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What is NEPOTISM? What does NEPOTISM mean? NEPOTISM meaning, definition, ęxplanation & pronunciation
What is NEPOTISM? What does NEPOTISM mean? NEPOTISM meaning, definition, ęxplanation & pronunciation
Published: 2016/03/15
Channel: The Audiopedia
Ivanka Trump And The Politics Of Nepotism | MSNBC
Ivanka Trump And The Politics Of Nepotism | MSNBC
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: MSNBC
The Dangers of Nepotism
The Dangers of Nepotism
Published: 2008/07/29
Channel: Harvard Business Review
Trump in 2006:
Trump in 2006: 'I like nepotism'
Published: 2017/03/30
Channel: CNN
Jared Kushner, Chief White House Nepotism Beneficiary
Jared Kushner, Chief White House Nepotism Beneficiary
Published: 2017/03/28
Channel: The Late Show with Stephen Colbert
Karan
Karan's Unbelievable comment on Kangana's Nepotism remarks
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: iansindia
Sonam Kapoor On Nepotism In Bollywood
Sonam Kapoor On Nepotism In Bollywood
Published: 2017/03/12
Channel: NDTV
So Much News, So Little Time - Nepotism, Impeachment & the Freedom Caucus: The Daily Show
So Much News, So Little Time - Nepotism, Impeachment & the Freedom Caucus: The Daily Show
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: The Daily Show with Trevor Noah
Nepotism is my American dream | Shila Morris | TEDxUniversityofNevada
Nepotism is my American dream | Shila Morris | TEDxUniversityofNevada
Published: 2015/02/05
Channel: TEDx Talks
Nepotism and the Rigged American Game
Nepotism and the Rigged American Game
Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: The Majority Report with Sam Seder
NEPOTISM: Bollywood Stars Talk About Industry Bias
NEPOTISM: Bollywood Stars Talk About Industry Bias
Published: 2015/03/06
Channel: Film Companion
Sidharth Malhotra SLAMS Kangana Ranaut, REACTS On Nepotism
Sidharth Malhotra SLAMS Kangana Ranaut, REACTS On Nepotism
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Bollywood Now
Sonakshi, Sonam & Alia REACTS TO NEPOTISM Remarks | Kareena REACTS On Taimur
Sonakshi, Sonam & Alia REACTS TO NEPOTISM Remarks | Kareena REACTS On Taimur's Nickname
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: zoom
Varun Dhawan On Nepotism In Bollywood
Varun Dhawan On Nepotism In Bollywood
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: NDTV
Neponomics: How Nepotism Controls the World
Neponomics: How Nepotism Controls the World
Published: 2008/06/02
Channel: TheLogicJunkie
Kangana Ranaut Was Right In A Way, Says Mahesh Bhatt On Nepotism Debate
Kangana Ranaut Was Right In A Way, Says Mahesh Bhatt On Nepotism Debate
Published: 2017/04/14
Channel: NDTV
Anushka Sharma BEST REPLY To Kangana Ranaut
Anushka Sharma BEST REPLY To Kangana Ranaut's Nepotism Statement | Nepotism Debate
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: Bollywood Now
Aamir Khan SMARTLY ANSWERS Kangana Ranaut
Aamir Khan SMARTLY ANSWERS Kangana Ranaut's NEPOTISM Remark | Kangana Ranaut-Karan Johar Controversy
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: Bollywood Now
Jeff Bridges: "I
Jeff Bridges: "I'm a Product of Nepotism, That's How I Got Into It" | Close Up With THR
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: The Hollywood Reporter
Karan Johar ADMITS Being GUILTY Of Nepotism | Shocking Video Out
Karan Johar ADMITS Being GUILTY Of Nepotism | Shocking Video Out
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: Bollywood Now
A Lesson on Nepotism
A Lesson on Nepotism
Published: 2016/02/24
Channel: Adam Smith
The dark truth about Nepotism revealed
The dark truth about Nepotism revealed
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: BookMyTV
The Nepotism Debate: Who Said What About The Kangana And Karan Battle
The Nepotism Debate: Who Said What About The Kangana And Karan Battle
Published: 2017/03/18
Channel: Bollywood Now
Twinkle Khanna
Twinkle Khanna's Reaction To Kangana's Nepotism Comment On Koffee With Karan Season 5
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: Movie Talkies
Anushka Sharma
Anushka Sharma's BEST Reply To Kangana's Nepotism Comment On Koffee With Karan Season 5
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: Movie Talkies
Kangana Ranaut hits out at Karan Johar
Kangana Ranaut hits out at Karan Johar's 'nepotism' blog this time
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: ABN Telugu
Sonam Kapoor LAUGHS At Kangana Ranaut NEPOTISM Comment
