Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
CRISPR & OCT4: The Future of Genetic Engineering
CRISPR & OCT4: The Future of Genetic Engineering
Published: 2016/02/08
Channel: Nikhil Reddy
What to expect from Google
What to expect from Google's Oct. 4 Event
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: Android Authority
Thanks, internet: Google
Thanks, internet: Google's Oct. 4 event gets spoiled by leaks
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: CNET
Expect new Google Pixel phones on Oct. 4 (CNET News)
Expect new Google Pixel phones on Oct. 4 (CNET News)
Published: 2017/09/14
Channel: CNET
October 4th - Google Event
October 4th - Google Event
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Made by Google
Dhee 10 | 4th October 2017| Full Episode | ETV Telugu
Dhee 10 | 4th October 2017| Full Episode | ETV Telugu
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: etvteluguindia
Top-5 Ultras of the Week (30 Oct - 4 Nov 2017) Ultras World
Top-5 Ultras of the Week (30 Oct - 4 Nov 2017) Ultras World
Published: 2017/11/09
Channel: Ultras World
Juan For All, All For Juan Sugod Bahay | October 4, 2017
Juan For All, All For Juan Sugod Bahay | October 4, 2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Eat Bulaga!
oct4 - Ein Gen verleiht Unsterblichkeit
oct4 - Ein Gen verleiht Unsterblichkeit
Published: 2010/06/17
Channel: MaxPlanckSociety
[FULL REPLAY] SENATE HEARING ON FAKE NEWS - OCTOBER 4, 2017
[FULL REPLAY] SENATE HEARING ON FAKE NEWS - OCTOBER 4, 2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: DUTERTE ADMINISTRATION
ESAT Tamagn the Artist and his works 4 of 10 Oct 2017
ESAT Tamagn the Artist and his works 4 of 10 Oct 2017
Published: 2017/10/21
Channel: ESATtv Ethiopia
Yakeen Ka Safar Episode 25 HUM TV Drama - 4 October 2017
Yakeen Ka Safar Episode 25 HUM TV Drama - 4 October 2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: HUM TV
Astrology for the Soul  October 4, 2017
Astrology for the Soul October 4, 2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: New Paradigm Astrology
Nick Murphy (FKA Chet Faker) @ The Lot Radio (Oct 4, 2017)
Nick Murphy (FKA Chet Faker) @ The Lot Radio (Oct 4, 2017)
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: The Lot Radio
24 Oras October 4, 2017
24 Oras October 4, 2017
Published: 2017/10/02
Channel: NewsPH Daily
Made by Google Event - 4th October 2017 | Google Pixel 2, Pixel 2 XL, Pixel Book Launch Live Stream
Made by Google Event - 4th October 2017 | Google Pixel 2, Pixel 2 XL, Pixel Book Launch Live Stream
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Unbox Master
Amazing Cake Decorating Videos | Amazing Chocolate Cake Decorating Tutorial Compilation (Oct) #4
Amazing Cake Decorating Videos | Amazing Chocolate Cake Decorating Tutorial Compilation (Oct) #4
Published: 2017/10/30
Channel: UFeedy
Narendra Modi Latest Speech At ICSI | अर्थव्यवस्था पे जमकर धोया | 4 Oct 2017
Narendra Modi Latest Speech At ICSI | अर्थव्यवस्था पे जमकर धोया | 4 Oct 2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: News & Views
Crime Patrol Dial 100 - क्राइम पेट्रोल - Family Feud Part 2 - Ep 623 - 4th October, 2017
Crime Patrol Dial 100 - क्राइम पेट्रोल - Family Feud Part 2 - Ep 623 - 4th October, 2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: SET India
Programa completo del 4 de octubre de 2017 | Enamorándonos
Programa completo del 4 de octubre de 2017 | Enamorándonos
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: Enamorándonos
Top U.S. & World Headlines — October 4, 2017
Top U.S. & World Headlines — October 4, 2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Democracy Now!
MAG - Oct 4/2017
MAG - Oct 4/2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Media Events
Ups & Downs From Last Night
Ups & Downs From Last Night's WWE SmackDown (Oct 4)
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: WhatCulture Wrestling
Jago Pakistan Jago HUM TV Morning Show - 4 October 2017
Jago Pakistan Jago HUM TV Morning Show - 4 October 2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Jago Pakistan Jago
SENATE HEARING October 4, 2017 | THINKING PINOY | Hearing on Fake News | Sen. TRILLANES | pt2
SENATE HEARING October 4, 2017 | THINKING PINOY | Hearing on Fake News | Sen. TRILLANES | pt2
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Balitang Pinoy
FEC141 Oct 4, 2017
FEC141 Oct 4, 2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: cabooseMikey
11:11 Twin Flame Oct 4-11 ~ Q- WHY? ~ Deeep Knowing Arises
11:11 Twin Flame Oct 4-11 ~ Q- WHY? ~ Deeep Knowing Arises
