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Nelumbo - My Wife [Official Video]
Nelumbo - My Wife [Official Video]
Published: 2014/05/21
Channel: Estamos Felices
Narcyz - dlaczego go przyciągasz? Współuzależnienie oraz jak zachować spokój i uważność
Narcyz - dlaczego go przyciągasz? Współuzależnienie oraz jak zachować spokój i uważność
Published: 2018/01/25
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Seerosenfarm Nelumbo Pink and Yellow
Seerosenfarm Nelumbo Pink and Yellow
Published: 2015/05/16
Channel: Seerosenfarm Lotusland
Analiza vs. intuicja - bardzo proste rozróżnienie
Analiza vs. intuicja - bardzo proste rozróżnienie
Published: 2018/01/31
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Nelumbo nucifera
Nelumbo nucifera
Published: 2013/09/30
Channel: momentaryvitality
Deeper Sublime & Samiran Saharia - Nelumbo
Deeper Sublime & Samiran Saharia - Nelumbo
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: deepersublime
TOUT SAVOIR SUR LE LOTUS (Nelumbo nucifera)
TOUT SAVOIR SUR LE LOTUS (Nelumbo nucifera)
Published: 2016/01/28
Channel: newsjardintv
FRUSTRACJA - komu się to przydarza?
FRUSTRACJA - komu się to przydarza?
Published: 2017/09/28
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Nelumbo - Key
Nelumbo - Key's Blue.
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: David A. Ríos R.
NELUMBO INSTITUTE, nasze przesłanie i misja
NELUMBO INSTITUTE, nasze przesłanie i misja
Published: 2016/01/05
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Nelumbo-Combo Intensive 2015, LOVE WITHIN US
Nelumbo-Combo Intensive 2015, LOVE WITHIN US
Published: 2015/09/06
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Duchowość a narcyzm
Duchowość a narcyzm
Published: 2018/01/02
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Nelumbo -  I Don
Nelumbo - I Don't Know
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: David A. Ríos R.
Narcyzm ukryty - jak rozpoznać narcyza, którego nie widać
Narcyzm ukryty - jak rozpoznać narcyza, którego nie widać
Published: 2018/01/16
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Lotus : Nelumbo Snow White
Lotus : Nelumbo Snow White
Published: 2017/08/03
Channel: Ganesh Anandhakrishnan
How to Make Nelumbo Nucifera Tea : Tea Time
How to Make Nelumbo Nucifera Tea : Tea Time
Published: 2012/11/26
Channel: cookingguide
Komfort pozostania w "nie wiem" - zen w codziennej praktyce nie muszenia
Komfort pozostania w "nie wiem" - zen w codziennej praktyce nie muszenia
Published: 2018/02/07
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Cluzaz 2013 Nelumbo
Cluzaz 2013 Nelumbo
Published: 2013/04/10
Channel: Abdé Traoré
PARADOKS AKCEPTACJI jako niezbędny warunek zmiany
PARADOKS AKCEPTACJI jako niezbędny warunek zmiany
Published: 2017/04/15
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Instytut Nelumbo - rozwój osobisty w combo wydaniu
Instytut Nelumbo - rozwój osobisty w combo wydaniu
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: Mlodzikova
Making High Concentration Resin Oil with White Lotus Nelumbo nucifera for Vaping or Dabbing
Making High Concentration Resin Oil with White Lotus Nelumbo nucifera for Vaping or Dabbing
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: WEED HUNTERS THAILAND
Spotkanie autorskie Easy Grace (Instiutute Nelumbo), książka "Ja czyli kto?"
Spotkanie autorskie Easy Grace (Instiutute Nelumbo), książka "Ja czyli kto?"
Published: 2014/03/23
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
nelumbo louise slocum
nelumbo louise slocum
Published: 2017/06/14
Channel: Seerosenfarm Lotusland
Laura introduces Lotus Elite Red : Nelumbo nucifera - growing lotus
Laura introduces Lotus Elite Red : Nelumbo nucifera - growing lotus
Published: 2010/07/08
Channel: pondmegastore
NELUMBO en ES COMO TODO (WAKE ME UP)