Sonam Kapoor LAUGHS At Kangana Ranaut NEPOTISM Comment
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: Bollywood Now
Bipasha Basu
Bipasha Basu's Reaction To Kangana's Nepotism Comment On Koffee With Karan Season 5
Published: 2017/03/15
Channel: Movie Talkies
Jared Kushner
Jared Kushner's senior adviser role tests anti-nepotism law
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: CBS This Morning
Kartik Aaryan On NEPOTISM | Pyaar Ka Punchnama 2 Success
Kartik Aaryan On NEPOTISM | Pyaar Ka Punchnama 2 Success
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: BollywoodHungama.com
Holy Nepotism! Ivanka Trump Given Official White House Role
Holy Nepotism! Ivanka Trump Given Official White House Role
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: TYT Nation
Kangana Ranaut के Nepotism बयान पर अब Nawazuddin Siddiqui ने भी दिया करारा जवाब
Kangana Ranaut के Nepotism बयान पर अब Nawazuddin Siddiqui ने भी दिया करारा जवाब
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: NMF News
Nepotism Meaning
Nepotism Meaning
Published: 2015/04/23
Channel: SDictionary
Nepotism पर Kangana Ranaut को मिला Priyanka Chopra का साथ बोली ‘मैं हुई Nepotism की शिकार’
Nepotism पर Kangana Ranaut को मिला Priyanka Chopra का साथ बोली ‘मैं हुई Nepotism की शिकार’
Published: 2017/05/01
Channel: NMF News
Eric Trump Admits Nepotism Got Him This Far In Life, But Swears He’s Not Incompetent
Eric Trump Admits Nepotism Got Him This Far In Life, But Swears He’s Not Incompetent
Published: 2017/04/09
Channel: The Ring of Fire
NEPOTISM? Ivanka Trump First Daughter State Department Speech
NEPOTISM? Ivanka Trump First Daughter State Department Speech
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: TODAY News Channel
John Abraham on fighting nepotism in bollywood
John Abraham on fighting nepotism in bollywood
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: NDTV
Manoj Bajpayee: Want to thank Kangana Ranaut for raising nepotism issue
Manoj Bajpayee: Want to thank Kangana Ranaut for raising nepotism issue
Published: 2017/03/20
Channel: Hindustan Times
Sonam Kapoor On Nepotism, Supports Karan Johar | Kangana Ranaut Karan Johar Controversy
Sonam Kapoor On Nepotism, Supports Karan Johar | Kangana Ranaut Karan Johar Controversy
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: Bollywood Now
Kangana Ranaut के Nepotism बयान पर Aamir Khan ने दिया ये जवाब
Kangana Ranaut के Nepotism बयान पर Aamir Khan ने दिया ये जवाब
Published: 2017/03/15
Channel: NMF News
Emotional Kangana Ranaut
Emotional Kangana Ranaut's BEST Reply To Nepotism In Bollywood Will Blow Your Mind
Published: 2017/04/11
Channel: Movie Talkies
Alia Bhatt, Sonakshi Sinha, Sonam Kapoor react to Kangana Ranaut
Alia Bhatt, Sonakshi Sinha, Sonam Kapoor react to Kangana Ranaut's nepotism remark!
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: ViralWorld
Kalki Koechlin On Nepotism Debate: It
Kalki Koechlin On Nepotism Debate: It's Now Less
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: NDTV
Alia Bhatt Defends Kangana Ranaut
Alia Bhatt Defends Kangana Ranaut's NEPOTISM Remark On Koffee With Karan
Published: 2017/03/03
Channel: Bollywood Now
Sushant Singh Rajput Best Reply On Nepotism In Bollywood | Viralbollywood
Sushant Singh Rajput Best Reply On Nepotism In Bollywood | Viralbollywood
Published: 2017/04/16
Channel: Viralbollywood
Bipasha Basu on Nepotism and Kangana-Karan War | SpotboyE
Bipasha Basu on Nepotism and Kangana-Karan War | SpotboyE
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: SpotboyE
Anushka Sharma Reaction On Nepotism in Bollywood | Bollywood Is A Bussiness
Anushka Sharma Reaction On Nepotism in Bollywood | Bollywood Is A Bussiness
Published: 2017/03/15
Channel: Viralbollywood
Ivanka Trump Interview Very Kindly Avoids Blatant Use of Words Like Nepotism, Kleptocracy, Insanity
Ivanka Trump Interview Very Kindly Avoids Blatant Use of Words Like Nepotism, Kleptocracy, Insanity
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: The Majority Report with Sam Seder
Ivanka Trump Getting White House Office Despite Anti-Nepotism Laws
Ivanka Trump Getting White House Office Despite Anti-Nepotism Laws
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: David Pakman Show
Nepotism
Nepotism
Published: 2010/11/16
Channel: LIFECOLUMNRECORDS
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Nepotism is based on favoritism granted to relatives in various fields, including business, politics, entertainment, sports, religion and other activities.

