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The Evolution of Life part 12 : Neogene
The Evolution of Life part 12 : Neogene
Published: 2017/02/14
Channel: Anthöny Pain
Neogene period
Neogene period
Published: 2016/01/19
Channel: Hunter Robert Lebo
neogene-Burn
neogene-Burn
Published: 2011/02/06
Channel: NEOGENE2004
Neogene
Neogene
Published: 2014/11/15
Channel: Audiopedia
TOP 10 COOLEST ANIMALS OF THE NEOGENE PERIOD
TOP 10 COOLEST ANIMALS OF THE NEOGENE PERIOD
Published: 2016/04/01
Channel: Dmt nightmare
Luke - Neogene
Luke - Neogene
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: Luke88128
Neogene - live
Neogene - live
Published: 2011/02/06
Channel: J. Jesus Fernandez
What Is Neogene Period?
What Is Neogene Period?
Published: 2017/10/08
Channel: Bet 2 Bet
neogene - Everything (acoustic version)
neogene - Everything (acoustic version)
Published: 2014/08/26
Channel: NEOGENE2004
Neogene Concepts Showreel
Neogene Concepts Showreel
Published: 2015/09/14
Channel: Abhinav Ashu
Neogene Period Project
Neogene Period Project
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: Nathan Long
[Intro] - Neogene {Late!} (Vaporwave)
[Intro] - Neogene {Late!} (Vaporwave)
Published: 2016/07/31
Channel: SetyMedia
Neogene Period 360p
Neogene Period 360p
Published: 2016/04/13
Channel: 20marash
Neogene; An Educational Parody
Neogene; An Educational Parody
Published: 2015/10/15
Channel: Sandy Graves
Rihanna-We Found Love ( NeoGene Dubstep Bootleg)
Rihanna-We Found Love ( NeoGene Dubstep Bootleg)
Published: 2012/01/18
Channel: NeoGeneOfficial
NEOGENE-Making of Ride
NEOGENE-Making of Ride
Published: 2010/02/18
Channel: NEOGENE2004
The Rise and Fall of the Neogene Giant Sharks
The Rise and Fall of the Neogene Giant Sharks
Published: 2013/10/15
Channel: Calvert Marine
NeoGene Goes DubMixing
NeoGene Goes DubMixing
Published: 2012/03/17
Channel: NeoGeneOfficial
neogene - One World
neogene - One World
Published: 2014/07/31
Channel: NEOGENE2004
Neogene Time Period Video
Neogene Time Period Video
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: Bethany D Head
Neogene
Neogene
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: WikiWikiup
NeoGene MiniHouse Mix
NeoGene MiniHouse Mix
Published: 2012/04/02
Channel: NeoGeneOfficial
neogene - A New Day
neogene - A New Day
Published: 2014/09/12
Channel: NEOGENE2004
[Outro] - Neogene (Leafywave)
[Outro] - Neogene (Leafywave)
Published: 2016/11/15
Channel: SetyMedia
NeoGene Hardstyle Mix Ep.1
NeoGene Hardstyle Mix Ep.1
Published: 2012/03/26
Channel: NeoGeneOfficial
neogene
neogene
Published: 2016/02/27
Channel: Diosselyn Tot
Neogene Meaning
Neogene Meaning
Published: 2015/04/20
Channel: SDictionary
[Intro] - Neogene || Version 2 (Leafywave)
[Intro] - Neogene || Version 2 (Leafywave)
Published: 2016/11/07
Channel: SetyMedia
Neogene-Bert Anjewierden
Neogene-Bert Anjewierden
Published: 2014/05/28
Channel: Bert Anjewierden
neogene - Rootless Tree
neogene - Rootless Tree
Published: 2011/03/09
Channel: NEOGENE2004
Cantalapiedra:Diversification and rapid phenotypic evolution decoupled in Neogene equids
Cantalapiedra:Diversification and rapid phenotypic evolution decoupled in Neogene equids
Published: 2016/06/21
Channel: Evolution2016 Videos
Promises - Nero & Skrillex  (Neogene Extended Drumstep Mix)
Promises - Nero & Skrillex (Neogene Extended Drumstep Mix)
Published: 2012/05/22
Channel: NeoGeneOfficial
DJ Mangoo - Eurodancer (Neogene Remake)
DJ Mangoo - Eurodancer (Neogene Remake)
Published: 2012/12/28
Channel: NeoGeneOfficial
Neogene Code9 Black Volume krém
Neogene Code9 Black Volume krém
Published: 2017/07/14
Channel: Ambrózia Kozmetikumok
neogene - Brainville
neogene - Brainville
Published: 2014/08/28
Channel: NEOGENE2004
NEOGENE-Smoke
NEOGENE-Smoke
Published: 2010/02/16
Channel: NEOGENE2004
Brochure of NeoGene Period
Brochure of NeoGene Period
Published: 2015/02/28
Channel: Cooldude1450
Trodden Shame - Neogene (Full Album)
Trodden Shame - Neogene (Full Album)
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: troddenshameofficial
Why has the Nazca plate slowed since the Neogene?
Why has the Nazca plate slowed since the Neogene?
Published: 2012/12/03
Channel: Javier Quinteros
Neogene period Senjojiki 千畳敷 新第三紀 南紀白浜 1
Neogene period Senjojiki 千畳敷 新第三紀 南紀白浜 1
Published: 2014/03/06
Channel: 一二三渡辺
水樹奈々『NEOGENE CREATION』全曲試聴動画
水樹奈々『NEOGENE CREATION』全曲試聴動画
Published: 2016/12/20
Channel: 水樹奈々 YouTube Official Channel
Centro Pilota Neogene ( Corsi Ricostruzione - Nail Art - Micropittura)
Centro Pilota Neogene ( Corsi Ricostruzione - Nail Art - Micropittura)
Published: 2012/04/20
Channel: CalcagniSrl
Virtual NHM Neogene SpeedPainting
Virtual NHM Neogene SpeedPainting
Published: 2016/11/06
Channel: Claire Morley
NEOGENE-In your eyes
NEOGENE-In your eyes
Published: 2010/02/16
Channel: NEOGENE2004
Rihanna - Where Have You Been ( NeoGene Re-Cut Extended Mix )
Rihanna - Where Have You Been ( NeoGene Re-Cut Extended Mix )
Published: 2012/04/28
Channel: NeoGeneOfficial
DJ NeoGene F*ck Around Mix
DJ NeoGene F*ck Around Mix
Published: 2012/03/15
Channel: NeoGeneOfficial
Neogene - " Hello " Live auf der Musikmesse 2011 Frankfurt 07.04.11
Neogene - " Hello " Live auf der Musikmesse 2011 Frankfurt 07.04.11
Published: 2011/04/15
Channel: Eventfotografie
Fossil Mammals of Asia Neogene Biostratigraphy and Chronology
Fossil Mammals of Asia Neogene Biostratigraphy and Chronology
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: Luther. A
Neogene
Neogene
Published: 2014/06/21
Channel: Various Artists - Topic
NeoGene Live House Mix || EP.2
NeoGene Live House Mix || EP.2
Published: 2012/07/23
Channel: NeoGeneOfficial
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Neogene Period
23.03–2.58 million years ago
Mean atmospheric O
2
content over period duration
c. 21.5 vol %[1][2]
(108 % of modern level
Mean atmospheric CO
2
content over period duration
c. 280 ppm[3]
(1 times pre-industrial level)
Mean surface temperature over period duration c. 14 °C[4]
(0 °C above modern level)
Key events in the Neogene
view • discuss • edit
-24 —
-22 —
-20 —
-18 —
-16 —
-14 —
-12 —
-10 —
-8 —
-6 —
-4 —
-2 —
0 —
Holocene begins 11.7 ka ago
An approximate timescale of key Neogene events.
Vertical axis: millions of years ago.

