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What is NEWLANDS RESOLUTION? What does NEWLANDS RESOLUTION mean?
What is NEWLANDS RESOLUTION? What does NEWLANDS RESOLUTION mean?
Published: 2017/04/30
Channel: The Audiopedia
Newlands Resolution Top # 9 Facts
Newlands Resolution Top # 9 Facts
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: Harshal Devang
No Hawaiians Allowed #3
No Hawaiians Allowed #3
Published: 2009/04/07
Channel: Pono Kealoha
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TimeLapse: Forest after rain 4K
Published: 2017/07/01
Channel: Drablenkov
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What Kind...?
Published: 2013/04/30
Channel: Jerome Brody
No Hawaiian Allowed pt#5
No Hawaiian Allowed pt#5
Published: 2009/04/07
Channel: Pono Kealoha
Boulder (in 4K)
Boulder (in 4K)
Published: 2015/09/26
Channel: Cody Limber
How Did Hawaii Become A Part Of The United States?
How Did Hawaii Become A Part Of The United States?
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: Trix Trix
Hiddingh-Ascension - Table Mountain (4K)
Hiddingh-Ascension - Table Mountain (4K)
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: Roberto Aldera
Kingdom New Lands #16 - Viele Tipps!  | Let
Kingdom New Lands #16 - Viele Tipps! | Let's Play Kingdom New Lands deutsch german
Published: 2016/08/23
Channel: Poolitzer LP - Der Indiekanal
550d RAW video - test low resolution
550d RAW video - test low resolution
Published: 2013/06/01
Channel: OwaeDotGa
Asiloidea Top # 5 Facts
Asiloidea Top # 5 Facts
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: Harshal Devang
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TYPO3 Top # 5 Facts
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: Harshal Devang
First Waterfall Ravine and Eastern Buttress - Devil
First Waterfall Ravine and Eastern Buttress - Devil's Peak (4K)
Published: 2017/04/03
Channel: Roberto Aldera
V8 Choppers
V8 Choppers
Published: 2015/08/01
Channel: Jason Smith
"GREENBATH" 100% Complete (Extreme Demon) [Unnerfed Bloodbath] - by XXXCPTLOLXXX
"GREENBATH" 100% Complete (Extreme Demon) [Unnerfed Bloodbath] - by XXXCPTLOLXXX
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: ToshDeluxe
Newlands Forrest (GoPro 4 Silver)
Newlands Forrest (GoPro 4 Silver)
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: Justin Woods
Knife Edge and Eastern Buttress - Devil
Knife Edge and Eastern Buttress - Devil's Peak (4K)
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: Roberto Aldera
What is Na‘i Aupuni
What is Na‘i Aupuni
Published: 2015/11/16
Channel: APECEpic
"DEVIL VORTEX" 100%!! COMPLETE (EXTREME DEMON!!) - by Rustam (Verified by ToshDeluxe) [On Stream]
"DEVIL VORTEX" 100%!! COMPLETE (EXTREME DEMON!!) - by Rustam (Verified by ToshDeluxe) [On Stream]
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: ToshDeluxe
Independence, Resources, Refusal and Federal Recognition
Independence, Resources, Refusal and Federal Recognition
Published: 2015/12/07
Channel: APECEpic
Sarah Vowell: Why Is a Bad Life in Sunny California Worse Than a Bad Life Anywhere Else? (2002)
Sarah Vowell: Why Is a Bad Life in Sunny California Worse Than a Bad Life Anywhere Else? (2002)
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: Remember This
HĀLĀWAI Aloha ʻĀina. Why you should Protest Na‘i Aupuni. 30 minute summary.
HĀLĀWAI Aloha ʻĀina. Why you should Protest Na‘i Aupuni. 30 minute summary.
Published: 2015/11/03
Channel: APECEpic
Kingdom Newlands ep.1, Zombie Horse!!!
Kingdom Newlands ep.1, Zombie Horse!!!
Published: 2016/10/29
Channel: DynamiteDrake
Thunderbird 1
Thunderbird 1
Published: 2010/04/10
Channel: BurntKona
review on the pioneer XDP 100R K
review on the pioneer XDP 100R K
Published: 2016/10/25
Channel: JD gaming
