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North Sulawesi Babirusa - Wildlife at Tampa
North Sulawesi Babirusa - Wildlife at Tampa's Lowry Park Zoo
::2012/08/09::
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Babirusa Hirscheber Sulawesi
Babirusa Hirscheber Sulawesi
::2013/12/17::
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Freaky Sulawesi babirusa pig entertaining people in the zoo
Freaky Sulawesi babirusa pig entertaining people in the zoo
::2013/08/29::
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Babirusa from Sulawesi
Babirusa from Sulawesi
::2013/03/14::
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On Location: The Buru Babirusa
On Location: The Buru Babirusa
::2012/07/29::
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Babirusa La Zoo
Babirusa La Zoo
::2010/06/14::
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Strange animal: Babirusa
Strange animal: Babirusa
::2013/03/14::
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Volunteer at Tasikoki Wildlife rescue & education centre, North Sulawesi
Volunteer at Tasikoki Wildlife rescue & education centre, North Sulawesi
::2013/03/06::
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BABIRUSA, child version
BABIRUSA, child version
::2013/06/03::
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Sulawesi Adventure 2012
Sulawesi Adventure 2012
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Barbirusa: Unmasking a Legend || Trailer
Barbirusa: Unmasking a Legend || Trailer
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Inventarisasi Babirusa di Suaka Margasatwa Nantu Gorontalo
Inventarisasi Babirusa di Suaka Margasatwa Nantu Gorontalo
::2014/03/25::
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Video footage offers an intimate glimpse into the lives of threatened species in Indonesia.
Video footage offers an intimate glimpse into the lives of threatened species in Indonesia.
::2013/09/10::
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Local Market in North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Local Market in North Sulawesi, Indonesia
::2012/01/27::
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Diving Highlights from Manado / Bunaken - North Sulawesi, Indonesia 14-19 Oct 2011
Diving Highlights from Manado / Bunaken - North Sulawesi, Indonesia 14-19 Oct 2011
::2011/10/27::
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Bitung North Sulawesi Daytrippin
Bitung North Sulawesi Daytrippin'
::2007/06/21::
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Tomohon meat market... North Sulawesi Highlands
Tomohon meat market... North Sulawesi Highlands
::2014/03/25::
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TARSIUS TARSIER eating grasshopper in Tangkoko Nature Reserve - North Sulawesi, Indonesia
TARSIUS TARSIER eating grasshopper in Tangkoko Nature Reserve - North Sulawesi, Indonesia
::2013/08/10::
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North Sulawesi - Diving, Culture and Adventure
North Sulawesi - Diving, Culture and Adventure
::2012/12/28::
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Klabat Mountain in North Sulawesi
Klabat Mountain in North Sulawesi
::2014/03/20::
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Documentary Film Profile Toursim Object Of South Sulawesi Indonesia
Documentary Film Profile Toursim Object Of South Sulawesi Indonesia
::2012/11/25::
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Fantasmas de Sulawesi (documental completo)
Fantasmas de Sulawesi (documental completo)
::2014/03/09::
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north sulawesi tangkoko naturereserve
north sulawesi tangkoko naturereserve
::2013/07/05::
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south sulawesi trip
south sulawesi trip
::2014/11/30::
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Ghosts of Sulawesi (part 1)
Ghosts of Sulawesi (part 1)
::2013/03/20::
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Ghosts of Sulawesi (part 2)
Ghosts of Sulawesi (part 2)
::2013/03/20::