The Neogene ( /ˈnəˌn/)[6][7] is a geologic period and system that spans 20.45 million years from the end of the Paleogene Period 23.03 million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the present Quaternary Period 2.58 Mya. The Neogene is sub-divided into two epochs, the earlier Miocene and the later Pliocene. Some geologists assert that the Neogene cannot be clearly delineated from the modern geological period, the Quaternary.

During this period, mammals and birds continued to evolve into roughly modern forms, while other groups of life remained relatively unchanged. Early hominids, the ancestors of humans, appeared in Africa near the end of the period. Some continental movement took place, the most significant event being the connection of North and South America at the Isthmus of Panama, late in the Pliocene. This cut off the warm ocean currents from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean, leaving only the Gulf Stream to transfer heat to the Arctic Ocean. The global climate cooled considerably over the course of the Neogene, culminating in a series of continental glaciations in the Quaternary Period that follows.

Divisions[edit]

In ICS terminology, from upper (later, more recent) to lower (earlier):

The Pliocene Epoch is subdivided into 2 ages:

The Miocene Epoch is subdivided into 6 ages:

In different geophysical regions of the world, other regional names are also used for the same or overlapping ages and other timeline subdivisions.

The terms Neogene System (formal) and upper Tertiary System (informal) describe the rocks deposited during the Neogene Period.

Geography[edit]

The continents in the Neogene were very close to their current positions. The Isthmus of Panama formed, connecting North and South America. The Indian subcontinent continued to collide with Asia, forming the Himalayas. Sea levels fell, creating land bridges between Africa and Eurasia and between Eurasia and North America.

Climate[edit]

The global climate became seasonal and continued an overall drying and cooling trend which began at the start of the Paleogene. The ice caps on both poles began to grow and thicken, and by the end of the period the first of a series of glaciations of the current Ice Age began.

