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Nuclear Cross Section

Published: 2014/04/14

Channel: AK LECTURES

Nuclear Cross Section & Specific Activity of Radioactive Substance

Published: 2017/03/21

Channel: Priyanka Jain

Cross Section

Published: 2013/05/17

Channel: Jefferson Lab

Mod-01 Lec-30 Nuclear Reactions

Published: 2014/03/25

Channel: nptelhrd

Microscopic Cross Section Lesson

Published: 2014/03/03

Channel: STS Defence

Cross section (physics)

Published: 2016/01/22

Channel: WikiAudio

Nuclear Chemistry Geometric Cross Section

Published: 2017/12/13

Channel: Ajay Singh Guleria

DOE CSGF 2014: Cross Section Spatial Discretization for Nuclear Engineering Calculations

Published: 2014/08/13

Channel: Krell Institute

KCNRP | Session 2 – Interaction of Neutrons with Matter

Published: 2015/09/17

Channel: Nuclear and Plasma Sciences Society AlexSC

19: Scattering cross section

Published: 2012/11/14

Channel: NTNU openVideo

The collision cross-section explained

Published: 2013/03/08

Channel: Oxford Academic (Oxford University Press)

Fission cross section for fast neutrons inside JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor

Published: 2013/11/05

Channel: triga JSI

JSI TRIGA Reactor - Fast neutron cross-section

Published: 2013/06/04

Channel: triga JSI

Lesson34: Neutron Capture

Published: 2013/04/22

Channel: Steve Spicklemire

Particle Physics – Probability and cross section

Published: 2017/11/13

Channel: intrigano

Collision Cross Section Measurements for Food & Environmental Analysis

Published: 2015/12/03

Channel: Waters Corporation

Cross section Meaning

Published: 2015/04/18

Channel: SDictionary

What Do You Mean By Cross Section In Physics?

Published: 2017/09/29

Channel: Ask Question II

Ad Fig. 15 9b Differential cross section for resonance scattering

Published: 2014/07/28

Channel: Picture Book of Quantum Mechanics

Mod-01 Lec-14 Scattering of nucleons

Published: 2014/03/25

Channel: nptelhrd

Nuclear Scattering & Spin

Published: 2014/07/25

Channel: DrPhysicsA

Nuclear Fission and Neutron Induced Fission Cross Sections A Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Data Comm

Published: 2016/10/20

Channel: McTeodor

Particle Physics – Rutherford cross section

Published: 2017/11/13

Channel: intrigano

Area of Cross Section

Published: 2016/08/12

Channel: DeltaStep

Measuring the Neutrino Cross Section with Earth Absorption

Published: 2017/11/22

Channel: IceCube Neutrino Observatory

7 2 Definition of Cross Section

Published: 2015/03/13

Channel: ThePhysicsToday

Fission cross section for thermal neutrons inside JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor

Published: 2013/11/05

Channel: triga JSI

PHYS3740 Lecture21-1 Rutherford Cross-Section

Published: 2010/10/19

Channel: jmgerton

Cross section of a fruit fly embryo

Published: 2012/02/16

Channel: reeveslab

UNM Phys 531 2011 Lec23 Saturation, photon scattering, cross sections

Published: 2016/04/19

Channel: CosmoLearning

Extinction, Absorption and Scattering Cross Section using CST Studio

Published: 2017/02/16

Channel: ParsOptics Group

JSI TRIGA Reactor - Thermal neutron cross section

Published: 2013/06/04

Channel: triga JSI

第10講 Neutron Attenuation (A)

Published: 2013/01/11

Channel: NTHUOCW

Neutron Cross Section Curves Neutron Cross Sections Series Volume 2 v 2

Published: 2016/10/11

Channel: Mrs. Almaș

20: Scattering cross section - Part 2

Published: 2012/11/14

Channel: NTNU openVideo

Lateral and cross section nuclear cycles of a Drosophila embryo

Published: 2017/05/22

Channel: reeveslab

Fission cross section for epithemral neutrons inside JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor

Published: 2013/11/05

Channel: triga JSI

Cross Sections

Published: 2013/04/13

Channel: MathMeij

Lecture 24 Nuclear Reactions, Compound Nuclear Reactions, Direct Reactions

Published: 2015/03/05

Channel: ThePhysicsToday

Total Cross Sections for Reactions of High Energy Particles Including Elastic Topological Inclusive

Published: 2016/10/08

Channel: Iuliana Silva

The Uranium 235 Chain Reaction*Physics Made Fun

Published: 2016/03/25

Channel: *29 INDIAN MILITARY INTELLIGENCE 29*

Cross section of a fruit fly embryo

Published: 2011/01/29

Channel: thedu01

Barn (unit)

Published: 2014/11/04

Channel: Audiopedia

Neutron diffusion in a nuclear reactor

Published: 2017/02/16

Channel: Jan Leen Kloosterman

What Are The Control Rods In A Nuclear Reactor Made Of?

