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What is NEWLANDS RESOLUTION? What does NEWLANDS RESOLUTION mean?
What is NEWLANDS RESOLUTION? What does NEWLANDS RESOLUTION mean?
Published: 2017/04/30
Channel: The Audiopedia
Newlands Resolution Top # 9 Facts
Newlands Resolution Top # 9 Facts
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: Harshal Devang
No Hawaiians Allowed #3
No Hawaiians Allowed #3
Published: 2009/04/07
Channel: Pono Kealoha
Tai Lopez
Tai Lopez's 3 Best Resolutions & Habits For Highly Effective People: Adopt These For 2016 New Years
Published: 2016/01/11
Channel: Tai Lopez
Hawaiian Potpourri - Hawaiian Sovereignty: Newland & Apology Resolution, 8-4-12 Part 1
Hawaiian Potpourri - Hawaiian Sovereignty: Newland & Apology Resolution, 8-4-12 Part 1
Published: 2012/08/06
Channel: Graygrumpy
Who Did The United States Get Hawaii From?
Who Did The United States Get Hawaii From?
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Hadassah Hartman
What Kind...?
What Kind...?
Published: 2013/04/30
Channel: Jerome Brody
October 2014 channel update
October 2014 channel update
Published: 2014/10/22
Channel: Carlos Mendes
Alan Osetek of Resolution Media Talks Modern SEO Strategies
Alan Osetek of Resolution Media Talks Modern SEO Strategies
Published: 2013/08/27
Channel: Search Engine Journal
Scotty Newlands - IMTA Awards Banquet Performance
Scotty Newlands - IMTA Awards Banquet Performance
Published: 2014/10/17
Channel: Scotty Newlands
Independence, Resources, Refusal and Federal Recognition
Independence, Resources, Refusal and Federal Recognition
Published: 2015/12/07
Channel: APECEpic
No Hawaiian Allowed pt#5
No Hawaiian Allowed pt#5
Published: 2009/04/07
Channel: Pono Kealoha
First Waterfall Ravine and Eastern Buttress - Devil
First Waterfall Ravine and Eastern Buttress - Devil's Peak (4K)
Published: 2017/04/03
Channel: Roberto Aldera
How Did Hawaii Become A Part Of The United States?
How Did Hawaii Become A Part Of The United States?
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: Trix Trix
How Was Hawaii Acquired By The US?
How Was Hawaii Acquired By The US?
Published: 2017/12/14
Channel: Hadassah Hartman
Noelani Arista on Federal Recognition
Noelani Arista on Federal Recognition
Published: 2015/11/13
Channel: APECEpic
Knife Edge and Eastern Buttress - Devil
Knife Edge and Eastern Buttress - Devil's Peak (4K)
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: Roberto Aldera
Incredible Boulder, Colorado Drone Footage! (Aerial Montage in UHD!)
Incredible Boulder, Colorado Drone Footage! (Aerial Montage in UHD!)
Published: 2016/07/21
Channel: Matt Tolbert
What DOI do with a ballot
What DOI do with a ballot
Published: 2015/11/14
Channel: APECEpic
Annexation of Hawaii
Annexation of Hawaii
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Chase Ridenour
Barbara Scalera - The Sticking Point Resolution Success Coach
Barbara Scalera - The Sticking Point Resolution Success Coach
Published: 2014/08/05
Channel: Patrick Dahdal
When Was Hawaii Purchased By The United States?
When Was Hawaii Purchased By The United States?
Published: 2017/12/15
Channel: Hadassah Hartman
HĀLĀWAI Aloha ʻĀina. Why you should Protest Na‘i Aupuni. 30 minute summary.
HĀLĀWAI Aloha ʻĀina. Why you should Protest Na‘i Aupuni. 30 minute summary.
Published: 2015/11/03
Channel: APECEpic
What is Na‘i Aupuni
What is Na‘i Aupuni
Published: 2015/11/16
Channel: APECEpic
Edinburgh From Arthur
Edinburgh From Arthur's Seat 4K
Published: 2017/04/10
Channel: Adam Robertson
Jean de Villiers set to make his comeback for the Boks after an injury
Jean de Villiers set to make his comeback for the Boks after an injury