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: NFGC Tarot
Minnesota vs Wisconsin Volleyball 2017 (Oct 4)
Minnesota vs Wisconsin Volleyball 2017 (Oct 4)
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: Sports Girl
MONDAY MISHAPS | Fails of the Week OCT. #4  | Fails From IG, FB And More | Mas Supreme
MONDAY MISHAPS | Fails of the Week OCT. #4 | Fails From IG, FB And More | Mas Supreme
Published: 2017/10/09
Channel: Mas Supreme
A Primer On Puerto Rico | October 4, 2017 Act 1 | Full Frontal on TBS
A Primer On Puerto Rico | October 4, 2017 Act 1 | Full Frontal on TBS
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: Full Frontal with Samantha Bee
Jabardasth | 5th October 2017| Full Episode | ETV Telugu
Jabardasth | 5th October 2017| Full Episode | ETV Telugu
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: ETV Jabardasth
Eric Church - "Why Not Me" | October 4, 2017
Eric Church - "Why Not Me" | October 4, 2017
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: Grand Ole Opry
Oroville Update 4 Oct "4 Weeks and 85 feet to Go!"
Oroville Update 4 Oct "4 Weeks and 85 feet to Go!"
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: blancolirio
REPLAY: News To Go Livestream (October 4, 2017)
REPLAY: News To Go Livestream (October 4, 2017)
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: GMA News
President Trump and First Lady meets with Las Vegas victims. Oct 4 2017.
President Trump and First Lady meets with Las Vegas victims. Oct 4 2017.
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: CHANNEL90seconds newscom
AP Top Stories Oct. 4 P
AP Top Stories Oct. 4 P
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Associated Press
Driving through Vienna, Austria (Oct 4, 2015)
Driving through Vienna, Austria (Oct 4, 2015)
Published: 2015/10/04
Channel: Chris Krzentz
Wednesday October 4, 2017
Wednesday October 4, 2017
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: Grace Message
[2h]Neely Fuller Jr  being called names, eliminating arguments, sexual intercourse/play 4 Oct 2017
[2h]Neely Fuller Jr being called names, eliminating arguments, sexual intercourse/play 4 Oct 2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Victor of RWS
#madebygoogle
#madebygoogle
Published: 2016/10/04
Channel: Google
Michigan State vs Nebraska Volleyball 2017 (Oct 4)
Michigan State vs Nebraska Volleyball 2017 (Oct 4)
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: Sports Girl
Postgame - Oct. 4
Postgame - Oct. 4
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: St. Louis Blues
Oct. 4 Update - DoD Support to Puerto Rico Disaster and Relief Operations
Oct. 4 Update - DoD Support to Puerto Rico Disaster and Relief Operations
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: Department of Defense
Tracking the Tropics for Oct. 4: What
Tracking the Tropics for Oct. 4: What's next for tropical system in Caribbean
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: WDSU News
Urban Meyer Press Conference: Oct. 4, 2017
Urban Meyer Press Conference: Oct. 4, 2017
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: Ohio State Football on cleveland.com
Bubbie Against Bubbie | October 4, 2017 Act 3 | Full Frontal on TBS
Bubbie Against Bubbie | October 4, 2017 Act 3 | Full Frontal on TBS
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: Full Frontal with Samantha Bee
The Last Magician:Isaac Newton-Steven Weinberg- Oct 4 2013-Harry Ransom Center-Austin
The Last Magician:Isaac Newton-Steven Weinberg- Oct 4 2013-Harry Ransom Center-Austin
Published: 2013/10/06
Channel: FarbodShafiei
CBS 2 Weather Watch (Oct. 4, 2017)
CBS 2 Weather Watch (Oct. 4, 2017)
Published: 2017/10/04
Channel: CBS Chicago
Paul McCartney at Golden 1 Center Oct 4, 2016 Sacramento, CA
Paul McCartney at Golden 1 Center Oct 4, 2016 Sacramento, CA
Published: 2016/10/07
Channel: Douglas Bushman
Laurier Football vs Waterloo - Oct 4
Laurier Football vs Waterloo - Oct 4
Published: 2012/10/05
Channel: laurierathletics
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
POU5F1
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
Aliases POU5F1, OCT3, OCT4, OTF-3, OTF3, OTF4, Oct-3, Oct-4, POU class 5 homeobox 1
External IDs OMIM: 164177 MGI: 101893 HomoloGene: 8422 GeneCards: POU5F1
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 6 (human)
Chr. Chromosome 6 (human)[1]
Chromosome 6 (human)
Genomic location for POU5F1
Genomic location for POU5F1
Band 6p21.33 Start 31,164,337 bp[1]
End 31,180,731 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE POU5F1 208286 x at fs.png