Flora and fauna[edit]

Scene featuring Miocene (Early Neogene) fauna

Marine and continental flora and fauna have a modern appearance. The reptile group Choristodera became extinct in the early part of the period, while the amphibians known as Allocaudata disappeared at the end. Mammals and birds continued to be the dominant terrestrial vertebrates, and took many forms as they adapted to various habitats. The first hominids, the ancestors of humans, appeared in southern Europe and migrated into Africa [8][9].

In response to the cooler, seasonal climate, tropical plant species gave way to deciduous ones and grasslands replaced many forests. Grasses therefore greatly diversified, and herbivorous mammals evolved alongside it, creating the many grazing animals of today such as horses, antelope, and bison.

Disagreements[edit]

The Neogene traditionally ended at the end of the Pliocene Epoch, just before the older definition of the beginning of the Quaternary Period; many time scales show this division.

However, there was a movement amongst geologists (particularly marine geologists) to also include ongoing geological time (Quaternary) in the Neogene, while others (particularly terrestrial geologists) insist the Quaternary to be a separate period of distinctly different record. The somewhat confusing terminology and disagreement amongst geologists on where to draw what hierarchical boundaries is due to the comparatively fine divisibility of time units as time approaches the present, and due to geological preservation that causes the youngest sedimentary geological record to be preserved over a much larger area and to reflect many more environments than the older geological record.[10] By dividing the Cenozoic Era into three (arguably two) periods (Paleogene, Neogene, Quaternary) instead of seven epochs, the periods are more closely comparable to the duration of periods in the Mesozoic and Paleozoic eras.

The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) once proposed that the Quaternary be considered a sub-era (sub-erathem) of the Neogene, with a beginning date of 2.58 Ma, namely the start of the Gelasian Stage. In the 2004 proposal of the ICS, the Neogene would have consisted of the Miocene and Pliocene epochs.[11] The International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) counterproposed that the Neogene and the Pliocene end at 2.58 Ma, that the Gelasian be transferred to the Pleistocene, and the Quaternary be recognized as the third period in the Cenozoic, citing key changes in Earth's climate, oceans, and biota that occurred 2.58 Ma and its correspondence to the Gauss-Matuyama magnetostratigraphic boundary.[12] In 2006 ICS and INQUA reached a compromise that made Quaternary a subera, subdividing Cenozoic into the old classical Tertiary and Quaternary, a compromise that was rejected by International Union of Geological Sciences because it split both Neogene and Pliocene in two.[13]

Following formal discussions at the International Geological Congress, Oslo Norway, August 2008,[14] the ICS decided in May 2009 to make the Quaternary the youngest period of the Cenozoic Era with its base at 2.58 Mya and including the Gelasian age, which was formerly considered part of the Neogene Period and Pliocene Epoch.[15] Thus the Neogene Period ends bounding the succeeding Quaternary Period at 2.58 Mya.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Image:Sauerstoffgehalt-1000mj.svg
  2. ^ File:OxygenLevel-1000ma.svg
  3. ^ Image:Phanerozoic Carbon Dioxide.png
  4. ^ Image:All palaeotemps.png
  5. ^ Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, M.; Langereis, C. G.; Daams, R.; Van Dam, J.; Van Der Meulen, A. J.; Agustí, J.; Cabrera, L. (1996). "A new chronology for the middle to late Miocene continental record in Spain". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 142 (3-4): 367–380. Bibcode:1996E&PSL.142..367K. doi:10.1016/0012-821X(96)00109-4. 
  6. ^ "Neogene". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. 
  7. ^ "Neogene". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. 
  8. ^ https://phys.org/news/2017-05-scientists-million-year-old-pre-human-balkans.html
  9. ^ .https://www.researchgate.net/blog/post/9-7-million-year-old-teeth-fossils-raise-questions-about-human-origin
  10. ^ Tucker, M. E. (2001) Sedimentary Petrology (3rd ed.) Blackwell Science, Osney Nead, Oxford, UK, ISBN 0-632-05735-1
  11. ^ Lourens, L., Hilgen, F., Shackleton, N.J., Laskar, J., Wilson, D., (2004) “The Neogene Period”. In: Gradstein, F., Ogg, J., Smith, A.G. (Eds.), Geologic Time Scale Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  12. ^ Clague, John et al. (2006) "Open Letter by INQUA Executive Committee" Quaternary Perspective, the INQUA Newsletter International Union for Quaternary Research 16(1)
  13. ^ ICS: Consolidated Annual Report for 2006, last retrieved on 15 June 2007
  14. ^ International Geological Congress, General Proceedings for 33rd congress, Oslo, August 6–14, 2008 [1]
  15. ^ See the 2009 version of the ICS geologic time scale

External links[edit]

Neogene Period
Miocene Pliocene
Aquitanian | Burdigalian
Langhian | Serravallian
Tortonian | Messinian
Zanclean | Piacenzian
Preceded by Proterozoic Eon Phanerozoic Eon
Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era Cenozoic Era
Cambrian Ordovician Silurian Devonian Carboniferous Permian Triassic Jurassic Cretaceous Paleogene Neogene 4ry

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