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: SABC Digital News
Hiddingh Ascension
Hiddingh Ascension
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: Jennifer Hage
Newland
Newland's Octaves | Chapter 3 (MSB - Std - 10)
Published: 2016/09/26
Channel: CourseKart
CEDED SCAM 11-24-08 OHA LIES
CEDED SCAM 11-24-08 OHA LIES
Published: 2008/12/23
Channel: Pono Kealoha
Kingdom Newlands ep.1, Zombie Horse!!!
Kingdom Newlands ep.1, Zombie Horse!!!
Published: 2016/10/29
Channel: DynamiteDrake
Native Hawaiian COMMISSION  5-18-2012
Native Hawaiian COMMISSION 5-18-2012
Published: 2012/05/19
Channel: Pono Kealoha
Sarah Vowell: Why Is a Bad Life in Sunny California Worse Than a Bad Life Anywhere Else? (2002)
Sarah Vowell: Why Is a Bad Life in Sunny California Worse Than a Bad Life Anywhere Else? (2002)
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: Remember This
Andre Perez with a History and Analysis of Na‘i Aupuni @ the HĀLĀWAI Aloha ʻĀina
Andre Perez with a History and Analysis of Na‘i Aupuni @ the HĀLĀWAI Aloha ʻĀina
Published: 2015/11/05
Channel: APECEpic
Cumberland River Morning Fog 4K
Cumberland River Morning Fog 4K
Published: 2016/10/10
Channel: Jake Wallace
Oppose the DOI Rules, Protest Na‘i Aupuni and Submit Your Testimony
Oppose the DOI Rules, Protest Na‘i Aupuni and Submit Your Testimony
Published: 2015/11/16
Channel: APECEpic
Kaia and Mac
Kaia and Mac's Annexation of Hawaii Project
Published: 2017/03/05
Channel: Kaia Garcia
Protest Na‘i Aupuni, fakestate capitol, Nowemapa 12, 2015
Protest Na‘i Aupuni, fakestate capitol, Nowemapa 12, 2015
Published: 2015/11/15
Channel: APECEpic
Newlands Forrest (GoPro 4 Silver)
Newlands Forrest (GoPro 4 Silver)
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: Justin Woods
550d RAW video - test low resolution
550d RAW video - test low resolution
Published: 2013/06/01
Channel: OwaeDotGa
Protest Na‘i Aupuni, fakestate capitol, Nowemapa 12, 2015 v2
Protest Na‘i Aupuni, fakestate capitol, Nowemapa 12, 2015 v2
Published: 2015/11/16
Channel: APECEpic
TimeLapse: Forest after rain 4K. Shoot on Sony A7II
TimeLapse: Forest after rain 4K. Shoot on Sony A7II
Published: 2017/07/01
Channel: Drablenkov
BRTV: #AskLouw - Francois Louw answers your questions
BRTV: #AskLouw - Francois Louw answers your questions
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: BathRugbyTV
GHOST HUNTING with PLUTO & PLATT       part one
GHOST HUNTING with PLUTO & PLATT part one
Published: 2014/11/23
Channel: PLUTO MAJESTIC
gary jordan happy new year 2013
gary jordan happy new year 2013
Published: 2013/01/01
Channel: benluntley
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Published: 2015/04/08
Channel: Photoplan
[4K] Dale Head Timelapse -  Lake District Walk (Newlands Horseshoe)
[4K] Dale Head Timelapse - Lake District Walk (Newlands Horseshoe)
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: Wayne T
Walking DOG in Forest - Nikon VLOG 4K - Newlands Forest Couple Walk
Walking DOG in Forest - Nikon VLOG 4K - Newlands Forest Couple Walk
Published: 2018/01/09
Channel: this World is Beautiful
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Published: 2015/02/25
Channel: Photoplan
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Robinson Jackson 4K Property Slideshow Video - Newlands Park, SE26
Published: 2015/02/25
Channel: Photoplan
Lake District 2017 | 4K
Lake District 2017 | 4K
Published: 2017/09/16
Channel: UNep Studio
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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On August 12, 1898, the flag of Hawaii over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation.