PBB GE POU5F1 210265 x at fs.png

PBB GE POU5F1 210905 x at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_203289
NM_001173531
NM_001285986
NM_001285987
NM_002701

NM_001252452
NM_013633

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001239381
NP_038661

Location (UCSC) Chr 6: 31.16 – 31.18 Mb Chr 6: 35.51 – 35.51 Mb
PubMed search [3] [4]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Oct-4 (octamer-binding transcription factor 4), also known as POU5F1 (POU domain, class 5, transcription factor 1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU5F1 gene.[5] Oct-4 is a homeodomain transcription factor of the POU family. It is critically involved in the self-renewal of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells.[6] As such, it is frequently used as a marker for undifferentiated cells. Oct-4 expression must be closely regulated; too much or too little will cause differentiation of the cells.[7]

Oct-4 is a member of the octamer transcription factor family, so named because they bind the octameric (8-unit) DNA nucleotide sequence "ATTTGCAT".[8]

Expression and function[edit]

Oct-4 transcription factor is initially active as a maternal factor in the oocyte and remains active in embryos throughout the preimplantation period. Oct-4 expression is associated with an undifferentiated phenotype and tumors.[9] Gene knockdown of Oct-4 promotes differentiation, demonstrating a role for these factors in human embryonic stem cell self-renewal.[10] Oct-4 can form a heterodimer with Sox2, so that these two proteins bind DNA together.[11]

Mouse embryos that are Oct-4 deficient or have low expression levels of Oct-4 fail to form the inner cell mass, lose pluripotency, and differentiate into trophectoderm. Therefore, the level of Oct-4 expression in mice is vital for regulating pluripotency and early cell differentiation since one of its main functions is to keep the embryo from differentiating.

Orthologs[edit]

Orthologs of Oct-4 in humans and other species include:

Species Entrez GeneID Chromosome Location RefSeq (mRNA) RefSeq (protein)
Mus musculus (mouse) 18999 17,17 B1; 17 19.23 cM NC_000083.4, 35114104..35118822 (Plus Strand) NM_013633.1 NP_038661.1
Homo sapiens (human) 5460 6, 6p21.31 NC_000006.10, 31246432-31240107 (Minus Strand) NM_002701.3 NP_002692.2 (full length isoform)
NP_002692.1 (N-terminal truncated isoform)
Rattus norvegicus (rat) 294562 20 NW_001084776, 650467-655015 (Minus strand) NM_001009178 NP_001009178
Danio rerio (zebrafish) 303333 21 NC_007127.1, 27995548-28000317 (Minus strand) NM_131112 NP_571187

Structure[edit]

Oct-4 contains the following protein domains:

Domain Description Length (AA)
POU domain Found in Pit-Oct-Unc transcription factors 75
Homeodomain DNA binding domains involved in the transcriptional regulation of key eukaryotic developmental processes; may bind to DNA as monomers or as homodimers and/or heterodimers in a sequence-specific manner. 59

Implications in disease[edit]

Oct-4 has been implicated in tumorigenesis of adult germ cells. Ectopic expression of the factor in adult mice has been found to cause the formation of dysplastic lesions of the skin and intestine. The intestinal dysplasia resulted from an increase in progenitor cell population and the upregulation of β-catenin transcription through the inhibition of cellular differentiation.[12]

Pluripotency in embryo development[edit]

Animal model[edit]