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Sulawesi - Indonesia
Sulawesi - Indonesia
::2013/08/20::
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BABIRUSA KIDS PART 01
BABIRUSA KIDS PART 01
::2009/04/11::
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Cycling in Indonesia, Sulawesi (Celebes), long version
Cycling in Indonesia, Sulawesi (Celebes), long version
::2013/03/01::
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Jaime Burns The Diving Diaries Season 1   The Lembeh Straight   Sulawesi   Indonesia
Jaime Burns The Diving Diaries Season 1 The Lembeh Straight Sulawesi Indonesia
::2012/09/10::
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Exploring Sulawesi,Indonesia
Exploring Sulawesi,Indonesia
::2009/10/16::
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Diving Bunaken Island, Sulawesi, Indonesia
Diving Bunaken Island, Sulawesi, Indonesia
::2014/08/07::
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Sulawesi Shrimpcatch
Sulawesi Shrimpcatch
::2011/06/26::
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Snorkeling East Baling Baling Island - North Sulawesi, Indonesia 2014
Snorkeling East Baling Baling Island - North Sulawesi, Indonesia 2014
::2014/08/10::
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Expedition Tompotika - Sulawesi
Expedition Tompotika - Sulawesi
::2014/07/15::
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Instinto Animal - La Babirusa
Instinto Animal - La Babirusa
::2013/01/07::
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Sulawesi Rice Fields
Sulawesi Rice Fields
::2014/04/14::
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Gettin
Gettin' From Guam To North Sulawesi
::2007/06/21::
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Makassar,Sulawesi Selatan.
Makassar,Sulawesi Selatan.
::2012/07/05::
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Maleo Hammerhuhn Sulawesi
Maleo Hammerhuhn Sulawesi
::2013/12/17::
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Dog market, Tomohon (Sulawesi)
Dog market, Tomohon (Sulawesi)
::2014/08/16::
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Singapore ZOO - Babirusa fight
Singapore ZOO - Babirusa fight
::2011/08/25::
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JAVA  SULAWESI (CELEBES )  BALI
JAVA SULAWESI (CELEBES ) BALI
::2014/07/17::
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preservation of endangered animals in North Sulawesi (seg.2)
preservation of endangered animals in North Sulawesi (seg.2)
::2011/02/28::
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Indonesia, Sulawesi dances in 1948
Indonesia, Sulawesi dances in 1948
::2014/01/16::
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Funeral ceremony Tana Toraja, Sulawesi (July 2013 - beware: shocking)
Funeral ceremony Tana Toraja, Sulawesi (July 2013 - beware: shocking)
::2013/07/16::
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Kick Fighting in Tanah Toraja, Sulawesi, Indonesia
Kick Fighting in Tanah Toraja, Sulawesi, Indonesia
::2008/01/20::
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[HD] Aerial - Pesona Alam Kab. Parigi Moutong - Palu, Sulawesi Tengah
[HD] Aerial - Pesona Alam Kab. Parigi Moutong - Palu, Sulawesi Tengah
::2014/09/26::
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Wunderpus at Tundarusa, Lembeh Straits, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Wunderpus at Tundarusa, Lembeh Straits, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.
::2014/02/23::
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BBC Wild Nature: Unique Sulawesi Animals - Indonesian Fire Islands
BBC Wild Nature: Unique Sulawesi Animals - Indonesian Fire Islands
::2008/08/29::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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North Sulawesi Babirusa
Hirscheber1a.jpg
Adult male
BabirusaSkullLyd2.png
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Suidae
Genus: Babyrousa
Species: B. celebensis
Binomial name
Babyrousa celebensis
Deninger, 1909
Babyrousa celebensis map.svg