The Newlands Resolution was an Act of Congress to annex the Republic of Hawaii and create the Territory of Hawaii in its place.[1] It was written by and named after United States Congressman Francis G. Newlands.

In 1897 President of the United States William McKinley signed the treaty of annexation for Hawaii, but it failed in the Senate after the 21,000 signatures of the Kūʻē Petitions[2] were submitted.[citation needed] After the failure, Hawaii was annexed by means of joint resolution, called the Newlands Resolution.

It was approved on July 4, 1898 and signed on July 7 by William McKinley. On August 12 of the same year, a ceremony was held on the steps of ʻIolani Palace to signify the official transfer of Hawaiian sovereignty to the United States.

The Newlands Resolution established a five-member commission to study which laws were needed in Hawaii. The commission included: Territorial Governor Sanford B. Dole (R-Hawaii Territory), Senators Shelby M. Cullom (R-IL) and John T. Morgan (D-AL), Representative Robert R. Hitt (R-IL) and former Hawaii Chief Justice and later Territorial Governor Walter F. Frear (R-Hawaii Territory). The commission's final report was submitted to Congress for a debate which lasted over a year. Congress raised objections that establishing an elected territorial government in Hawaii would lead to the admission of a state with a non-white majority. On July 12, 1898, the Joint Resolution passed and the Hawaiian Islands were annexed by the United States. This allowed duty-free trade between the islands and the mainland, and made the existing American military presence permanent.

The bombing of the USS Maine (ACR-1) took place in Cuba in February, 1898.[3] That bombing triggered the Spanish–American War, which caused world events to soon force the annexation issue. President Benjamin Harrison submitted a treaty to annex the Hawaiian Islands to the United States Senate for ratification.[4] In 1897, the treaty was blocked due to lobbying by Hawaiian public officials and a petition from native Hawaiians. Only 46 out of 90 senators voted in favor of the resolution, which was more than the required majority but less than the two-thirds required by the Treaty Clause.[5]

The creation of the Territory of Hawaii was the final step in a long history of dwindling Hawaiian sovereignty and divided the local population. The annexation was opposed by the express wishes of the overwhelming majority of the indigenous population and without a referendum of any kind.[6] Debate between anti-sovereignty and sovereignty activists still exists over the legality of the acquisition of Hawaiian land under the United States constitution.[7][8] The Hawaiian sovereignty movement views the annexation as illegal.[7] In 1993 the U.S. apologized for the annexation.[9]

Cost[edit]

The United States assumed $4 million in Hawaiian debt as part of the annexation. David R. Barker of the University of Iowa stated in 2009 that unlike the Alaska Purchase Hawaii has been profitable for the country, with net tax revenue almost always exceeding non-defense spending. Barker estimated an internal rate of return for the annexation of more than 15%.[10]

See also[edit]

  • Hawaiian Organic Act, approved in 1900 by Congress to adopt a form of government for the new territory, in supplement of the Newlands Resolution.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Spanish-Cuban-American War and the Birth of American Imperialism Vol. 2 ...Philip S. Foner P.414
  2. ^ Kue: the Hui Aloha Aina anti-annexation petitions, 1897-1898. University of Hawaii at Manoa Library
  3. ^ Annexation Of The Hawaiian Islands, 1898 , Joint Resolution Website, retrieved on October 29, 2014.
  4. ^ The 1897 Petition Against the Annexation of Hawaii, The U.S. National Archives and Records Administration, retrieved on October 29, 2014.
  5. ^ [1] , History of the Treaty, and Petition Website, retrieved on October 29, 2014.
  6. ^ From a Native Daughter: Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawaiʻi Haunani-Kay Trask P.29
  7. ^ a b *Twigg-Smith, Thurston (1998). Hawaiian Sovereignty: Do the Facts Matter?. Honolulu: Goodale Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9662945-0-7. OCLC 39090004. 
  8. ^ Trask, Haunani-Kay (1999). From a Native Daughter : Colonialism and Sovereignty in Hawaiʻi. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. pp. 13–16. ISBN 978-0824820596 – via eBook Academic Collection (EBSCOhost). 
  9. ^ http://www.hawaii-nation.org/publawall.html United States Public Law 103-150. Hawaii-nation.org. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  10. ^ "Researcher's analysis shows buying Alaska no sweet deal for American taxpayers" (Press release). University of Iowa. 2009-11-06. Retrieved 2018-01-20. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Hilfrich, Fabian. Debating American exceptionalism: empire and democracy in the wake of the Spanish-American War (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012)
  • Osborne, Thomas J. "The Main Reason for Hawaiian Annexation in July, 1898," Oregon Historical Quarterly (1970) 71#2 pp. 161–178 in JSTOR
  • Osborne, Thomas J. "Empire Can Wait": American Opposition to Hawaiian Annexation, 1893-1898 (Kent State University Press, 1981)

External links[edit]

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