In 2000, Niwa et al. used conditional expression and repression in murine embryonic stem cells to determine requirements for Oct-4 in the maintenance of developmental potency.[7] Although transcriptional determination has often been considered as a binary on-off control system, they found that the precise level of Oct-4 governs 3 distinct fates of ES cells. An increase in expression of less than 2-fold causes differentiation into primitive endoderm and mesoderm. In contrast, repression of Oct-4 induces loss of pluripotency and dedifferentiation to trophectoderm. Thus, a critical amount of Oct-4 is required to sustain stem cell self-renewal, and up- or down-regulation induces divergent developmental programs. Changes to Oct-4 levels do not independently promote differentiation, but are also controlled by levels of Sox2. A decrease in Sox2 accompanies increased levels of Oct-4 to promote a mesendodermal fate, with Oct-4 actively inhibiting ectodermal differentiation. Repressed Oct-4 levels that lead to ectodermal differentiation are accompanied by an increase in Sox2, which effectively inhibits mesendodermal differentiation.[13] Niwa et al. suggested that their findings established a role for Oct-4 as a master regulator of pluripotency that controls lineage commitment and illustrated the sophistication of critical transcriptional regulators and the consequent importance of quantitative analyzes.

The transcription factors Oct-4, Sox2 and Nanog are part of a complex regulatory network with Oct-4 and Sox2 capable of directly regulating Nanog by binding to its promoter, and are essential for maintaining the self-renewing undifferentiated state of the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, embryonic stem cell lines (which are cell lines derived from the inner cell mass), and induced pluripotent stem cells.[11] While differential up- and down-regulation of Oct-4 and Sox2 has been shown to promote differentiation, down-regulation of Nanog must occur for differentiation to proceed.[13]

Role in reprogramming[edit]

Oct-4 is one of the transcription factors used to create induced pluripotent stem cells, together with Sox2, Klf4 and often c-Myc in mouse,[14][15][16] demonstrating its capacity to induce an embryonic stem cell-like state. These factors are often referred to as "Yamanaka reprogramming factors". This reprogramming effect has also been seen with the Thomson reprogramming factors, reverting human fibroblast cells to iPSCs through Oct-4, along with Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28. The use of Thomson reprogramming factors avoids the need to overexpress c-Myc, an oncogene.[17] It was later determined that only two of these four factors, Oct4 and Klf4, were sufficient to reprogram mouse adult neural stem cells.[18] Finally it was shown that a single factor, Oct-4 was sufficient for this transformation.[19]

In embryonic stem cells[edit]

In in vitro experiments of mouse embryonic stem cells, Oct-4 has often been used as a marker of stemness, as differentiated cells show reduced expression of this marker.

Oct3/4 can both repress and activate the promoter of Rex1. In cells that already express high level of Oct3/4, exogenously transfected Oct3/4 will lead to the repression of Rex1.[20] However, in cells that are not actively expressing Oct3/4, exogenous transfection of Oct3/4 will lead to the activation of Rex1.[20] This implies a dual regulatory ability of Oct3/4 on Rex1. At low levels of the Oct3/4 protein, the Rex1 promoter is activated, while at high levels of the Oct3/4 protein, the Rex1 promoter is repressed.

In adult stem cells[edit]