What DOI do with a ballot
What DOI do with a ballot
Published: 2015/11/14
Channel: APECEpic
The Boks have a short period to prepare for the test series against Ireland
The Boks have a short period to prepare for the test series against Ireland
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: SABC Digital News
Noelani Arista on Federal Recognition
Noelani Arista on Federal Recognition
Published: 2015/11/13
Channel: APECEpic
Native Hawaiian COMMISSION  5-18-2012
Native Hawaiian COMMISSION 5-18-2012
Published: 2012/05/19
Channel: Pono Kealoha
Tai Lopez
Tai Lopez's 3 Best Resolutions & Habits For Highly Effective People: Adopt These For 2016 New Years
Published: 2016/01/11
Channel: Tai Lopez
Protest Na‘i Aupuni, fakestate capitol, Nowemapa 12, 2015
Protest Na‘i Aupuni, fakestate capitol, Nowemapa 12, 2015
Published: 2015/11/15
Channel: APECEpic
Protest Na‘i Aupuni, fakestate capitol, Nowemapa 12, 2015 v2
Protest Na‘i Aupuni, fakestate capitol, Nowemapa 12, 2015 v2
Published: 2015/11/16
Channel: APECEpic
AgriScot 2016.Ayrshire Heifer Class.Muir Dewberry.4K Video
AgriScot 2016.Ayrshire Heifer Class.Muir Dewberry.4K Video
Published: 2016/11/23
Channel: holsteincowboy
Crowbar Burglary Attempt 19/9/2015 Evergreen Ave, Newlands
Crowbar Burglary Attempt 19/9/2015 Evergreen Ave, Newlands
Published: 2015/09/20
Channel: Newlands Neighbourhood Watch
CEDED SCAM 11-24-08 OHA LIES
CEDED SCAM 11-24-08 OHA LIES
Published: 2008/12/23
Channel: Pono Kealoha
[4K] Dale Head Timelapse -  Lake District Walk (Newlands Horseshoe)
[4K] Dale Head Timelapse - Lake District Walk (Newlands Horseshoe)
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: Wayne T
Oppose the DOI Rules, Protest Na‘i Aupuni and Submit Your Testimony
Oppose the DOI Rules, Protest Na‘i Aupuni and Submit Your Testimony
Published: 2015/11/16
Channel: APECEpic
Andre Perez with a History and Analysis of Na‘i Aupuni @ the HĀLĀWAI Aloha ʻĀina
Andre Perez with a History and Analysis of Na‘i Aupuni @ the HĀLĀWAI Aloha ʻĀina
Published: 2015/11/05
Channel: APECEpic
Alan Osetek of Resolution Media Talks Modern SEO Strategies
Alan Osetek of Resolution Media Talks Modern SEO Strategies
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: Search Engine Journal
Helen Wills Top # 5 Facts
Helen Wills Top # 5 Facts
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: Harshal Devang
Scotty Newlands - IMTA Awards Banquet Performance
Scotty Newlands - IMTA Awards Banquet Performance
Published: 2014/10/17
Channel: Scotty Newlands
gary jordan happy new year 2013
gary jordan happy new year 2013
Published: 2013/01/01
Channel: benluntley
Annexation of Hawaii
Annexation of Hawaii
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Chase Ridenour
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Published: 2015/02/25
Channel: Photoplan
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Published: 2015/04/08
Channel: Photoplan
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Published: 2015/02/25
Channel: Photoplan
Beach to Brisbane link lifting property prices along Gold Coast light rail corridor
Beach to Brisbane link lifting property prices along Gold Coast light rail corridor
Published: 2017/02/22
Channel: David Marler
Jean de Villiers set to make his comeback for the Boks after an injury
Jean de Villiers set to make his comeback for the Boks after an injury
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: SABC Digital News
What is INGOT? What does INGOT mean? INGOT meaning, definition & explanation
What is INGOT? What does INGOT mean? INGOT meaning, definition & explanation
Published: 2017/04/30
Channel: The Audiopedia
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Republic of Hawaii over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation.