NELUMBO en ES COMO TODO (WAKE ME UP)
Published: 2015/03/13
Channel: MrEscomotodo
Planting a water lotus ( Nelumbo)
Planting a water lotus ( Nelumbo)
Published: 2017/04/18
Channel: Alan Pieluszynski
Nelumbo, Studium Mandali Systemowych i Psychosomatyki
Nelumbo, Studium Mandali Systemowych i Psychosomatyki
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Fruit and unripe seed pod of lotus or Nelumbo nucifera
Fruit and unripe seed pod of lotus or Nelumbo nucifera
Published: 2012/12/19
Channel: WildFilmsIndia
Lotus fertilizing, water garden lotus, Nelumbo, Pond lotus flowers.
Lotus fertilizing, water garden lotus, Nelumbo, Pond lotus flowers.
Published: 2010/10/03
Channel: pondmegastore
My Wife - Nelumbo - Grupo argentino
My Wife - Nelumbo - Grupo argentino
Published: 2014/12/09
Channel: Talu - Cultura & Genero
Obawa przed proszeniem
Obawa przed proszeniem
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Lotus : Nelumbo Arun
Lotus : Nelumbo Arun
Published: 2017/07/27
Channel: Ganesh Anandhakrishnan
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera   5 jan 2015
Lotus Nelumbo nucifera 5 jan 2015
Published: 2015/01/05
Channel: Robin Lock
Water resistant leaves of Lotus or Nelumbo nucifera
Water resistant leaves of Lotus or Nelumbo nucifera
Published: 2012/12/19
Channel: WildFilmsIndia
Water Lilies vs Lotus Water Garden Plants, Nymphaea vs Nelumbo
Water Lilies vs Lotus Water Garden Plants, Nymphaea vs Nelumbo
Published: 2009/09/10
Channel: pondmegastore
Osobista wolność zamiast guru
Osobista wolność zamiast guru
Published: 2018/01/01
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
PINK LOTUS STAMENS REVIEW (herbal series) Nymphaea nelumbo
PINK LOTUS STAMENS REVIEW (herbal series) Nymphaea nelumbo
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: UNTOLD INSIGHT
Lotus Flower (Nelumbo nucifera) in pond water
Lotus Flower (Nelumbo nucifera) in pond water
Published: 2014/07/30
Channel: Media Space
ZMIANA - PIENIĄDZE ZAWSZE PŁYNĄ! - konkurs NELUMBO
ZMIANA - PIENIĄDZE ZAWSZE PŁYNĄ! - konkurs NELUMBO
Published: 2015/06/23
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Pink Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera)
Pink Lotus (Nelumbo Nucifera)
Published: 2017/01/07
Channel: Vera Jusnita
Nelumbo kieming van de zaden. (Lotus)
Nelumbo kieming van de zaden. (Lotus)
Published: 2017/01/08
Channel: Allseeds Europe
Nelumbo - Helios
Nelumbo - Helios
Published: 2013/11/07
Channel: harry dooner
La culture du lotus sacré (nelumbo nucifera)
La culture du lotus sacré (nelumbo nucifera)
Published: 2010/09/15
Channel: Julien Aerono
NELUMBO en ES COMO TODO (MY WIFE)
NELUMBO en ES COMO TODO (MY WIFE)
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: MrEscomotodo
Nelumbo lutea
Nelumbo lutea
Published: 2013/03/14
Channel: Arkadiusz Prażmowski
Nelumbo nucifera Sacred Lotus
Nelumbo nucifera Sacred Lotus
Published: 2013/07/01
Channel: helie bautista
Twoje życie - osobisty taniec czy zbiorowa gra?
Twoje życie - osobisty taniec czy zbiorowa gra?
Published: 2017/12/30
Channel: Instytut Nelumbo
Soirée Cabaret au Nelumbo
Soirée Cabaret au Nelumbo
Published: 2016/03/30
Channel: pascal butun
Nelumbo nucifera  in container of 18 gallons
Nelumbo nucifera in container of 18 gallons
Published: 2016/05/15
Channel: Ardan
The benefits of eating Lotus Root aka Nelumbo nucifera
The benefits of eating Lotus Root aka Nelumbo nucifera
Published: 2014/01/26
Channel: Music, Beauty Travel and Cooking
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Nelumbo
Temporal range: Cretaceous–Recent
Nelumno nucifera open flower - botanic garden adelaide2.jpg
N. nucifera (sacred lotus)
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Proteales
Family: Nelumbonaceae
Genus: Nelumbo
Adans.
Species