Several studies suggest a role for Oct-4 in sustaining self-renewal capacity of adult somatic stem cells (i.e. stem cells from epithelium, bone marrow, liver, etc.).[21] Other scientists have produced evidence to the contrary,[22] and dismiss those studies as artifacts of in vitro culture, or interpreting background noise as signal,[23] and warn about Oct-4 pseudogenes giving false detection of Oct-4 expression.[24] Oct-4 has also been implicated as a marker of cancer stem cells.[25][26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c ENSG00000206454, ENSG00000204531, ENSG00000237582, ENSG00000229094, ENSG00000233911, ENSG00000235068 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000230336, ENSG00000206454, ENSG00000204531, ENSG00000237582, ENSG00000229094, ENSG00000233911, ENSG00000235068 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000024406 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ Takeda J, Seino S, Bell GI (Sep 1992). "Human Oct3 gene family: cDNA sequences, alternative splicing, gene organization, chromosomal location, and expression at low levels in adult tissues". Nucleic Acids Research. 20 (17): 4613–20. doi:10.1093/nar/20.17.4613. PMC 334192Freely accessible. PMID 1408763. 
  6. ^ Young Lab- Core Transcriptional Regulatory Circuitry in Human Embryonic Stem Cells at MIT
  7. ^ a b Niwa H, Miyazaki J, Smith AG (Apr 2000). "Quantitative expression of Oct-3/4 defines differentiation, dedifferentiation or self-renewal of ES cells". Nature Genetics. 24 (4): 372–6. doi:10.1038/74199. PMID 10742100. 
  8. ^ Petryniak B, Staudt LM, Postema CE, McCormack WT, Thompson CB (Feb 1990). "Characterization of chicken octamer-binding proteins demonstrates that POU domain-containing homeobox transcription factors have been highly conserved during vertebrate evolution". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 87 (3): 1099–103. doi:10.1073/pnas.87.3.1099. PMC 53418Freely accessible. PMID 1967834. 
  9. ^ Looijenga LH, Stoop H, de Leeuw HP, de Gouveia Brazao CA, Gillis AJ, van Roozendaal KE, van Zoelen EJ, Weber RF, Wolffenbuttel KP, van Dekken H, Honecker F, Bokemeyer C, Perlman EJ, Schneider DT, Kononen J, Sauter G, Oosterhuis JW (May 2003). "POU5F1 (OCT3/4) identifies cells with pluripotent potential in human germ cell tumors". Cancer Research. 63 (9): 2244–50. PMID 12727846. 
  10. ^ Zaehres H, Lensch MW, Daheron L, Stewart SA, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Daley GQ (Mar 2005). "High-efficiency RNA interference in human embryonic stem cells". Stem Cells. 23 (3): 299–305. doi:10.1634/stemcells.2004-0252. PMID 15749924. 
  11. ^ a b Rodda DJ, Chew JL, Lim LH, Loh YH, Wang B, Ng HH, Robson P (Jul 2005). "Transcriptional regulation of nanog by OCT4 and SOX2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (26): 24731–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M502573200. PMID 15860457. 
  12. ^ Hochedlinger K, Yamada Y, Beard C, Jaenisch R (May 2005). "Ectopic expression of Oct-4 blocks progenitor-cell differentiation and causes dysplasia in epithelial tissues". Cell. 121 (3): 465–77. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2005.02.018. PMID 15882627. 
  13. ^ a b Thomson M, Liu SJ, Zou LN, Smith Z, Meissner A, Ramanathan S (June 2011). "Pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells regulate differentiation into germ layers". Cell. 145 (6): 875–89. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.05.017. PMID 21663792. 
  14. ^ Okita K, Ichisaka T, Yamanaka S (Jul 2007). "Generation of germline-competent induced pluripotent stem cells". Nature. 448 (7151): 313–7. doi:10.1038/nature05934. PMID 17554338. 
  15. ^ Wernig M, Meissner A, Foreman R, Brambrink T, Ku M, Hochedlinger K, Bernstein BE, Jaenisch R (Jul 2007). "In vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts into a pluripotent ES-cell-like state". Nature. 448 (7151): 318–24. doi:10.1038/nature05944. PMID 17554336. 
  16. ^ Maherali N, Sridharan R, Xie W, Utikal J, Eminli S, Arnold K, Stadtfeld M, Yachechko R, Tchieu J, Jaenisch R, Plath K, Hochedlinger K (Jun 2007). "Directly reprogrammed fibroblasts show global epigenetic remodeling and widespread tissue contribution". Cell Stem Cell. 1 (1): 55–70. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.05.014. PMID 18371336. 
  17. ^ Yu J, Vodyanik MA, et al. (2007). "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines Derived from Human Somatic Cells". Science. 318 (5858): 1917–1920. doi:10.1126/science.1151526. PMID 18029452. 
  18. ^ Kim JB, Zaehres H, Wu G, Gentile L, Ko K, Sebastiano V, Araúzo-Bravo MJ, Ruau D, Han DW, Zenke M, Schöler HR (Jul 2008). "Pluripotent stem cells induced from adult neural stem cells by reprogramming with two factors". Nature. 454 (7204): 646–50. doi:10.1038/nature07061. PMID 18594515. 
  19. ^ Kim JB, Sebastiano V, Wu G, Araúzo-Bravo MJ, Sasse P, Gentile L, Ko K, Ruau D, Ehrich M, van den Boom D, Meyer J, Hübner K, Bernemann C, Ortmeier C, Zenke M, Fleischmann BK, Zaehres H, Schöler HR (Feb 2009). "Oct4-induced pluripotency in adult neural stem cells". Cell. 136 (3): 411–9. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2009.01.023. PMID 19203577. 
  20. ^ a b Ben-Shushan E, Thompson JR, Gudas LJ, Bergman Y (Apr 1998). "Rex-1, a gene encoding a transcription factor expressed in the early embryo, is regulated via Oct-3/4 and Oct-6 binding to an octamer site and a novel protein, Rox-1, binding to an adjacent site". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 18 (4): 1866–78. doi:10.1128/mcb.18.4.1866. PMC 121416Freely accessible. PMID 9528758. 
  21. ^ For example:
  22. ^ Lengner CJ, Camargo FD, Hochedlinger K, Welstead GG, Zaidi S, Gokhale S, