?
Published: 2017/04/30
Channel: Lisa's Study Guides
NSM Meaning
NSM Meaning
Published: 2015/04/27
Channel: ADictionary
Ethnopragmatics of conversational humour; Cliff Goddard
Ethnopragmatics of conversational humour; Cliff Goddard
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: NSM Lab
Minimal English for a Global World
Minimal English for a Global World
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: NSM Lab
Metalanguage
Metalanguage
Published: 2016/01/22
Channel: WikiAudio
Philosophy15 Episode 10: What is a Metalanguage?
Philosophy15 Episode 10: What is a Metalanguage?
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: Philosophy15
What Constitutes The Syntax Of A Language?
What Constitutes The Syntax Of A Language?
Published: 2017/11/12
Channel: Cestru Celm
metalanguage level 1
metalanguage level 1
Published: 2011/11/05
Channel: ashleyinkorea
What does metalanguage mean?
What does metalanguage mean?
Published: 2014/12/11
Channel: What Does That Mean?
What Constitutes The Syntax Of A Language?
What Constitutes The Syntax Of A Language?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: I Question You
Metalanguage
Metalanguage
Published: 2008/12/28
Channel: spectralsequence
"Where do Language, Literacy, and Culture Intersect?" by Alister Cumming
"Where do Language, Literacy, and Culture Intersect?" by Alister Cumming
Published: 2013/02/05
Channel: Wiley
Vilive
Vilive
Published: 2017/04/03
Channel: Cintia Di Prinzio
Axiomatic Language
Axiomatic Language
Published: 2016/01/19
Channel: Walter Wilson
What Is The Universal Grammar Theory?
What Is The Universal Grammar Theory?
Published: 2017/07/06
Channel: sparky Q
Metalanguage
Metalanguage
Published: 2016/08/17
Channel: Henry Scheck
"The Linguistics of Music: Analyzing Chinese Musical Concepts" by Adrian Tien
"The Linguistics of Music: Analyzing Chinese Musical Concepts" by Adrian Tien
Published: 2014/12/19
Channel: Confucius Institute at the University of Michigan
Wszechświat przemyśliwany na nowo, Anna Wierzbicka (Copernicus Center Lecture 2015)
Wszechświat przemyśliwany na nowo, Anna Wierzbicka (Copernicus Center Lecture 2015)
Published: 2015/12/12
Channel: Copernicus Center for Interdisciplinary Studies
A Brief Discussion of Anna Wierzbicka and her contributions
A Brief Discussion of Anna Wierzbicka and her contributions
Published: 2011/07/05
Channel: birdman9265
Lecture 2a - Word Level Semantics [Ed Grefenstette]
Lecture 2a - Word Level Semantics [Ed Grefenstette]
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: Zafarullah Mahmood
METALANGUAGE
METALANGUAGE
Published: 2008/09/05
Channel: stanleylieber
3. Systems Modeling Languages
3. Systems Modeling Languages
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: MIT OpenCourseWare
Peter Hines: "Types and forgetfulness in categorical linguistics and quantum mechanics"
Peter Hines: "Types and forgetfulness in categorical linguistics and quantum mechanics"
Published: 2012/05/01
Channel: OxfordQuantumVideo
TESOL Linguistics & Metalanguage
TESOL Linguistics & Metalanguage
Published: 2012/09/14
Channel: F Tuzi
Semantic & Multilingual Strategies in Lucene/Solr
Semantic & Multilingual Strategies in Lucene/Solr
Published: 2015/01/07
Channel: Lucidworks
Pemrosesan Bahasa Alami - Regex
Pemrosesan Bahasa Alami - Regex
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: Rafly Chandra Rizkilillah
Mental health and Minimal English: the case of depression
Mental health and Minimal English: the case of depression
Published: 2017/05/07
Channel: NSM Lab
BNF AND EBNF part 1.flv
BNF AND EBNF part 1.flv
Published: 2012/05/18
Channel: Amila Amarasinghe
MetaFilter
MetaFilter's Downfall
Published: 2014/05/26
Channel: klangklangston
What is PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY? What does PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY mean?
What is PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY? What does PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY mean?
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: The Audiopedia
9. Linguistics and Literature
9. Linguistics and Literature
Published: 2009/09/01
Channel: YaleCourses
The Place | Calvinism, Universalism and a failed metalanguage
The Place | Calvinism, Universalism and a failed metalanguage
Published: 2016/02/25
Channel: NCG Studios
1st Language Creation Conference - 3 - John Clifford - Semantic Primes
1st Language Creation Conference - 3 - John Clifford - Semantic Primes
Published: 2011/04/19
Channel: Language Creation Society
LO30a: Predicate Logic, Soundness
LO30a: Predicate Logic, Soundness
Published: 2013/01/01
Channel: myweps2012
Principle of compositionality
Principle of compositionality
Published: 2016/01/29
Channel: WikiAudio
The semantics of ‘ugly’ in English and Russian
The semantics of ‘ugly’ in English and Russian
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: NSM Lab
Why you need the Robot Control Meta Language (RCML)?
Why you need the Robot Control Meta Language (RCML)?
Published: 2015/12/29
Channel: RCML
Film Shot Type Metalanguage [Film-as-Text Essay]
Film Shot Type Metalanguage [Film-as-Text Essay]
Published: 2017/08/09
Channel: Mr Kolber's Teaching
Prof. Anna Wierzbicka - Nagroda FNP 2010
Prof. Anna Wierzbicka - Nagroda FNP 2010
Published: 2011/03/02
Channel: Fundacja na rzecz Nauki Polskiej
Talking to people on the autism spectrum
Talking to people on the autism spectrum
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: NSM Lab
Redefining the Metalanguage of Nursing Science
Redefining the Metalanguage of Nursing Science
Published: 2012/02/14
Channel: Olga Jarrín
Narrative Medicine and Minimal English
Narrative Medicine and Minimal English
Published: 2017/05/02
Channel: NSM Lab
30 Seconds or Less: Diachronic and Synchronic Analysis
30 Seconds or Less: Diachronic and Synchronic Analysis
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: English Lecture
Applied Ethnolinguistics ... applied - Bert Peeters
Applied Ethnolinguistics ... applied - Bert Peeters
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: NSM Lab
TMT - What does "meta" mean?
TMT - What does "meta" mean?
Published: 2013/07/28
Channel: Luca D'Angelo
KnowULinguistics - Compositionality (1)
KnowULinguistics - Compositionality (1)
Published: 2012/09/06
Channel: castview
Exploration of Metalanguage Use in Assassin
Exploration of Metalanguage Use in Assassin's Creed II
Published: 2012/08/11
Channel: whatsinagameAUS
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The natural semantic metalanguage (NSM) is a linguistic theory based on the conception of Polish professor Andrzej Bogusławski. The theory was formally developed by Anna Wierzbicka at Warsaw University and later at the Australian National University in the early 1970s,[1] and Cliff Goddard at Australia's Griffith University.[2]