Nelumbo is a genus of aquatic plants with large, showy flowers. Members are commonly called lotus, though "lotus" is a name also applied to various other plants and plant groups, including the unrelated genus Lotus. Members outwardly resemble those in the family Nymphaeaceae ("water lilies"), but Nelumbo is actually very distant to Nymphaeaceae. "Nelumbo" is derived from the Sinhalese word Sinhalese: නෙළුම් neḷum, the name for the lotus Nelumbo nucifera.[1]

There are only two known living species of lotus; Nelumbo nucifera is native to Asia and is better-known. It is commonly cultivated; it is eaten and used in traditional Chinese medicine. This species is the floral emblem of both India and Vietnam.

The other lotus is Nelumbo lutea and is native to North America and the Caribbean. Horticultural hybrids have been produced between these two allopatric species.

There are several fossil species known from Cretaceous, Paleogene and Neogene aged strata throughout Eurasia and North America.

Species[edit]

N. lutea (American lotus)
Nelumbo 'Mrs. Perry D. Slocum'- Dried seed pod
Lotus in lake, showing leaves, buds, flowers, seed heads

Extant species[edit]

Fossil species[edit]

Classification[edit]

There is residual disagreement over which family the genus should be placed in. Traditional classification systems recognized Nelumbo as part of the Nymphaeaceae, but traditional taxonomists were likely misled by convergent evolution associated with an evolutionary shift from a terrestrial to an aquatic lifestyle. In the older classification systems it was recognized under the biological order Nymphaeales or Nelumbonales. Nelumbo is currently recognized as a only living genus in Nelumbonaceae, one of several distinctive families in the eudicot order of the Proteales. Its closest living relatives, the (Proteaceae and Platanaceae), are shrubs or trees.

The leaves of Nelumbo can be distinguished from those of genera in the Nymphaeaceae as they are peltate, that is they have fully circular leaves. Nymphaea, on the other hand, has a single characteristic notch from the edge in to the center of the lily pad. The seedpod of Nelumbo is very distinctive.

APG[edit]

Foliage of Nelumbo nucifera: an example of the lotus effect after rain.

The APG IV system of 2016, recognizes Nelumbonaceae as a distinct family and places it in the order Proteales in the eudicot clade, as do the earlier APG III and APG II systems.[4]

Earlier classification systems[edit]

The Cronquist system of 1981 recognizes the family but places it in the water lily order Nymphaeales. The Dahlgren system of 1985 and Thorne system of 1992 both recognize the family and place it in its own order, Nelumbonales.

Characteristics[edit]

Superhydrophobicity[edit]

The leaves of nelumbo are highly water-repellent (i.e. they exhibit ultrahydrophobicity) and have given the name to what is called the lotus effect.[5]

Thermoregulation[edit]

Nelumbo nucifera regulates its temperature in order to benefit insect pollinators. When the plant flowers, it heats its blossoms to above 30 °C (86 °F) for as long as four days even when the air is as cool as 10 °C (50 °F). The heat releases an aroma that attracts certain insects, which fly into the flower to feed on nectar and pollen. According to Roger Seymour and Paul Schultze-Motel of Australia’s University of Adelaide, the heat also rewards insects with a stable environment that enhances their ability to eat, mate, and prepare for flight.[6]

Cultural significance[edit]

The sacred lotus, N. nucifera, is sacred in both Hinduism and Buddhism.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Hyam, R. & Pankhurst, R.J. (1995). Plants and their names : a concise dictionary. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-866189-4. 
  2. ^ a b "Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus)". Kew. Retrieved 26 July 2015. 
  3. ^ Hickey, Leo (1977). Stratigraphy and Paleobotany of the Golden Valley Formation (Early Tertiary) of Western North Dakota. Boulder, Colorado: Geological Society of America. pp. 110 & Plate 5. ISBN 0-8137-1150-9. 
  4. ^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2016). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG IV" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 181 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1111/boj.12385. ISSN 0024-4074. 
  5. ^ Darmanin, Thierry; Guittard, Frédéric (1 June 2015). "Superhydrophobic and superoleophobic properties in nature". Materials Today. 18 (5): 273–285. doi:10.1016/j.mattod.2015.01.001. 
  6. ^ "Heat of Lotus Attracts Insects And Scientists". New York Times. 1996-10-01. 

External links[edit]

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