Published: 2017/08/23

Channel: Obu Obu

Aneutronic Nuclear Fusion Reactor + Engine Proposal

Published: 2013/05/31

Channel: Muon Ray

第01講 Introduction to Nuclear Safety (A)

Published: 2013/04/08

Channel: NTHUOCW

3h57m40s21f Nuclear Cross-Sections - Big Dots and Small Dots - TR2016a

Published: 2017/05/13

Channel: Thorium Remix

4h24m46s17f Xenon Most Common Fission Product - Absorbs Neutrons - Kills Fission - TR2016a

Published: 2017/05/14

Channel: Thorium Remix

第24講 Two-Group Calculation of Neutron Moderation (B)

Published: 2013/01/11

Channel: NTHUOCW

The **nuclear cross section** of a nucleus is used to characterize the probability that a nuclear reaction will occur. The concept of a nuclear cross section can be quantified physically in terms of "characteristic area" where a larger area means a larger probability of interaction. The standard unit for measuring a nuclear cross section (denoted as σ) is the barn, which is equal to 10^{−28} m² or 10^{−24} cm². Cross sections can be measured for all possible interaction processes together, in which case they are called total cross sections, or for specific processes, distinguishing elastic scattering and inelastic scattering; of the latter, amongst neutron cross sections the absorption cross sections are of particular interest.

In nuclear physics it is conventional to consider the impinging particles as point particles having negligible diameter. Cross sections can be computed for any sort of process, such as capture scattering, production of neutrons, etc. In many cases, the number of particles emitted or scattered in nuclear processes is not measured directly; one merely measures the attenuation produced in a parallel beam of incident particles by the interposition of a known thickness of a particular material. The cross section obtained in this way is called the total cross section and is usually denoted by a σ or σ_{T}.

Typical nuclear radii are of the order 10^{−14} m. Assuming spherical shape, we therefore expect the cross sections for nuclear reactions to be of the order of π*r* ² or 10^{−28} m² (i.e. 1 barn). Observed cross sections vary enormously - for example, slow neutrons absorbed by the (n, ) reaction show a cross section much higher than 1,000 barns in some cases (boron-10, cadmium-113, and xenon-135), while the cross sections for transmutations by gamma-ray absorption are in the region of 0.001 barn.

Nuclear cross sections are used in determining the nuclear reaction rate, and are governed by the reaction rate equation for a particular set of particles (usually viewed as a "beam and target" thought experiment where one particle or nucleus is the "target" [typically at rest] and the other is treated as a "beam" [projectile with a given energy]).

For neutron interactions incident upon a thin sheet of material (ideally made of a single type of isotope), the nuclear reaction rate equation is written as:

where:

- : number of reactions of type x, units: [1/time/volume]
- : beam flux, units: [1/area/time]
- : microscopic cross section for reaction , units: [area] (usually barns or cm
^{2}). - : density of atoms in the target in units of [1/volume]
- : macroscopic cross-section [1/length]

Types of reactions frequently encountered are *s*: scattering, : radiative capture, *a*: absorption (radiative capture belongs to this type), *f*: fission, the corresponding notation for cross-sections being: , , , etc. A special case is the total cross-section , which gives the probability of a neutron to undergo any sort of reaction ().

Formally, the equation above *defines* the macroscopic neutron cross-section (for reaction x) as the proportionality constant between a neutron flux incident on a (thin) piece of material and the number of reactions that occur (per unit volume) in that material. The distinction between macroscopic and microscopic cross-section is that the former is a property of a specific lump of material (with its density), while the latter is an intrinsic property of a type of nuclei.

This article includes a list of references, but
its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (December 2009) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) |

*Nuclear Reactor Analysis*by James J. Duderstadt and Louis J. Hamilton -*Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.*- Perkins, Donald H. (1999).
*Introduction to High Energy Physics*. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-62196-8. - Mubarakmand, Samar; Masud Ahmad; M. Anwar; M.S. Chaudhry (1977). "Cross-section measurements with a neutron generator".
*The Nucleus*. Nilore, Islamabad: PINSTECH.**42**(1-2): 115–185.

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