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1
Amtrak 19 Through the Hudson River Tunnel
Amtrak 19 Through the Hudson River Tunnel
::2010/12/29::
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2
Elizabeth River Tunnels Project Overview
Elizabeth River Tunnels Project Overview
::2013/08/06::
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3
REAR VIEW FOOTAGE - Oaks Tower to East River Tunnels
REAR VIEW FOOTAGE - Oaks Tower to East River Tunnels
::2009/05/05::
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4
North Jersey Coast line Train : Seacacus JCT to Hudson River Tunnels
North Jersey Coast line Train : Seacacus JCT to Hudson River Tunnels
::2010/05/25::
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5
Boring a train tunnel under a river
Boring a train tunnel under a river
::2008/06/15::
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6
REAR VIEW FOOTAGE - Hudson River Tunnels to Newark Penn Station
REAR VIEW FOOTAGE - Hudson River Tunnels to Newark Penn Station
::2011/12/02::
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7
The Head and the Heart - Rivers and Roads [LIVE PERFORMANCE VIDEO]
The Head and the Heart - Rivers and Roads [LIVE PERFORMANCE VIDEO]
::2011/04/12::
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8
MTA LIRR Update - AMTRAK East River Tunnels/Signal Rebuild
MTA LIRR Update - AMTRAK East River Tunnels/Signal Rebuild
::2012/12/07::
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9
MTA Video Release: Hurricane Sandy - LIRR East River Tunnel (2 of 2)
MTA Video Release: Hurricane Sandy - LIRR East River Tunnel (2 of 2)
::2012/10/30::
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10
The Detroit Windsor Tunnel
The Detroit Windsor Tunnel
::2013/02/27::
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11
Onboard LIRR Train 6033 from Woodside to the East River Tunnels.
Onboard LIRR Train 6033 from Woodside to the East River Tunnels.
::2013/03/26::
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12
East River Tunnel At 63rd Street - A Film Report (1971)
East River Tunnel At 63rd Street - A Film Report (1971)
::2011/04/13::
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13
Gariep River Tunnels Kakamas   Northern Cape
Gariep River Tunnels Kakamas Northern Cape
::2011/12/13::
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14
Crossing the Greenwich Foot Tunnel under River Thames, London
Crossing the Greenwich Foot Tunnel under River Thames, London
::2013/08/04::
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15
NJT Comet V #6082 Pulls into the East River Tunnels (with Sick LIRR Horns in the Background)
NJT Comet V #6082 Pulls into the East River Tunnels (with Sick LIRR Horns in the Background)
::2011/08/25::
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16
Exiting Park Ave tunnels to Harlem-125st
Exiting Park Ave tunnels to Harlem-125st
::2013/07/13::
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17
Amtrak Bumblebee Cab leads Keystone Train into East River Tunnels
Amtrak Bumblebee Cab leads Keystone Train into East River Tunnels
::2011/08/25::
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18
My Favourite Cycle routes - The Two Tunnels Greenway - Bath
My Favourite Cycle routes - The Two Tunnels Greenway - Bath
::2014/05/12::
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19
EAST RIVER MOUNTAIN TUNNELS IN A BIG RIG
EAST RIVER MOUNTAIN TUNNELS IN A BIG RIG
::2011/09/29::
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20
Acela Express about to enter East River Tunnels, New York City
Acela Express about to enter East River Tunnels, New York City
::2010/12/23::
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21
East River & Big Walker Mountain Tunnels Rt 77
East River & Big Walker Mountain Tunnels Rt 77
::2009/09/29::
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22
GoPro - NC to OH Bridges & Tunnels - Hero3 Black
GoPro - NC to OH Bridges & Tunnels - Hero3 Black
::2014/06/03::
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23
Sick Horn from NJT Comet Cab #5028 at the East River Tunnels
Sick Horn from NJT Comet Cab #5028 at the East River Tunnels
::2011/08/25::
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24
GOA - Train Journey - Delhi to Goa - Konkan Railway - mountains, rivers, tunnels - 1/3
GOA - Train Journey - Delhi to Goa - Konkan Railway - mountains, rivers, tunnels - 1/3
::2014/08/24::
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25
Sherbourne River and Tunnels Trip
Sherbourne River and Tunnels Trip
::2012/02/26::
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26
Train Ride on the Feather River Express
Train Ride on the Feather River Express
::2012/07/28::
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27
Behind the hoardings: Constructing Crossrail
Behind the hoardings: Constructing Crossrail's eastern running tunnels, October 2014