The North Sulawesi babirusa, Babyrousa celebensis, is a pig-like animal native to northern Sulawesi and the nearby Lembeh Islands in Indonesia. It has two pairs of large tusks composed of enlarged canine teeth. The upper canines penetrate the top of the snout, curving back toward the forehead. The North Sulawesi Babirusa is threatened from hunting and deforestation.[1]

The common and scientific names are various transcriptions of its local name, which literally translated means "pig-deer" (from Malay babi "pig" + rusa "deer"[2] - see also Javan Rusa) in reference to the huge tusks of the male suggestive of a deer's antlers.

Classification[edit]

Together with the other members of the genus Babyrousa, the North Sulawesi Babirusa has usually been considered a subspecies of a widespread Babyrousa babyrussa, but recent work suggests that there may be several species, differentiable on the basis of geography, body size, amount of body hair, and the shape of the upper canine tooth of the male. Following the split, the "true" Babyrousa babyrussa is restricted to Buru and the Sula Islands.[3]

Most experts agree that babirusas are part of the pig family, and are one of the oldest living members of the family, representing a subfamily, Babyrousinae, that branched off from the warthog branch of the pig family (Subfamily Phacochoerini) during the Oligocene or early Miocene.

Appearance[edit]

Females and young both lack obvious "tusks"

The north Sulawesi babirusa has a head-and-body length of 85–110 cm (33–43 in) and weighs up to 100 kg (220 lb).[4] It is virtually hairless (easily revealing its greyish skin), and the tail-tuft is also nearly hairless. In males, the relatively long and thick upper canines are strongly curved.[3][4] They emerge through the roof of the snout, while the long lower canines emerge through the side of the mouth. The upper canines can grow backwards in a curve until they penetrate the skull of the male babirusa. [5]
In females, the canines are far shorter and typically do not protrude. In comparison, the Buru babirusa has relatively long, thick body hair, a well-developed tail-tuft, and relatively short and slender upper canines in males, while the Togian babirusa is larger, has a relatively well-developed tail-tuft, and the upper canines of the male are "short, slender, rotated forwards, and always converge".[3][4][6]

Habitat[edit]

Its habitat is the underbrush of tropical forests and canebrakes, and the shores of rivers and lakes. Its mostly-hairless, mottled-grey-and-brown hide provide it with a degree of camouflage. The North Sulawesi Babirusa is known for its two pairs of tusks; both its upper and its lower pairs of canine teeth are greatly enlarged, and curve up and back towards the head. The upper canines of the male are so curved and enlarged that they emerge through the flesh, by way of holes, to pass through the top of the snout.

This species is protected by Indonesian law but is threatened by illegal hunting.[7]

Because it is split-hooved and has a three-chambered stomach (and was thus thought to be a ruminant for a long time), there was some dispute in Halakha (Jewish law) as to whether the babirusa is, in fact, kosher (permitted according to Jewish dietary laws). Eventually it was found that the animal is not a true ruminant, and thus remains trefe, like other pigs.

Captivity[edit]

In captivity, the species is very inbred. The Bronx Zoo has an excellent breeding record for this animal, but it has also been bred at several other zoos such as St. Louis Zoo, Los Angeles Zoo, South Lakes Safari Zoo, Marwell Wildlife, Audubon Zoo and Chester Zoo.

In 2006, a male North Sulawesi Babirusa and a female domestic pig were accidentally allowed to interbreed in the Copenhagen Zoo. The offspring were 5 hybrid piglets with teeth most resembling the North Sulawesi Babirusa, while their colour was highly variable.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Leus, K. & Oliver, W. (2008). Babyrousa celebensis. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 15 November 2008.
  2. ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/cgi-bin/dictionary?book=Dictionary&va=babirusa
  3. ^ a b c Meijaard, E. and Groves, C. P. (2002). Upgrading three subspecies of Babirusa (Babyrousa sp.) to full species level. IUCN/SSC Pigs, Peccaries, and Hippos Specialist Group (PPHSG) Newsletter 2(2): 33-39.
  4. ^ a b c Meijaard, E., J. P. d'Huart, and W. L. R. Oliver (2011). Babirusa (Babyrousa). Pp. 274–276 in: Wilson, D. E., and R. A. Mittermeier, eds. (2011). Handbook of the Mammals of the World. Vol. 2, Hoofed Mammals. ISBN 978-84-96553-77-4
  5. ^ http://scienceblogs.com/tetrapodzoology/2010/03/08/babirusa-impales-own-head/
  6. ^ Nash, D. (February 23, 2010). The many babirusa species (babirusas, part VI). Scienceblogs. Accessed May 1, 2012
  7. ^ Clayton, L. M.. "Effects of a Proposed Ex situ Conservation Program on In situ Conservation of the Babirusa, an Endangered Suid" Conservation Biology 14. 2 (2000), 382-385.
  8. ^ http://denmark.dk/portal/page?_pageid=374,610590&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL&ic_itemid=929035[dead link]

External links[edit]

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