Approach[edit]

The natural semantic metalanguage theory attempts to reduce the semantics of all lexicons down to a restricted set of semantic primitives, or primes. Primes are universal in that they have the same translation in every language, and they are primitive in that they cannot be defined using other words. Primes are ordered together to form explications, which are descriptions of semantic representations consisting solely of primes.[1]

Research in the NSM approach deals extensively with language and cognition, and language and culture. Key areas of research include lexical semantics, grammatical semantics, phraseology and pragmatics, as well as cross-cultural communication.

Languages studied in the NSM-framework include English, Russian, Polish, French, Spanish, Malay, Japanese, Italian, Chinese, Korean, Ewe and East Cree,[3] as well as Swedish.[4]

Semantic primes[edit]

Semantic primes (also known as semantic primitives) are by definition universal and primitive. They are universal in the fact that they can be translated literally into any known language and will still have the same semantic representation. They are primitive in that most of them are abstract, and all of them are "indefinable" because they cannot be defined using only other primes.[1]

Proponents of the NSM theory argue that every language on the globe shares a core vocabulary of concepts. In 1994 and 2002, Goddard and Wierzbicka studied languages across the globe and found strong evidence supporting this argument.[1]

Wierzbicka's 1972 study proposed 14 semantic primes. That number was expanded to 60 in 2002 by Wierzbicka and Goddard, and the current agreed-upon number is 63, as put forth by Goddard in 2010.[1]

Each language's translations of the semantic primes are called exponents. Below is a list of English exponents, or the English translation of the semantic primitives. It is very important to realize that some of the exponents in the following list can be associated with meanings in English that are not shared with other languages. However, when used as an exponent in the Natural Semantic Metalanguage, we are only concerned with the meanings that are universal.

The following is a list of English exponents of semantic primes:[5]

substantives 
I, YOU, SOMEONE, PEOPLE, SOMETHING/THING, BODY
relational substantives
KIND, PART
determiners 
THIS, THE SAME, OTHER/ELSE
quantifiers 
ONE, TWO, MUCH/MANY, SOME, ALL
evaluators 
GOOD, BAD
descriptors 
BIG, SMALL
mental predicates 
THINK, KNOW, WANT, FEEL, SEE, HEAR
speech 
SAY, WORDS, TRUE
actions, events, movement, contact 
DO, HAPPEN, MOVE, TOUCH
location, existence, possession, specification 
BE (SOMEWHERE), THERE IS, HAVE, BE (SOMEONE/SOMETHING)
life and death 
LIVE, DIE
time 
WHEN/TIME, NOW, BEFORE, AFTER, A LONG TIME, A SHORT TIME, FOR SOME TIME, MOMENT
space 
WHERE/PLACE, HERE, ABOVE, BELOW, FAR, NEAR, SIDE, INSIDE
logical concepts 
NOT, MAYBE, CAN, BECAUSE, IF
intensifier, augmentor 
VERY, MORE
similarity 
LIKE/WAY

Explication[edit]

An explication is a breakdown of a non-prime concept into prime ones.

E.g., Someone X killed someone Y:
someone X did something to someone else Y
because of this, something happened to Y at the same time
because of this, something happened to Y's body
because of this, after this Y was not living anymore[6]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Murphy, M. Lynne (2010). Lexical Meaning. Cambridge. pp. 69–73. ISBN 978-0521677646. 
  2. ^ Goddard, Cliff and Wierzbicka, Anna (2002). Meaning and Universal Grammar: Theory and Empirical Findings. John Benjamins. ISBN 9781588112644. 
  3. ^ "The natural semantic metalanguage approach", in Bernd Heine and Heiko Narrog (eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis (2009) Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  4. ^ Pedersen, Jan (2010), "The different Swedish tack: An ethnopragmatic investigation of Swedish thanking and related concepts", Journal of Pragmatics 42:1258–1265.
  5. ^ Goddard, Cliff (2010). "The natural semantic metalanguage approach". The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Analysis: 459–484. 
  6. ^ Goddard, Cliff. "The Natural Semantic Metalanguage Approach" (PDF). Retrieved 27 May 2013. 

Sources[edit]

  • Goddard, Cliff. 1998. Semantic Analysis: A practical introduction. Oxford. Oxford University Press.
  • Goddard, Cliff (ed.) 2006. Ethnopragmatics – Understanding discourse in cultural context. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Goddard, Cliff (ed.) 2008. Cross-Linguistic Semantics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Goddard, Cliff and Wierzbicka, Anna (eds.). 1994. Semantic and Lexical Universals – Theory and Empirical Findings. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Goddard, Cliff and Wierzbicka, Anna (eds.). 2002. Meaning and Universal Grammar: Theory and Empirical Findings (2 volumes). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Harkins, Jean & Anna Wierzbicka. 2001. Emotions in Crosslinguistic Perspective. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Peeters, Bert (ed.) 2006. Semantic Primes and Universal Grammar: Empirical evidence from the Romance languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 1972. Semantic Primitives. Frankfurt: Athenäum.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 1992. Semantics, Culture, and Cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 1996. Semantics: Primes and Universals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 1997. Understanding Cultures Through Their Key Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 1999. Emotions Across Languages and Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 2003 (1991). Cross-cultural Pragmatics: The semantics of human interaction. 2nd edition. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 2006. English: Meaning and culture. New York: Oxford University Press.

External links[edit]

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