::2014/10/03::
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28
The Pennsylvania Turnpike. From New Stanton to the Susquehanna River
The Pennsylvania Turnpike. From New Stanton to the Susquehanna River
::2009/09/20::
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29
"Twin (Peripheral) Tunnel impacts on the Trinity and Klamath Rivers."- Tom Stokely
"Twin (Peripheral) Tunnel impacts on the Trinity and Klamath Rivers."- Tom Stokely
::2014/04/20::
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30
THE CPR SPIRAL TUNNELS
THE CPR SPIRAL TUNNELS
::2012/11/06::
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31
New York
New York's Secret Underground World [FULL DOCUMENTARY]
::2014/02/12::
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32
Tunnels Beaches Wedding Iifracombe North Devon Steelasophical Steelband
Tunnels Beaches Wedding Iifracombe North Devon Steelasophical Steelband
::2013/10/28::
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33
Cu Chi Tunnels Tour-Vietnam
Cu Chi Tunnels Tour-Vietnam
::2013/09/24::
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34
Lincoln Tunnel westbound
Lincoln Tunnel westbound
::2010/08/13::
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35
Amtrak Empire Builder dashing through tunnels along Columbia River westbound
Amtrak Empire Builder dashing through tunnels along Columbia River westbound
::2012/10/26::
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36
People Of The North - Tunnels
People Of The North - Tunnels
::2010/11/08::
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37
The Winston Tunnel: Ghosts of the Chicago Great Western Railroad.
The Winston Tunnel: Ghosts of the Chicago Great Western Railroad.
::2012/11/20::
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38
World Top 10 Longest Underwater Tunnels
World Top 10 Longest Underwater Tunnels
::2014/04/17::
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39
The Tunnel (2011) ~FULL MOVIE~ [Multi-Subtitles]
The Tunnel (2011) ~FULL MOVIE~ [Multi-Subtitles]
::2012/01/28::
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40
Secaucus Interlocks to the Hudson River Tunnels
Secaucus Interlocks to the Hudson River Tunnels
::2010/07/14::
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41
Rock tunnels CA-70 feather river scenic byway
Rock tunnels CA-70 feather river scenic byway
::2013/08/05::
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42
Trains at the north entrance of the Loreley tunnels on the right Rhine line
Trains at the north entrance of the Loreley tunnels on the right Rhine line
::2012/01/07::
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43
ERT Project - Concrete placement for Midtown Tunnel
ERT Project - Concrete placement for Midtown Tunnel
::2014/01/17::
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44
TTC - building a subway tunnel
TTC - building a subway tunnel
::2013/01/08::
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45
Inside London
Inside London's Massive Sewer Tunnel Project
::2014/09/22::
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46
CU CHI TUNNELS - VIETNAM
CU CHI TUNNELS - VIETNAM
::2013/12/19::
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47
Liverpool Waterloo & Victoria derelict Tunnels Urban Explore
Liverpool Waterloo & Victoria derelict Tunnels Urban Explore
::2013/09/01::
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Crossrail   TBM Mary Launch Timelapse
Crossrail TBM Mary Launch Timelapse
::2013/08/23::
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West Virginia has tunnels too on I 77
West Virginia has tunnels too on I 77
::2012/09/05::
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Tunnels along HiWay 14 WA  Cloumbia River
Tunnels along HiWay 14 WA Cloumbia River
::2013/05/08::
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North River Tunnels
NJT NEC enters Hudson Palisades.jpg
Western portal at Bergen Hill
Overview
Line Northeast Corridor
Location Hudson Palisades-Hudson River
Coordinates 40°45′31″N 74°00′45″W / 40.7585°N 74.0125°W / 40.7585; -74.0125Coordinates: 40°45′31″N 74°00′45″W / 40.7585°N 74.0125°W / 40.7585; -74.0125
System Amtrak and NJ Transit
Start Secaucus Junction in Secaucus (NJT); Newark Pennsylvania Station in Newark (Amtrak)
End Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York City
Operation
Opened November 27, 1910; 103 years ago (November 27, 1910)[1]
Owner Amtrak
Traffic Railroad
Character Passenger
Technical
Design engineer Charles M. Jacobs
Construction 1904-1908
Length 14,575 feet (4,442 m)[2]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Electrified Third rail and Overhead lines
Lowest elevation 100 feet (30.5 m) below Hudson River, 175 feet (53 m) below Bergen Hill[3]
Grade 1.30% in Weehawken, 1.923% in Manhattan[3]
North River Tunnels is located in New York City
North River Tunnels
North River Tunnels