The Newlands Resolution was an Act of Congress to annex the Republic of Hawaii and create the Territory of Hawaii.[1] It was written by and named after United States Congressman Francis G. Newlands.

In 1897 President of the United States William McKinley signed the treaty of annexation for Hawaii, but it failed in the Senate after the 21,000 signatures of the Kūʻē Petitions[2] were submitted.[citation needed] After the failure, Hawaii was annexed by means of joint resolution, called the Newlands Resolution.

It was approved on July 4, 1898 and signed on July 7 by William McKinley. In August of the same year, a ceremony was held on the steps of ʻIolani Palace to signify the official transfer of Hawaiian sovereignty to the United States.

The Newlands Resolution established a five-member commission to study which laws were needed in Hawaii. The commission included: Territorial Governor Sanford B. Dole (R-Hawaii Territory), Senators Shelby M. Cullom (R-IL) and John T. Morgan (D-AL), Representative Robert R. Hitt (R-IL) and former Hawaii Chief Justice and later Territorial Governor Walter F. Frear (R-Hawaii Territory). The commission's final report was submitted to Congress for a debate which lasted over a year. Congress raised objections that establishing an elected territorial government in Hawaii would lead to the admission of a state with a non-white majority. On July 12, 1898, the Joint Resolution passed and the Hawaiian Islands was annexed by the United States. This allowed duty-free trade between the islands and the mainland, and made the existing American military presence permanent.

The creation of the Territory of Hawaii was the final step in a long history of dwindling Hawaiian sovereignty and divided the local population. The annexation was opposed by the express wishes of the overwhelming majority of the indigenous population and without a referendum of any kind. [3] Debate between anti-sovereignty and sovereignty activists still exists over the legality of the acquisition of Hawaiian land under the United States constitution.[4][5]

Background of Senate debate[edit]

The bombing of the USS Maine (ACR-1) took place in Cuba in February, 1898.[6] That bombing triggered the Spanish–American War, which caused world events to soon force the annexation issue. President Benjamin Harrison submitted a treaty to annex the Hawaiian Islands to the United States Senate for ratification.[7] In 1897, the treaty was blocked due to lobbying by Hawaiian public officials and a petition from native Hawaiians. Only 46 out of 90 senators voted in favor of the resolution, which was more than the required majority but less than the two-thirds required by the Treaty Clause.[8]

See also[edit]

  • Hawaiian Organic Act, approved in 1900 by Congress to adopt a form of government for the new territory, in supplement of the Newlands Resolution.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Spanish-Cuban-American War and the Birth of American Imperialism Vol. 2 ...Philip S. Foner P.414
  2. ^ Kue: the Hui Aloha Aina anti-annexation petitions, 1897-1898. University of Hawaii at Manoa Library
  3. ^ From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawaiʻi Haunani-Kay Trask P.29
  4. ^ Twigg-Smith, Thurston (1998). Hawaiian Sovereignty: Do the Facts Matter? (PDF). Honolulu: Goodale Publishing. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-9662945-0-7. OCLC 39090004. 
  5. ^ Trask, Haunani-Kay (1999). From a Native Daughter : Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawaiʻi. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 13–16. ISBN 978-0824820596 – via eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost). 
  6. ^ Annexation Of The Hawaiian Islands, 1898 , Joint Resolution Website, retrieved on October 29, 2014.
  7. ^ The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii, The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, retrieved on October 29, 2014.
  8. ^ [1] , History of the Treaty, and Petition Website, retrieved on October 29, 2014.

Further reading[edit]

  • Hilfrich, Fabian. Debating American exceptionalism: empire and democracy in the wake of the Spanish-American War (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012)
  • Osborne, Thomas J. "The Main Reason for Hawaiian Annexation in July, 1898," Oregon Historical Quarterly (1970) 71#2 pp. 161–178 in JSTOR
  • Osborne, Thomas J. "Empire Can Wait": American Opposition to Hawaiian Annexation, 1893-1898 (Kent State University Press, 1981)

External links[edit]

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