The term originated with the assignment of nephews to important positions by Catholic popes and bishops.

Origins[edit]

The term comes from Italian word nepotismo,[1][2] which is based on Latin root nepos meaning nephew.[3] Since the Middle Ages and until the late 17th century, some Catholic popes and bishops, who had taken vows of chastity, and therefore usually had no legitimate offspring of their own, gave their nephews such positions of preference as were often accorded by fathers to son.[4]

Several popes elevated nephews and other relatives to the cardinalate. Often, such appointments were a means of continuing a papal "dynasty".[5] For instance, Pope Callixtus III, head of the Borgia family, made two of his nephews cardinals; one of them, Rodrigo, later used his position as a cardinal as a stepping stone to the papacy, becoming Pope Alexander VI.[6] Alexander then elevated Alessandro Farnese, his mistress's brother, to cardinal; Farnese would later go on to become Pope Paul III.[7]

Paul III also engaged in nepotism, appointing, for instance, two nephews, aged 14 and 16, as cardinals. The practice was finally limited when Pope Innocent XII issued the bull Romanum decet Pontificem, in 1692.[4] The papal bull prohibited popes in all times from bestowing estates, offices, or revenues on any relative, with the exception that one qualified relative (at most) could be made a cardinal.[8]

Types[edit]

Political[edit]

Nepotism is a common accusation in politics when the relative of a powerful figure ascends to similar power seemingly without appropriate qualifications. The British English expression "Bob's your uncle" is thought to have originated when Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, promoted his nephew, Arthur Balfour, to the esteemed post of Chief Secretary for Ireland, which was widely seen as an act of nepotism.[9]

Organizational[edit]

Nepotism can also occur within organizations, when a person is employed due to their familial ties. It is generally seen as unethical, both on the part of the employer and employee.

In employment[edit]

Nepotism at work can mean increased opportunity at a job, attaining the job or being paid more than other similarly situated people.[10] Arguments are made both for and against employment granted due to a family connection, which is most common in small, family run businesses. On one hand, nepotism can provide stability and continuity. Critics cite studies that demonstrate decreased morale and commitment from non-related employees,[11] and a generally negative attitude towards superior positions filled through nepotism. An article from Forbes magazine stated "there is no ladder to climb when the top rung is reserved for people with a certain name."[12] Some businesses forbid nepotism as an ethical matter, considering it too troublesome and disruptive.