The North River Tunnels are a pair of tunnels[4]:52 that carry Amtrak and New Jersey Transit rail lines under the Hudson River between Weehawken, New Jersey and Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan, New York City. Built between 1904 and 1908 by the Pennsylvania Railroad (PRR) to allow its trains to reach Manhattan, they opened for passenger service in late 1910.[5]

Design and construction[edit]

Construction of the northern tube under the Hudson River in 1905

Led by Chief Engineer Charles M. Jacobs, the tunnel design team began work in 1902.

After plans were complete in 1904, the first task was digging two shafts, one just east of 11th Ave in Manhattan and a larger one a few hundred yards west of the river. The Weehawken Shaft was completed in September 1904 as a concrete-walled rectangular pit, 56 by 116 ft at the bottom and 76 ft deep.

When the shafts were complete, O'Rourke Engineering Construction Company began work on the tunnels proper. The project was divided into three parts, each managed by a resident engineer: The "Terminal Station" in Manhattan; the "River Tunnels", east from the Weehawken Shaft and under the Hudson River; and the Bergen Hill tunnels, west from the Weehawken Shaft to the tunnel portals on the west side of the Palisades.[4]:45 (At the time, "North River Tunnels" referred to the tunnels east of the Weehawken Shaft; in later years the term has come to include the Bergen Hill tunnels as well.) The tunnels were built with drilling and blasting techniques and tunnelling shields,[6] digging west from Manhattan, east and west from Weehawken, and east from the Bergen portals. The two ends of the northern tube under the river met in September 1906; at that time it was the longest underwater tunnel in the world.[3][7]

Meanwhile, the John Shields Construction Company had begun in 1905 to bore through Bergen Hill, the lower Hudson Palisades;[8] William Bradley took over in 1906 and the tunnels to the Hackensack Meadows were completed in April 1908.[9][10]

The west portals are in North Bergen, at the west edge of the New Jersey Palisades near the east end of Route 3 at U.S. Route 1/9 (40°46′17″N 74°02′31″W / 40.7714°N 74.0419°W / 40.7714; -74.0419). They run beneath North Bergen, Union City, and Weehawken, to the east portals at the east edge of 10th Avenue at 32nd St in Manhattan. (Since 1968 the east portals have been hidden beneath 450 West 33rd Street (WNET headquarters) on the east side of 10th Ave.) When the top of the Weehawken Shaft was covered is a mystery; the two tracks may have remained open to the sky until catenary was added circa 1932.

Except for a curve west of the west end of Pier 72 that totals just under a degree, the two tracks are straight (in plan view); they are 37 feet (11 m) apart from west of 11th Avenue to the Bergen Hill portals. The third rail now ends just west of the Bergen Hill portals.[11]

Operation and useful life[edit]

Since 2003 the tunnels have been operating near capacity during peak hours.[2] Trains ordinarily travel west (to New Jersey) through the north tube and east (to Manhattan) through the south. During the morning rush about 24 trains are scheduled through the south tube in the busiest hour, and the same through the north tube in the afternoon.

