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Nihoa Island
Nihoa Island
Published: 2008/01/20
Channel: plantwallah
Nihoa
Nihoa
Published: 2008/08/07
Channel: paeaina
Video Stories | Voyage to Nihoa: Science at Sea
Video Stories | Voyage to Nihoa: Science at Sea
Published: 2015/07/23
Channel: Hōkūleʻa Worldwide Voyage
Nihoa Island
Nihoa Island
Published: 2008/01/20
Channel: plantwallah
Nihoa 2013
Nihoa 2013
Published: 2013/10/03
Channel: surfexpedition
UIC 9 Sanchis vs Kaili-Nihoa Fight Video
UIC 9 Sanchis vs Kaili-Nihoa Fight Video
Published: 2012/12/18
Channel: Kenneth Yates
NIHOA
NIHOA
Published: 2015/01/11
Channel: Jordan Vargas
Nihoa Finch
Nihoa Finch
Published: 2007/08/28
Channel: PsychoticCats
Nihoa Niaho Song
Nihoa Niaho Song
Published: 2014/02/05
Channel: ChinaHorizonsTV
Nihoa - Laysan
Nihoa - Laysan
Published: 2012/03/29
Channel: Nihoa
Nihoa
Nihoa
Published: 2015/10/28
Channel: Honolulu-Sunshine-Band - Topic
Nihoa
Nihoa
Published: 2015/01/19
Channel: Honolulu-Sunshine-Band - Topic
He Aloha Nihoa
He Aloha Nihoa
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: Kamaka Kukona - Topic
He Aloha Nihoa
He Aloha Nihoa
Published: 2014/06/15
Channel: MagicalShinigami
Nihoa micah
Nihoa micah
Published: 2011/02/27
Channel: izea808
How Old Is Nihoa Island?
How Old Is Nihoa Island?
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: Trix Trix
Novi the Wolf Animation Nyan nyan Nihoa Nyan (Full Version)
Novi the Wolf Animation Nyan nyan Nihoa Nyan (Full Version)
Published: 2017/02/26
Channel: Bee the Hedgehog Animation
Chant And Dance - He Aloha Nihoa I Ke Kai
Chant And Dance - He Aloha Nihoa I Ke Kai
Published: 2015/05/14
Channel: Kaleo Trinidad
Nihoa
Nihoa
Published: 2015/03/05
Channel: Kaiula Beach Band - Topic
Nihoa & Ka
Nihoa & Ka'ale - It's a Bird! - 2016
Published: 2016/07/17
Channel: Diga55
Nihoa
Nihoa
Published: 2015/10/17
Channel: Kaiula Beach Band - Topic
5-20-17 Nihoa Gulch (MRP Evacuation Trail)
5-20-17 Nihoa Gulch (MRP Evacuation Trail)
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: EP Gamiao
Hikianalia setting sail on northwest voyage to Niihau, Nihoa
Hikianalia setting sail on northwest voyage to Niihau, Nihoa
Published: 2015/06/29
Channel: KHON2 News
Aerial View of Nihoa Island
Aerial View of Nihoa Island
Published: 2010/09/11
Channel: NRSincorporated
Pusheen dancing to nyan nyan nihoa nyan song
Pusheen dancing to nyan nyan nihoa nyan song
Published: 2017/05/13
Channel: Angel the fire cat
Wake Up 2Day previews Hikianalia
Wake Up 2Day previews Hikianalia's voyage to Niihau, Nihoa
Published: 2015/06/29
Channel: KHON2 News
Battleship The Game HD #09 Nihoa Island
Battleship The Game HD #09 Nihoa Island
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: Astroplay
The Archaeology of Nihoa/Necker Islands (made with Spreaker)
The Archaeology of Nihoa/Necker Islands (made with Spreaker)
Published: 2013/05/18
Channel: BishopMuseum
Homecoming Reflection with Kaipo Kīʻaha: WWV Leg 12B (Oahu to Nihoa)
Homecoming Reflection with Kaipo Kīʻaha: WWV Leg 12B (Oahu to Nihoa)
Published: 2017/06/01
Channel: OiwiTV
FTHC Health Fair - DK Nihoa
FTHC Health Fair - DK Nihoa
Published: 2009/07/22
Channel: dk7dk7
Nihoa & pup 2016 - Swimming session
Nihoa & pup 2016 - Swimming session
Published: 2016/06/11
Channel: Diga55
Earth
Earth's Extremes - Volcanoes in Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii
Published: 2017/01/04
Channel: Planetedge
343 Nihoa grounds tour by Loren Clive, Broker
343 Nihoa grounds tour by Loren Clive, Broker
Published: 2012/05/05
Channel: Loren Clive
HWRV.block3.Nihoa
HWRV.block3.Nihoa
Published: 2016/09/17
Channel: Logan Spencer
Static Nihoa A9S FFXIV
Static Nihoa A9S FFXIV
Published: 2017/02/05
Channel: Tyrone Biggums
433 Nihoa St. | Kahului | Maui |  Hawai
433 Nihoa St. | Kahului | Maui | Hawai'i
Published: 2015/10/21
Channel: Janet Becker Photography
Micah Nihoa
Micah Nihoa
Published: 2011/02/24
Channel: izea808
HMS R912 "Nihoa" & little "Luana" D33 20130911 MVI 0812
HMS R912 "Nihoa" & little "Luana" D33 20130911 MVI 0812
Published: 2013/09/12
Channel: Lesley Macpherson
FRANCIS HUALII NIHOA - April 24th 1998
FRANCIS HUALII NIHOA - April 24th 1998
Published: 2017/04/02
Channel: SCOT & AUDREY
343 Nihoa Street $275k FS by Loren Clive, Broker
343 Nihoa Street $275k FS by Loren Clive, Broker
Published: 2012/05/05
Channel: Loren Clive
One Percent - Robert Collins & DK Nihoa 12/16/2011
One Percent - Robert Collins & DK Nihoa 12/16/2011
Published: 2011/12/19
Channel: dk7dk7
New Age Group - Nihoa 1a Vers
New Age Group - Nihoa 1a Vers
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: Pieceful Production
433 Nihoa Kahului Mihaela Stoops
433 Nihoa Kahului Mihaela Stoops
Published: 2015/10/24
Channel: Mihaela Stoops REALTOR Broker, Maui Estates International
Shantipur Rangapeeth presents Mystery of Nihoa Island
Shantipur Rangapeeth presents Mystery of Nihoa Island
Published: 2012/09/04
Channel: danielakelin
DK Nihoa Dean Brownell   Steve Beban / Stir It Up
DK Nihoa Dean Brownell Steve Beban / Stir It Up
Published: 2016/07/24
Channel: Bluefingers Video Dean Brownell
New Age Group - Nihoa 2a Vers
New Age Group - Nihoa 2a Vers
Published: 2017/07/26
Channel: Pieceful Production
Bernice Nihoa Memorial Song - 12/06/2015
Bernice Nihoa Memorial Song - 12/06/2015
Published: 2015/12/07
Channel: dk7dk7
Francis Hualii Nihoa MEMORIAL May 2nd 1998
Francis Hualii Nihoa MEMORIAL May 2nd 1998
Published: 2017/04/02
Channel: SCOT & AUDREY
HMS R912 "Nihoa" & little "Luana" D33 20130911 MVI 0813
HMS R912 "Nihoa" & little "Luana" D33 20130911 MVI 0813
Published: 2013/09/12
Channel: Lesley Macpherson
R912 "Nihoa" & pup D5 MVI 6141
R912 "Nihoa" & pup D5 MVI 6141
Published: 2013/08/15
Channel: Lesley Macpherson
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Nihoa
Aerial view of Nihoa
Nihoa is located in Pacific Ocean
Nihoa
Nihoa
Geography
Location Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument
Coordinates 23°03′38″N 161°55′19″W / 23.06056°N 161.92194°W / 23.06056; -161.92194
Archipelago Northwestern Hawaiian Islands
Area 0.69 km2 (0.27 sq mi)
Administration
United States
Demographics
Demonym Nihoan
Population 0
Map showing the location of Nihoa in the Hawaiian island chain

Nihoa (/nˈh.ə/; Hawaiian: [niˈhowə]), also known as Bird Island or Moku Manu, is the tallest of ten islands and atolls in the uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). The island is located at the southern end of the NWHI chain, 296 km (160 nmi) southeast of Necker Island. Nihoa is the closest NWHI in proximity to the eight main windward Hawaiian Islands at approximately 240 km (130 nmi) northwest of the island of Kauaʻi. The island has two peaks, 272 m (892 ft) Miller's Peak in the west, and 259 m (850 ft) Tanager Peak in the east. Nihoa's area is about 171 acres (0.69 km2) and is surrounded by a 142,000-acre (57,000 ha) coral reef. Its jagged outline gives the island its name, Nihoa, which means "tooth" in the Hawaiian language.[1]

The island is home to 25 species of plants and several animals, making it the most diverse island in the entire NWHI. Endemic birds like the Nihoa finch and Nihoa millerbird, and endemic plants like the Nihoa fan palm, the Nihoa carnation, and Amaranthus brownii are found only on Nihoa. The plant communities and rocky outcrops provide nesting and perching areas for 18 species of seabirds, such as red-footed boobies and brown noddies, terns, shearwaters, and petrels. Prehistoric evidence indicates Native Hawaiians lived on or visited the island around AD 1000, but over time the location of Nihoa was mostly forgotten, with only an oral legend preserving its name. Captain James Colnett rediscovered the island in 1788, and Queen Kaʻahumanu visited it in 1822. It was made part of the Kingdom of Hawaii by King Kamehameha IV.

In 1909, Nihoa became part of the Hawaiian Islands Reservation, a federal wildlife refuge established by U.S president Theodore Roosevelt. The Tanager Expedition surveyed the island in 1923, taking a comprehensive biological inventory of its many species. In 1940, it became part of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Wildlife Refuge and in 1988, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places due to its culturally significant archaeological sites. In 2006, it became part of the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. Efforts are underway to ensure that endangered plant species are propagated beyond their limited range and represented in ex situ collections. Persons intending to visit Nihoa for cultural and scientific research purposes require a USFWS-issued special-use permit to land on the island so as to reduce the risk of introducing alien species to Nihoa's already fragile ecosystem.

Geology[edit]

Tanager Peak, looking east from Miller Peak

Nihoa is part of the Hawaiian – Emperor seamount chain of volcanic islands, atolls, and seamounts starting from the island of Hawaiʻi in the southeast to the Aleutian Islands in the northwest. It is the youngest of ten islands in the uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), having formed 7.2 million years ago; the oldest, Kure Atoll, formed 30 million years ago. Over the millennia, Nihoa has experienced significant erosion; along with Necker, French Frigate Shoals, and Gardner Pinnacles, Nihoa is one of only four islands in the NWHI that still has an exposed basalt rock substrate.[2] Six valleys slant down from north to south, meeting at the south side of the island: West Valley, West Palm Valley, Miller Valley, Middle Valley, East Palm Valley, and East Valley.

Among features on Nihoa are Dog's Head Peak (358 ft or 109 m), named for its likeness, and Pinnacle Peak (626 ft or 191 m), a volcanic dike created when less resilient rock was eroded away and harder rock was open to the elements. The only flat area on the island is Albatross Plateau, just below Miller's Peak. The Devil's Slide is a narrow cleft descending 700 feet (210 m) irrespective of the surrounding elevation. Extending northward from Albatross Plateau, it ends at the vertical cliffs with a 190-foot (60 m) drop straight down to the ocean below. In this chasm, rare ferns grow, along with several endemic species, including a giant cricket.[3]

Ecology[edit]

Nihoa's inaccessibility and lack of major guano deposits made the island unattractive to humans, helping to preserve its endemic species from extinction. Because of Nihoa's small size, most of its endemic organisms are endangered, as one single disaster such as an island-wide fire or an introduction of invasive species could wipe out the whole population. One such invasive species is the gray bird grasshopper, Schistocerca nitens; from the period between 1999 and 2003, grasshoppers devastated much of the vegetation on the island and posed a real threat to the continued health of plants on Nihoa.[4] The following year, the numbers decreased and the vegetation became lush again. The grasshoppers probably came to Nihoa by way of wind from Kauai.

Unique species include:

Prehistoric human habitation[edit]

Nihoa Island Archeological District
Nihoa, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA-2012.jpg
View of Nihoa Island
Nihoa is located in Hawaiian Islands
Nihoa
Nearest city Kauai, Hawaii
NRHP reference # 88000640[5]
Added to NRHP June 13, 1988

Nihoa was well known to the early Hawaiians. Archaeological expeditions found extensive prehistoric agricultural terraces and house sites.[6] At least one site has been dated to around the 1st millennium AD, sometime between 867-1037.[7] There is some doubt as to the number of people that lived on Nihoa, because while the large terraces suggest a considerable number, there is scant fresh water to be found. Archaeologists Kenneth Emory[8] and Paul Cleghorn[9] estimate that water could support as many as 100 people, although if the island were previously forested, this would have increased fresh water supplies relative to its current state. It is also thought that Nihoa may have been used only for religious purposes, which would have meant that ancient Hawaiians only visited here occasionally and did not stay for long. Because of the island’s importance, the island was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1988, and subsequently became part of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument in June 2006.

Nihoa, along with Necker Island to the northwest, is among the most northern, isolated, smallest and driest of the Hawaiian islands, and receives the lowest dust and tephra input. All of these features were found to strongly predict deforestation among the Pacific Islands. The collapse of the Nihoa population may stem from this, similar to how Easter Island became inclement to its human civilization following deforestation and depletion of seabirds and other natural resources.[10]

Early exploration[edit]

The first Westerner to discover Nihoa was Captain James Colnett of the Prince of Wales, on March 21, 1788. Due to Colnett's lengthy absence from England, including his imprisonment by the Spanish for his part in the Nootka Sound Incident, the discovery was once widely accredited to Captain William Douglas of the Iphigenia, who sighted Nihoa almost a year later.[11]

By the end of the 18th century, Nihoa had been forgotten by most Hawaiians. In 1822, Queen Kaʻahumanu and her husband King Kaumualiʻi traveled with Captain William Sumner to find Nihoa, as her generation had only known the island through songs and myths.[6] Later, King Kamehameha IV sailed there to officially annex the island as part of the Kingdom of Hawaiʻi. Finally, in 1885, Princess Liliuokalani made a pilgrimage to Nihoa with her escorts, but their luncheon was cut short when one of the party ignited a wildfire by accident. The group tried to flee the island, but the rising tides made it difficult and several boats were flooded, destroying some of the photographs taken.[12]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Rauzon 2001, p. 8. Captain William Douglas, the second Western explorer to find Nihoa, describes the island as "[bearing] the form of a saddle, high at each end, and low in the middle. To the south, it is covered with verdure; but on the north, west, and east sides it is a barren rock, perpendicularly steep..."
  2. ^ Department of Forestry and Wildlife (2005). "Chapter 6: Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Hawaii's Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy (CWCS)" (PDF). Hawai'i Department of Land and Natural Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 22, 2012. 
  3. ^ Rauzon 2001.
  4. ^ Liittschwager & Middleton 2005, p. 94
  5. ^ National Park Service (2007-01-23). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 
  6. ^ a b Tava 1998, pp. 102–103.
  7. ^ Hunt, Terry L.; Holsen, Robert M. (1991). "An Early Radiocarbon Chronology for the Hawaiian Islands: A Preliminary Analysis". Asian Perspectives. 30 (1): 157. ISSN 0066-8435. hdl:10125/19261. 
  8. ^ Emory, Kenneth P. (2003) [1928]. Archaeology of Nihoa and Necker Islands. Bishop Museum Bulletin. 53. Bishop Museum Press. 
  9. ^ Cleghorn, Paul L. (1988). "The settlement and abandonment of two Hawaiian outposts: Nihoa and Necker islands". Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum. 28: 35–49. 
  10. ^ Rolett, B.; Diamond, J. (2004). "Environmental predictors of pre-European deforestation on Pacific islands". Nature. 431 (7007): 443–446. Bibcode:2004Natur.431..443R. PMID 15386010. doi:10.1038/nature02801. 
  11. ^ Rauzon 2001, p. 8.
  12. ^ Rauzon 2001, p. 12.

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 23°03′38″N 161°55′19″W / 23.06056°N 161.92194°W / 23.06056; -161.92194

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