In entertainment[edit]

Outside of national politics, accusations of "nepotism" are made in instances of prima facie favoritism to relatives, in such cases as:

Selected examples by country[edit]

Australia[edit]

Anna Bligh, who won the 2009 Queensland State election, has been accused of nepotism by giving her husband Greg Withers a position as the Office of Climate Change head.[17]

Shortly after his appointment as the Anglican Archbishop of Sydney in 2001, Peter Jensen was accused, in an Australian Broadcasting Corporation interview, of nepotism after nominating his brother Phillip Jensen as Dean of Sydney and appointing his wife Christine Jensen to an official position in the Sydney diocese.[18]

Azerbaijan[edit]

On 21 February 2017, President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev appointed his wife Mehriban Aliyeva to be Vice President of Azerbaijan.[19]

Belgium[edit]

Over the past decade, criticism has been growing over the creation of political dynasties in Belgium, in which all of the traditional political parties have been involved. This phenomenon has been explained by the fact that prominent party members control the ranking of candidates on party lists for elections and a candidate's place on a list determines whether or not he or she is elected. Another justification for the phenomenon is the importance of name recognition for collecting votes.[20]

Claims of nepotism have been made against Bruno Tobback, the son of senator and former minister Louis Tobback, a member of the Flemish socialists, became the Belgian federal government's minister for the pensions and environment at 35 in 2005.[21] Alexander De Croo, the son of former speaker of the Belgian parliament Herman De Croo, ran for the leadership of his father's party Open VLD at age 33.[22] Finally there is the example of Maya Detiège, the daughter of former mayor of the city of Antwerp Leona Detiège, who herself is the daughter of the former mayor of Antwerp Frans Detiège.[20] Among other examples are former minister Freya Vandenbossche and senator Jean Jacques De Gucht, being the daughter and son of respectively former minister Luc Vandenbossche and former minister Karel De Gucht.

Cambodia[edit]

Prime Minister Hun Sen and senior members of Parliament, are also known for their hand in getting family members into government positions. In the 2013 Cambodian parliamentary elections, at least eight candidates standing in the upcoming July election are sons of high-ranking Cambodian People’s Party officials.[23] All ruling party sons lost, but were appointed into high government positions.

China[edit]

For the past 3,000 years, nepotism has been common in China's clan and extended family based culture. Confucius wrote about the importance of balancing "filial piety with merit". The clan-based feudal system collapsed during Confucius' lifetime, yet nepotism has continued through the modern age.[24][25] For instance, Zhang Hui, was believed to have his career "expedited" through the intervention of his uncle, Li Jianguo, Vice Chairman and Secretary General of the National People’s Congress. Hui was made the youngest member and secretary of Jining's Municipal Standing Committee at the age of 32.[26]

France[edit]

In October 2009, Jean Sarkozy, the second son of the President of the French Republic Nicolas Sarkozy, was poised to become the director of the major EPAD[fr] authority despite lacking any higher education degree and professional experience.[27] In 2008 he was voted regional councillor of Neuilly-sur-Seine, the town of which his father had previously been mayor.[28]

In September 2009, rap-producer Pierre Sarkozy, the first son of then President Nicolas Sarkozy, asked SCPP[fr] for a financial contribution of around €10000 towards an €80000 artistic project. Because he was not a SCPP member, the request was automatically rejected. Pierre Sarkozy then went to the Élysée which led to an Élysée aide contacting the SCPP, and SCPP president Marc Guez assuring the issue would soon be favorably resolved.[29][30] According to Abeille Music[fr] president and SCPP member Yves Riesel, however, this would not happen as SCPP's financial help has been restricted to members only for months.[31]

India[edit]

Corruption goes hand in hand with nepotism in India. It goes on in government and private jobs both. Nepotism is common in politics, business and in the movie industry. It goes on even in religious circles, arts, industry, and other types of organizations. Many members of parliament and the Legislative Assembly have a generations-long legacy of nepotic allocation of constituencies to their relatives.[citation needed] The Bajaj family is related to the Birla family which itself is related to the Biyani family by marriage.[32] The Kapoor families,[clarification needed] and many other Indian movie actors have brought their children into the movie industry with their endorsements. Moreover, dynasty in politics remains. Rahul Gandhi, Vice-President of the Indian National Congress party, is a descendent of Jawaharlal Nehru and Indira Gandhi & Rajiv Gandhi. Cricket is also affected with nepotism in the form of Stuart Binny and Rohan Gavaskar.[33][34]

