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STM PL (KIRI) VS STM NEPER O1(KANAN)
STM PL (KIRI) VS STM NEPER O1(KANAN)
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: ALL BASE CPM
Getz - Neper Bote (Official Video) 2017
Getz - Neper Bote (Official Video) 2017
Published: 2017/11/06
Channel: OfficialGETZ
Limites - Número de Neper - Matemática 12.º Ano
Limites - Número de Neper - Matemática 12.º Ano
Published: 2012/02/23
Channel: Explicamat
N.E.P.E.R. - TODOS JUNTOS
N.E.P.E.R. - TODOS JUNTOS
Published: 2013/08/01
Channel: Martin CP
VOLTAN PRODANI - ENDEM NEPER ERE ( Kenga Magjike 2016 )
VOLTAN PRODANI - ENDEM NEPER ERE ( Kenga Magjike 2016 )
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: STVPLAY
Zambi - Neper rrugt e qytetit
Zambi - Neper rrugt e qytetit
Published: 2016/06/07
Channel: StudiORadicaLRecordS
N.E.P.E.R. - LA PISTOLA
N.E.P.E.R. - LA PISTOLA
Published: 2013/08/01
Channel: Martin CP
Vjedhje e arit si nëpër filma në disa dyqane të Klinës - 20.03.2017 - Klan Kosova
Vjedhje e arit si nëpër filma në disa dyqane të Klinës - 20.03.2017 - Klan Kosova
Published: 2017/03/20
Channel: KlanKosova
Stm dosq 70 vs nasional34 (Ultah neper 30 september)
Stm dosq 70 vs nasional34 (Ultah neper 30 september)
Published: 2017/10/02
Channel: Wapsz akabane
Adelina Ismaili dhe Sabri Fejzullahu - Moj e mira neper therra new hit 2010
Adelina Ismaili dhe Sabri Fejzullahu - Moj e mira neper therra new hit 2010
Published: 2010/04/10
Channel: adelinafansi
Cima, Fiza, Kungji - Neper Autobana
Cima, Fiza, Kungji - Neper Autobana
Published: 2013/02/04
Channel: Dreni Official
Jonuz Gropa - Kalimtar neper bote
Jonuz Gropa - Kalimtar neper bote
Published: 2015/01/03
Channel: ElrodiMusicOfficial
SMK NEGERI 1 KOTA CIREBON
SMK NEGERI 1 KOTA CIREBON '08 (Gank 400 neper 01 PB).mp4
Published: 2011/10/28
Channel: Arie Rose
Marsela Margariti -  Neper bote si perendeshe    ( Official Audio & Video PRO MUSIC ALBANIA )
Marsela Margariti - Neper bote si perendeshe ( Official Audio & Video PRO MUSIC ALBANIA )
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: AngjelPro albania 1 Official Channel
Dosq70 crb vs neper 01 crb || neper jeboll
Dosq70 crb vs neper 01 crb || neper jeboll
Published: 2017/10/07
Channel: Mukhammad Choirun
Neper - América libertad
Neper - América libertad
Published: 2009/04/05
Channel: muspeg20
Lagu Stm Neper 01 untuk Dosq 70
Lagu Stm Neper 01 untuk Dosq 70
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Ridwan Dailyge
Leño seco (trote) - NEPER
Leño seco (trote) - NEPER
Published: 2014/09/09
Channel: KAMAKEN6
Kosova Asırlarda Blace Köyü  - Bllaca Neper Shekuj
Kosova Asırlarda Blace Köyü - Bllaca Neper Shekuj
Published: 2014/09/17
Channel: Balkan Köprüsü
Neper Autobahna me Kamion - American Truck Simulator - SHQIPGaming
Neper Autobahna me Kamion - American Truck Simulator - SHQIPGaming
Published: 2016/02/25
Channel: SHQIPGaming
Tawuran pelajar NEPER 01 vs XTm nusantara 14 warga nya ikutan
Tawuran pelajar NEPER 01 vs XTm nusantara 14 warga nya ikutan
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Yuda Prastama
CIGGA - NEPER RRUG
CIGGA - NEPER RRUG
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Euron Selimi
VLOG neper KOSOV #VLOG103 06.09.17
VLOG neper KOSOV #VLOG103 06.09.17
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: BEBE
"STM Neper Ale" Struggle Famiglia X Smkn 1 Cirebon
"STM Neper Ale" Struggle Famiglia X Smkn 1 Cirebon
Published: 2017/08/12
Channel: Oman Abdurahman
Tutoriel bâtons de Neper
Tutoriel bâtons de Neper
Published: 2015/04/11
Channel: DAVAL Nathalie
Rrugetim neper Llap - Dokumentar
Rrugetim neper Llap - Dokumentar
Published: 2014/04/14
Channel: SHQIPfolklorike
SI VAMPIRI NEPER FILMA
SI VAMPIRI NEPER FILMA
Published: 2010/04/12
Channel: alehandro2010
Mso Magji - Lapsi nëpër Hundë (Shpjegimi)
Mso Magji - Lapsi nëpër Hundë (Shpjegimi)
Published: 2016/08/20
Channel: Mso Magji
Mihrije Braha - Lotet neper faqe
Mihrije Braha - Lotet neper faqe
Published: 2016/12/22
Channel: PiKA
Stm Nusantara Dapet Mangsa STm Neper
Stm Nusantara Dapet Mangsa STm Neper
Published: 2016/10/06
Channel: Sabbiq Bonek
Shkelzen Jetishi - Xeni -Neper Oda-Qamili Vogel
Shkelzen Jetishi - Xeni -Neper Oda-Qamili Vogel
Published: 2013/04/24
Channel: Production's Bimi
MAGJI NËPËR MITROVICË ME JOKERA | Agon Gashi
MAGJI NËPËR MITROVICË ME JOKERA | Agon Gashi
Published: 2018/02/16
Channel: Mso Magji
Tawuran?!! Dosq vs neper+nasper
Tawuran?!! Dosq vs neper+nasper
Published: 2017/10/01
Channel: Rizqi Daniarto
Merinding Struggle Famiglia support NeperKing (STM NEPER 01)
Merinding Struggle Famiglia support NeperKing (STM NEPER 01)
Published: 2017/11/26
Channel: Jaka Putra
NEPER ENGJEJ ENGJELLORE
NEPER ENGJEJ ENGJELLORE
Published: 2018/02/09
Channel: Luan Nanaj
Express rubrikë – Shqiptaret neper bote 02 02 2018
Express rubrikë – Shqiptaret neper bote 02 02 2018
Published: 2018/02/02
Channel: Kohavision
Remzie Osmani - Moj e mira neper therra
Remzie Osmani - Moj e mira neper therra
Published: 2012/09/06
Channel: RemzieOsmaniPROMINENT
Mso Magji - Llastiku Nëpër Gisht të Madh (Shpjegimi)
Mso Magji - Llastiku Nëpër Gisht të Madh (Shpjegimi)
Published: 2015/01/11
Channel: Mso Magji
Sali dhe Feriz Krasniqi   Nëpër kafaz zog bylbyl Origjinali
Sali dhe Feriz Krasniqi Nëpër kafaz zog bylbyl Origjinali
Published: 2015/03/11
Channel: Sami Bujupi
8 - O neper oden time - Grupi i Kanines - Vetëm Labçe
8 - O neper oden time - Grupi i Kanines - Vetëm Labçe
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: Vetem Labe
Presentación Neper
Presentación Neper
Published: 2016/03/08
Channel: Alvaro Reviriego
Neper Evrope
Neper Evrope
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: PershendetjeLIVE
Teknologjia Moderne neper Bote.................. High tech Inventations 2017
Teknologjia Moderne neper Bote.................. High tech Inventations 2017
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: Everything Zone
Qerim Sula - Këndojnë pushkët nëpër kulla
Qerim Sula - Këndojnë pushkët nëpër kulla
Published: 2011/06/20
Channel: Burim Proi
Neper Shqiperi Dokumentar
Neper Shqiperi Dokumentar
Published: 2012/07/18
Channel: Edisonalbanian2013
Shyqyri Alushi ( Artist i Merituar ) - Neper fusha, nder kodrina-www.blueskymusic.tv - TV Blue Sky
Shyqyri Alushi ( Artist i Merituar ) - Neper fusha, nder kodrina-www.blueskymusic.tv - TV Blue Sky
Published: 2012/12/02
Channel: TV Blue S Music
Bijte e Sefe Mleqanit -  Neper Pishat e Deqanit
Bijte e Sefe Mleqanit - Neper Pishat e Deqanit
Published: 2014/01/25
Channel: ProduksioniKola
K2 - Lundrova Neper Bot
K2 - Lundrova Neper Bot
Published: 2015/09/06
Channel: StudiORadicaLRecordS
Reni Elbasani    eci neper rrug
Reni Elbasani eci neper rrug
Published: 2014/03/29
Channel: EmroProducion KS
Motrat Mustafa - Neper telat e telefonit
Motrat Mustafa - Neper telat e telefonit
Published: 2016/12/03
Channel: MotratMustafaONAIR
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The neper (symbol: Np) is a logarithmic unit for ratios of measurements of physical field and power quantities, such as gain and loss of electronic signals. The unit's name is derived from the name of John Napier, the inventor of logarithms. As is the case for the decibel and bel, the neper is a unit defined in the international standard ISO 80000. It is not part of the International System of Units (SI), but is accepted for use alongside the SI.[1]

Definition[edit]

Like the decibel, the neper is a unit in a logarithmic scale. While the bel uses the decadic (base-10) logarithm to compute ratios, the neper uses the natural logarithm, based on Euler's number (e ≈ 2.71828). The value of a ratio in nepers is given by

where and are the values of interest (amplitudes), and ln is the natural logarithm. When the values are quadratic in the amplitude (e.g. power), they are first linearised by taking the square root before the logarithm is taken, or equivalently the result is halved.[citation needed]

In the ISQ, the neper is defined as 1 Np = 1.[2]

Units[edit]

The neper is defined in terms of ratios of field quantities (for example, voltage or current amplitudes in electrical circuits, or pressure in acoustics), whereas the decibel was originally defined in terms of power ratios. A power ratio 10 log r dB is equivalent to a field-quantity ratio 20 log r dB, since power is proportional to the square (Joule's laws) of the amplitude. Hence the neper and decibel are related via:

and

The decibel and the neper have a fixed ratio to each other. The (voltage) level ratio is

Like the decibel, the neper is a dimensionless unit. The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) recognizes both units. Only the neper is coherent with the SI.[3]

Applications[edit]

The neper is a natural linear unit of relative difference, meaning in nepers (logarithmic units) relative differences add rather than multiply. This property is shared with logarithmic units in other bases, such as the bel.

Particular to the neper, however, is that the derived unit of centineper is asymptotically equal to percentage difference for very small differences – since the derivative of the natural log (at 1) is 1; this is not shared with other logarithmic units, which introduce a scaling factor due to the derivative not being unity. The centineper can thus be used as a linear replacement for percentage differences. The linear approximation for small percentage differences,

is widely used, particularly in finance—see for example the Fisher equation. However, it is only approximate, with error increasing for large percentage changes. Measured instead in centinepers, these linear approximations can be replaced with exact equalities, and applicable to any magnitude change, by defining the following centineper quantity for any change

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Tuffentsammer, Karl (1956). "Das Dezilog, eine Brücke zwischen Logarithmen, Dezibel, Neper und Normzahlen" [The decilog, a bridge between logarithms, decibel, neper and preferred numbers]. VDI-Zeitschrift (in German). 98: 267–274. 
  • Paulin, Eugen (2007-09-01). Logarithmen, Normzahlen, Dezibel, Neper, Phon - natürlich verwandt! [Logarithms, preferred numbers, decibel, neper, phon - naturally related!] (PDF) (in German). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-12-18. Retrieved 2016-12-18. 

External links[edit]

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