In May 2014 Amtrak C.E.O. Joseph Boardman told the Regional Plan Association that there was something less than 20 years before one or both of the tunnels would have to be shut down.[12]

New tunnel project[edit]

The Access to the Region's Core project to build a set of parallel tunnels began construction in June 2009 to supplement the North River Tunnels, but that project was canceled in October 2010 by New Jersey Governor Chris Christie citing budgets constraints. On February 7, 2011, Amtrak announced that it would spend $50-million on preliminary engineering and design work for a new tunnel project called Gateway, estimated to cost $13.5-billion.[13]

Damage from Hurricane Sandy[edit]

As with several tunnels under the East River, one of the North River Tunnels was flooded by the unprecedented storm surge from Hurricane Sandy. This was the first time either the North River or East River Tunnels were flooded.[14] In May 2014 Amtrak CEO Joseph H. Boardman warned that the tunnels would likely need to be shut for repair within the next 20 years.[15] The storm damage triggered or accelerated the deterioration which includes damage to the overhead wires and electrical systems, the tunnels' concrete bench walls and drainage systems.[16]

See also[edit]

1907 exposition display showing cross-section of North and East River railroad tunnels
North River Tunnels, 1910s (Manhattan side)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Guide to Civil Engineering Projects In and Around New York City (2nd ed.). Metropolitan Section, American Society of Civil Engineers. 2009. p. 58. 
  2. ^ a b Belson, Ken (2008-04-06). "Tunnel Milestone, and More to Come". The New York Times. Retrieved 2011-10-09. 
  3. ^ a b c "'Pennsy's' North River Tunnel a Marvel of Skill; Bores Meeting Head-on Under the River Only an Eighth of an Inch Out of Alignment and Three-fourths of an Inch Out of Grade" (PDF). The New York Times. September 9, 1906. 
  4. ^ a b Jacobs, Charles M. (Sep 1910). "The New York Tunnel Extension of the Pennsylvania Railroad, The North River Division.". Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers (American Society of Civil Engineers). LXVIII. Retrieved 7 October 2014. 
  5. ^ Cudahy, Brian J. (2002). Rails Under the Mighty Hudson (2nd ed.). New York: Fordham University Press. ISBN 0823221903. OCLC 48376141. 
  6. ^ Hewett, B.H.M. (1912). "The North River Division". History of the Engineering Construction and Equipment of the Pennsylvania Railroad Company's New York Terminal and Approaches. New York: Isaac H. Blanchard Co. pp. 35–53. 
  7. ^ "Meeting of the Pennsylvania Tunnel Shields". The Railway Age (Chicago: Wilson Co.) 42 (12): 355. 1906-09-21. 
  8. ^ "Penn. Tunnel Award". The New York Times. March 14, 1905. Retrieved 2011-02-27. 
  9. ^ "Final Blast Opens Pennsylvania Tube". The New York Times. April 9, 1908. Retrieved 2011-02-27. 
  10. ^ "Another Tube Through". The New York Times. April 11, 1908. Retrieved 2011-02-27. 
  11. ^ http://www.thelirrtoday.com/2014/03/interlocking-walkthrough-bergen.html
  12. ^ Rubinstein, Dana (May 5, 2014). "Clock ticking on Hudson crossings, Amtrak warns". Capital. Retrieved 2014-05-20. 
  13. ^ "Senators propose tunnel linking New York and New Jersey". BBC. 2011-02-07. Retrieved 2011-10-09. 
  14. ^ Frassinelli, Mike (November 8, 2012). "Transportation update: Amtrak to reopen flooded Hudson River rail tunnel". The Star Ledger. 
  15. ^ Rubinstein, Dana (May 5, 2014). "Clock ticking on Hudson crossings". Capital New York (New York). 
  16. ^ HIggs, Larry (September 1, 2014). "Amtrak: New tunnels needed after Sandy damage". Asbury Park Press. Retrieved 2014-09-31.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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