Romania[edit]

Romanian Communist dictator Nicolae Ceaușescu's family members "dominated" the country for decades.[35][36] Elena Băsescu, the daughter of President Traian Băsescu, was elected in 2009 to the European Parliament, despite the fact that she had no significant professional or political experience.[37]

Singapore[edit]

Singapore's government has been the target of numerous charges of nepotism, with several members of the Prime Minister's family holding high posts. The family members dispute the charges as they arise.[38]

Spain[edit]

Juan Antonio Samaranch Salisachs, son of Juan Antonio Samaranch, president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1980 to 2001, has been a member of the International Olympic Committee since 2001, and his daughter, Maria Teresa Samaranch Salisachs, has been president of the Spanish Federation of Sports on Ice since 2005.[39]

Nepotism occurred in Spanish Colonial America when offices were given to family members.[40]

Sri Lanka[edit]

Former President of Sri Lanka, Mahinda Rajapaksa, has been accused of nepotism, appointing three brothers to run important ministries and giving out other political positions to relatives, regardless of their merit. During his presidency, the Rajapaksa family held the ministries of finance, defence, ports and aviation, and highways and road development. The president's brother, Gotabhaya Rajapaksa, was given the post of Defence Secretary. He also controlled the armed forces, the police and the Coast Guard, and was responsible for immigration and emigration. Rajapaksa appointed his brother Basil Rajapaksa as minister of Economic Development. Together, the Rajapaksa brothers controlled over 70% of Sri Lanka's public budget. Mahinda Rajapaksa's eldest brother, Chamal Rajapaksa, was appointed as the Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka, and has held many other posts before, while his eldest son, Namal Rajapaksa, is also a member of the parliament and holds undisclosed portfolios.[41][42]

Others include: his nephew, Shashindra Rajapaksa, who is the former Chief minister of Uva; one of his cousins, former Sri Lankan ambassador to the United States, Jaliya Wickramasuriya; and another cousin, Udayanga Weeratunga, who is the former ambassador to Russia. Dozens of nephews, nieces, cousins, and in-laws have also been appointed as heads of banks, boards, and corporations.[42]

United Kingdom[edit]

In February 2010, Sir Christopher Kelly, chairman of the Committee on Standards in Public Life, said that more than 200 MPs used Parliamentary allowances to employ their own relatives in a variety of office roles. He suggested that the practice should be banned.[43]

In 2005, Councillor Ann Reid of York arranged for all nine sets of traffic lights on her daughter Hannah's wedding route through York to be switched to green for the five-car convoy. As a result, the wedding party took only 10 minutes to pass through the city.[44]

North Yorkshire Police's Chief Constable Grahame Maxwell was disciplined by the IPCC in 2011, but refused to resign, after admitting that he assisted a relative through the first stages of a recruitment process.[45]

Many Northern Irish politicians employ family members. In 2008, 19 elected politicians of the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) directly employed family members and relatives constituted 27 of its 136 staff.[46]

United States[edit]

Palm Beach County, Florida schools reinforced nepotism rules as of 2012 to ensure an "equitable work environment".[47]

In December 2012, a report from the Washington Post indicated various nepotism practices from the District of Columbia and Northern Virginia's Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA), including one family with five members working for the MWAA. One of the reasons given by the associate general counsel to defend the alleged nepotism was “if [the employees are] qualified and competed for [the positions] on their own, I don’t see a problem with relatives working in the same organization.”[48] The inspector general of the U.S. Department of Transportation and the U.S. Congress pressured the MWAA to resolve practices of nepotism. Authority employees are no longer allowed to directly or indirectly influence hiring or promotion of relatives, as documented in their ethics policy.[49]

In 2016, Philadelphia 76ers chairman of basketball operations Jerry Colangelo named his son Bryan Colangelo his general manager without a thorough search for the position.[50]

Politics[edit]

Around 30 family members or relatives of President Ulysses S. Grant prospered financially in some way from either government appointments or employment.[51]

John F. Kennedy made his brother-in-law, Sargent Shriver, the first director of the Peace Corps and his brother, Robert F. Kennedy, Attorney General.[52]

In 1979, Bill Clinton, within weeks of being newly elected as Governor of Arkansas, appointed his wife Hillary to chair of the Rural Health Advisory Committee.[53] In 1993, newly elected as President of the United States, he again appointed his wife to chair a Task Force on National Health Care Reform. In 2013, Bill appointed his daughter Chelsea a member of the governing board of the Clinton Foundation and Clinton Global Initiative.[54]

In 2017, the president-elect Donald Trump appointed his son-in-law Jared Kushner as a senior adviser to the president, raising both ethical questions and legal questions about whether this appointment will conflict with a 1967 federal anti-nepotism law.[55] He then announced on 29 March 2017 that his eldest daughter, Ivanka Trump, would also become an official White House employee.

Venezuela[edit]

Nepotism is known to be practiced by President of the Venezuela National Assembly, Cilia Flores. Nine positions in the National Assembly were filled by Flores' family members, including a mother-in-law, aunt, 3 siblings, a cousin and her mother, and 2 nephews.[56][57][58]

Zimbabwe[edit]

President Robert Mugabe is reported to be preparing his wife Grace Mugabe to be the next president of Zimbabwe once he steps down.[59] Vice President Joice Mujuru was previously considered to be the favored successor to Mugabe.[60]

Types of partiality[edit]

Nepotism refers to partiality to family whereas cronyism refers to partiality to an associate or friend. Favoritism, the broadest of the terms, refers to partiality based upon being part of a favored group, rather than job performance.[61]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Nepotism." Dictionary.com. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
  2. ^ "In Praise of Nepotism: A Natural History". Adam Bellow Booknotes interview transcript. Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  3. ^ "Article nepos". CTCWeb Glossary. Retrieved 10 September 2013. 
  4. ^ a b "Article Nepotism". New Catholic Dictionary. Archived from the original on February 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-12. 
  5. ^ Gianvittorio Signorotto; Maria Antonietta Visceglia (21 March 2002). Court and Politics in Papal Rome, 1492-1700. Cambridge University Press. pp. 114–116. ISBN 978-1-139-43141-5. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  6. ^ "Article Pope Alexander VI". New Catholic Dictionary. Retrieved 2007-07-12. 
  7. ^ "Article Pope Paul III". Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2007-07-12. 
  8. ^ Anura Gurugé (16 February 2010). The Next Pope. Anura Guruge. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-615-35372-2. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  9. ^ From Aristotelian to Reaganomics: A Dictionary of Eponyms With Biographies in the Social Science, by R. C. S. Trahair, Greenwood Publishing Group, 1994, page 72. Retrieved online from Google Books, Jul 30, 2012.
  10. ^ "Nepotism at Work". Safeworkers.co.uk. 2013-04-20. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  11. ^ "Family Ties: Handling Nepotism Within Your Business - Perspectives - Inside INdiana Business with Gerry Dick". Insideindianabusiness.com. 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  12. ^ Kneale, Klaus. "Is Nepotism So Bad?". Forbes. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
  13. ^ "Peaches Geldof bags TV reality show as magazine editor". Sundaymirror.co.uk. Archived from the original on May 24, 2008. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  14. ^ "EXTRA: Nepotism in the Director's Chair at". Hollywood.com. 2000-04-21. Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  15. ^ "Nothing is true, everything is permitted - Coppola nepotism hate". Spiritof1976.livejournal.com. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  16. ^ Nicolas Cage - imdb biography
  17. ^ Houghton, Des (2008-06-28). "Anna Bligh's Labor in trouble in the polls" Couriermail, 28 June 2008. Retrieved 2009-08-17.
  18. ^ "AM - Archbishop Jensen accused of nepotism". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2002-11-18. Retrieved 2012-06-22. 
  19. ^ "Meeting of Security Council held under chairmanship of President Ilham Aliyev VIDEO". Azertag. 21 February 2017. Retrieved 11 March 2017. 
  20. ^ a b "Politiek België is familiezaak - Buitenland - Telegraaf.nl [24 uur actueel, ook mobiel] [buitenland]". Telegraaf.nl. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  21. ^ Martin Hurst (1 Mar 2005). "Tobback: making his mark". Investment & Pensions Europe. IPE International Publishers Limited. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  22. ^ "Alexander De Croo wil voorzitter Open Vld worden". Gva.be. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  23. ^ "Sons of the party anointed". Meas Sokchea. 2013-05-06. Retrieved 2013-05-06. 
  24. ^ "High-level officials monopolise party promotion mechanism, study finds". South China Morning Post. 6 July 2014. 
  25. ^ Adam Bellow (13 July 2004). In Praise of Nepotism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 89–92. ISBN 978-1-4000-7902-5. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  26. ^ Fang Xiao (18 December 2012). "Chinese Politburo Member Accused of Nepotism". The Epoch Times. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  27. ^ "Poll shows majority against job for Sarkozy's son". Reuters.com. 2009-10-16. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  28. ^ "Sarkozy´s Son Climbs New Rung On Political Ladder". dalje.com. Kontineo oglašavanje d.o.o. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  29. ^ "Népotisme et Sarkozysme, acte II (màj)". Electronlibre.info. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  30. ^ "Après Jean, un coup de pouce de l'Elysée pour Pierre Sarkozy". Rue89.com. 2011-01-19. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  31. ^ "Après Jean, l'Elysée se met au service de Pierre Sarkozy". Liberation.fr. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  32. ^ "The family connections of India Inc". 
  33. ^ "Across India, Nepotism as a Way of Life". International Herald Tribune. 12 April 2012 – via The New York Times. 
  34. ^ "Nepotism: the way they do politics in India". The Sydney Morning Herald. 
  35. ^ Adam Bellow (13 July 2004). In Praise of Nepotism. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4000-7902-5. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  36. ^ Edward Behr (21 May 1991). Kiss the hand you cannot bite: the rise and fall of the Ceauşescus. Villard Books. p. 175. ISBN 978-0-679-40128-5. 
  37. ^ "Search on Elena Băsescu nepotism". Zaire.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  38. ^ "Singapore’s Lee Family and Nepotism". Asia Sentinel. 24 February 2012. 
  39. ^ "La larga carrera de un hombre polifacético". El País. 21 April 2010 . (in Spanish)
  40. ^ Alan R. Freitang, Ashli Quesinberry Stokes; Ashli Quesinberry Stokes (22 December 2008). Global Public Relations: Spanning Borders, Spanning Cultures. Routledge. p. 208. ISBN 978-1-134-06129-7. Retrieved 20 June 2013. 
  41. ^ "A war strange as fiction". The Economist. 2007-06-07. 
  42. ^ a b Nov 11, 2010 (2010-11-11). "Asia Times Online :: South Asia news, business and economy from India and Pakistan". Atimes.com. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  43. ^ "Ban on MP spouse jobs 'essential'". BBC News. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2011. 
  44. ^ Stokes, Paul (18 October 2005). "Councillor turns lights green for daughter's wedding". The Telegraph. York, UK. Retrieved 2011-12-09. 
  45. ^ "Chief constable remains despite calls for resignation". BBC News. North Yorkshire, UK. 12 May 2011. 
  46. ^ "DUP's two tribes". Belfast Telegraph. 22 February 2008 
  47. ^ "Palm Beach County School Board reinforces nepotism rules". tribunedigital-sunsentinel. Retrieved 2017-05-12. 
  48. ^ Thomson, Cheryl W. (8 December 2012). "D.C. airport authority employment is frequently a family affair". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 December 2012. 
  49. ^ Editorial Board (10 December 2012). "Airports authority must clean up its act on nepotism". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2013-06-20. 
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