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What is Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM)?
What is Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM)?
Published: 2017/01/13
Channel: NSM Lab
Semantic Primes and NSM
Semantic Primes and NSM
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Jake Goldwasser
NSM, non-translatability, and
NSM, non-translatability, and 'happiness' in Chinese
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: NSM Lab
What is metalanguage?
What is metalanguage?
Published: 2017/04/30
Channel: Lisa's Study Guides
VCE English Language - Metalanguage Explained - Semantics
VCE English Language - Metalanguage Explained - Semantics
Published: 2015/01/20
Channel: Dmitri Dalla-Riva
NSM Meaning
NSM Meaning
Published: 2015/04/27
Channel: ADictionary
The semantics of ‘ugly’ in English and Russian
The semantics of ‘ugly’ in English and Russian
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: NSM Lab
Philosophy15 Episode 10: What is a Metalanguage?
Philosophy15 Episode 10: What is a Metalanguage?
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: Philosophy15
Ghanaian cultural scripts for asymmetrical social interactions
Ghanaian cultural scripts for asymmetrical social interactions
Published: 2018/02/15
Channel: NSM Lab
Metalanguage
Metalanguage
Published: 2016/08/17
Channel: Henry Scheck
9. Linguistics and Literature
9. Linguistics and Literature
Published: 2009/09/01
Channel: YaleCourses
What is OPERATIONAL SEMANTICS? What does OPERATIONAL SEMANTICS mean? OPERATIONAL SEMANTICS meaning
What is OPERATIONAL SEMANTICS? What does OPERATIONAL SEMANTICS mean? OPERATIONAL SEMANTICS meaning
Published: 2017/10/22
Channel: The Audiopedia
Redefining the Metalanguage of Nursing Science
Redefining the Metalanguage of Nursing Science
Published: 2012/02/14
Channel: Olga Jarrín
Metalinguistics Part 1
Metalinguistics Part 1
Published: 2014/01/20
Channel: Assessment
TESOL Linguistics & Metalanguage
TESOL Linguistics & Metalanguage
Published: 2012/09/14
Channel: F Tuzi
Mental health and Minimal English: the case of depression
Mental health and Minimal English: the case of depression
Published: 2017/05/07
Channel: NSM Lab
Ethnopragmatics of conversational humour; Cliff Goddard
Ethnopragmatics of conversational humour; Cliff Goddard
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: NSM Lab
Metalanguage
Metalanguage
Published: 2008/12/28
Channel: spectralsequence
Semantic & Multilingual Strategies in Lucene/Solr
Semantic & Multilingual Strategies in Lucene/Solr
Published: 2015/01/07
Channel: Lucidworks
What Is Meant By A Theory Of Semantics?
What Is Meant By A Theory Of Semantics?
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: Funny Question
"The Linguistics of Music: Analyzing Chinese Musical Concepts" by Adrian Tien
"The Linguistics of Music: Analyzing Chinese Musical Concepts" by Adrian Tien
Published: 2014/12/19
Channel: Confucius Institute at the University of Michigan
What does metalanguage mean?
What does metalanguage mean?
Published: 2014/12/11
Channel: What Does That Mean?
Applied Ethnolinguistics ... applied - Bert Peeters
Applied Ethnolinguistics ... applied - Bert Peeters
Published: 2017/05/11
Channel: NSM Lab
Health and childbirth messages in PNG
Health and childbirth messages in PNG
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: NSM Lab
Language and Symbolic Power Pdf
Language and Symbolic Power Pdf
Published: 2015/12/17
Channel: Iona People
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Vilive
Published: 2017/04/03
Channel: Cintia Di Prinzio
Literacy, translation and Minimal English in the Solomon Islands
Literacy, translation and Minimal English in the Solomon Islands
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: NSM Lab
What Is The Universal Grammar Theory?
What Is The Universal Grammar Theory?
Published: 2017/07/06
Channel: sparky Q
Grammar & The Lexicon
Grammar & The Lexicon
Published: 2012/09/17
Channel: F Tuzi
'What campus activities and traditions exist on UK campuses?' | Hotcourses Abroad
Published: 2014/01/27
Channel: Hotcourses Abroad
metalanguage level 1
metalanguage level 1
Published: 2011/11/05
Channel: ashleyinkorea
What is PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY? What does PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY mean?
What is PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY? What does PRINCIPLE OF COMPOSITIONALITY mean?
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: The Audiopedia
A Brief Discussion of Anna Wierzbicka and her contributions
A Brief Discussion of Anna Wierzbicka and her contributions
Published: 2011/07/05
Channel: birdman9265
1st Language Creation Conference - 3 - John Clifford - Semantic Primes
1st Language Creation Conference - 3 - John Clifford - Semantic Primes
Published: 2011/04/19
Channel: Language Creation Society
Undervisning og Mødrehjem - NSM til Bangkok - Giving Tuesday
Undervisning og Mødrehjem - NSM til Bangkok - Giving Tuesday
Published: 2017/11/22
Channel: Norwegian Teacher - Karin
Wszechświat przemyśliwany na nowo, Anna Wierzbicka (Copernicus Center Lecture 2015)
Wszechświat przemyśliwany na nowo, Anna Wierzbicka (Copernicus Center Lecture 2015)
Published: 2015/12/12
Channel: Copernicus Center for Interdisciplinary Studies
3. Systems Modeling Languages
3. Systems Modeling Languages
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: MIT OpenCourseWare
Food Fuels and Energy Systems Part 1
Food Fuels and Energy Systems Part 1
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: Dan Webber
The Place | Calvinism, Universalism and a failed metalanguage
The Place | Calvinism, Universalism and a failed metalanguage
Published: 2016/02/25
Channel: NCG Studios
Talking to people on the autism spectrum
Talking to people on the autism spectrum
Published: 2017/05/09
Channel: NSM Lab
Exploration of Metalanguage Use in Assassin
Exploration of Metalanguage Use in Assassin's Creed II
Published: 2012/08/11
Channel: whatsinagameAUS
Nunerologia chińska - Anna Wierzbicka
Nunerologia chińska - Anna Wierzbicka
Published: 2012/04/10
Channel: MrTienmen
Jak wściekły lis przechytrzył człowieka. Anna Wierzbicka, finał FameLab 2016
Jak wściekły lis przechytrzył człowieka. Anna Wierzbicka, finał FameLab 2016
Published: 2016/04/17
Channel: Centrum Nauki Kopernik
Hypnosis For Sales PT 2 - Scott Jansen
Hypnosis For Sales PT 2 - Scott Jansen
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: Conversational Hypnosis Academy
What Constitutes The Syntax Of A Language?
What Constitutes The Syntax Of A Language?
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: I Question You
2011-10-19 CERIAS - Ontological Semantic Technology Goes Phishing
2011-10-19 CERIAS - Ontological Semantic Technology Goes Phishing
Published: 2012/05/11
Channel: ceriaspurdue
Prof. Anna Wierzbicka - Nagroda FNP 2010
Prof. Anna Wierzbicka - Nagroda FNP 2010
Published: 2011/03/02
Channel: Fundacja na rzecz Nauki Polskiej
Axiomatic Language
Axiomatic Language
Published: 2016/01/19
Channel: Walter Wilson
Peter Hines: "Types and forgetfulness in categorical linguistics and quantum mechanics"
Peter Hines: "Types and forgetfulness in categorical linguistics and quantum mechanics"
Published: 2012/05/01
Channel: OxfordQuantumVideo
Minimal English for a Global World
Minimal English for a Global World
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: NSM Lab
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The Natural semantic metalanguage (NSM) is a linguistic theory based on the conception of Polish professor Andrzej Bogusławski. The theory was formally developed by Anna Wierzbicka at Warsaw University and later at the Australian National University in the early 1970s,[1] and Cliff Goddard at Australia's Griffith University.[2]

Approach[edit]

The Natural semantic metalanguage theory attempts to reduce the semantics of all lexicons down to a restricted set of semantic primitives, or primes. Primes are universal in that they have the same translation in every language, and they are primitive in that they cannot be defined using other words. Primes are ordered together to form explications, which are descriptions of semantic representations consisting solely of primes.[1]

Research in the NSM approach deals extensively with language and cognition, and language and culture. Key areas of research include lexical semantics, grammatical semantics, phraseology and pragmatics, as well as cross-cultural communication.

Languages studied in the NSM-framework include English, Russian, Polish, French, Spanish, Italian, Swedish, Danish, Finnish, Malay, Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Ewe, Wolof, East Cree, Koromu, and a number of creole languages including Trinidadian creole, Bislama and Tok Pisin.

Semantic primes[edit]

Semantic primes (also known as semantic primitives) are concepts that are universal and primitive. Universal indicates that they can be translated literally into any known language and retain their semantic representation. They are primitive as they are proposed to be the most simple linguistic concepts and are unable to be defined using simpler terms [1].

Proponents of the NSM theory argue that every language shares a core vocabulary of concepts. In 1994 and 2002, Goddard and Wierzbicka studied languages across the globe and found strong evidence supporting this argument[1].

Wierzbicka's 1972 study[3] proposed 14 semantic primes. That number was expanded to 60 in 2002 by Wierzbicka and Goddard, and the current agreed-upon number is 65 [4][5].

Each language's translations of the semantic primes are called exponents. Below is a list of English exponents, or the English translation of the semantic primes. It is important to note that some of the exponents in the following list are polysemous and can be associated with meanings in English (and other languages) that are not shared. However, when used as an exponent in the Natural semantic metalanguage, it is only the prime concept which is identified as universal.

The following is a list of English exponents of semantic primes adapted from Levisen and Waters (eds.) 2017[6].

Category Primes
Substantives I, YOU, SOMEONE, PEOPLE, SOMETHING/THING, BODY
Relational Substantives KIND, PART
Determiners THIS, THE SAME, OTHER~ELSE~ANOTHER
Quantifiers ONE, TWO, SOME, ALL, MUCH/MANY, LITTLE/FEW
Evaluators GOOD, BAD
Descriptors BIG, SMALL
Mental predicates THINK, KNOW, WANT, DON'T WANT, FEEL, SEE, HEAR
Speech SAY, WORDS, TRUE
Actions, Events, Movement DO, HAPPEN, MOVE
Existence, Possession BE (SOMEWHERE), THERE IS, BE (SOMEONE/SOMETHING), (IS) MINE
Life and Death LIVE, DIE
Time WHEN/TIME, NOW, BEFORE, AFTER, A LONG TIME, A SHORT TIME, FOR SOME TIME, MOMENT
Space WHERE/PLACE, HERE, ABOVE, BELOW, FAR, NEAR, SIDE, INSIDE, TOUCH (CONTACT)
Logical Concepts NOT, MAYBE, CAN, BECAUSE, IF
Intensifier, Augmentor VERY, MORE
Similarity LIKE/AS/WAY

NSM Syntax[edit]

NSM primes can be combined in a limited set of syntactic frames that are also universal [7]. These valency options specify the specific types of grammatical functions that can be combined with the primes. While these combinations can be realized differently in other languages, it is believed that the meanings expressed by these syntactic combinations are universal.

Example of valency frames for SAY (from Semantic Analysis [7] )

someone said something→[minimal frame]

someone said: '––'→[direct speech]

someone said something to someone→[plus 'addressee']

someone said something about something/someone→[plus 'locutionary topic']

Explications[edit]

A semantic analysis in the NSM approach results in a reductive paraphrase called an explication that captures the meaning of the concept explicated [7]. An ideal explication can be substituted for the original expression in context without change of meaning.

E.g., Someone X killed someone Y:
someone X did something to someone else Y
because of this, something happened to Y at the same time
because of this, something happened to Y's body
because of this, after this Y was not living anymore[8]

Semantic Molecules[edit]

Semantic molecules are intermediary words used in explications and cultural scripts. While not semantic primes, they can be defined exclusively using primes. Semantic molecules can be determined as words that are necessary to build upon to explicate other words [6]. These molecules are marked by the notation [m] in explications and cultural scripts. Some molecules are proposed to be universal or near-universal, while others are culture or area specific[9].

Examples of proposed universal molecules:

hands, mouth, eyes, head, ears, nose, face, teeth, fingers, breast, skin, bones, blood Body parts
long, round, flat, thin, hard, soft, sharp, smooth, heavy Physical
children, men, women, be born, mother, father, wife, husband Biosocial

Minimal English[edit]

Minimal English is a new derivative of the Natural semantic metalanguage research, with the first major publication in 2018 [10]. It is a reduced form of English designed for non-specialists to use when requiring clarity of expression or easily translatable materials[11]. Minimal English uses an expanded set of vocabulary to the semantic primes. It includes the proposed universal and near-universal molecules, as well as non-universal words which can assist in clarity [12]. Minimal English differs from other simple Englishes (such as Basic English) as it has been specifically designed for maximal cross-translatability.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Murphy, M. Lynne (2010). Lexical Meaning. Cambridge. pp. 69–73. ISBN 978-0521677646. 
  2. ^ Goddard, Cliff; Wierzbicka, Anna, eds. (2002). Meaning and Universal Grammar: Theory and Empirical Findings. John Benjamins. ISBN 9781588112644. 
  3. ^ Wierzbicka, Anna (1972). Semantic Primitives. Athenäum. 
  4. ^ Ye, Zhengdao, ed. (2017). The Semantics of Nouns. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198736721. 
  5. ^ Goddard, Cliff; Wierzbicka, Anna (2014). Words and Meanings: Lexical Semantics across Domains, Languages and Cultures. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199668434. 
  6. ^ a b Levisen, Carsten; Waters, Sophia, eds. (2017). Cultural Keywords in Discourse. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. ISBN 9789027256829. 
  7. ^ a b c Goddard, Cliff (2011). Semantic Analysis. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199560288. 
  8. ^ Goddard, Cliff. "The Natural Semantic Metalanguage Approach" (PDF). Retrieved 27 May 2013. 
  9. ^ Goddard, Cliff. "Semantic Molecules". NSM Homepage. Retrieved 2 February 2018. 
  10. ^ Goddard, Cliff, ed. (2018). Minimal English for a Global World. Palgrave Macmillan. 
  11. ^ Goddard, Cliff; Wierzbicka, Anna. "Global English, Minimal English position papers" (PDF). Global English, Minimal English: Towards better intercultural communication. Retrieved 2 February 2018. 
  12. ^ Goddard, Cliff. "Minimal English". NSM Homepage. Retrieved 2 February 2018. 

Sources[edit]

  • Goddard, Cliff. 1998. Semantic Analysis: A practical introduction. Oxford. Oxford University Press.
  • Goddard, Cliff (ed.) 2006. Ethnopragmatics – Understanding discourse in cultural context. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Goddard, Cliff (ed.) 2008. Cross-Linguistic Semantics. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Goddard, Cliff and Wierzbicka, Anna (eds.). 1994. Semantic and Lexical Universals – Theory and Empirical Findings. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Goddard, Cliff and Wierzbicka, Anna (eds.). 2002. Meaning and Universal Grammar: Theory and Empirical Findings (2 volumes). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.
  • Harkins, Jean & Anna Wierzbicka. 2001. Emotions in Crosslinguistic Perspective. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Peeters, Bert (ed.) 2006. Semantic Primes and Universal Grammar: Empirical evidence from the Romance languages. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 1972. Semantic Primitives. Frankfurt: Athenäum.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 1992. Semantics, Culture, and Cognition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 1996. Semantics: Primes and Universals. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 1997. Understanding Cultures Through Their Key Words. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 1999. Emotions Across Languages and Cultures. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 2003 (1991). Cross-cultural Pragmatics: The semantics of human interaction. 2nd edition. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Wierzbicka, Anna. 2006. English: Meaning and culture. New York: Oxford University Press.

External links[edit]

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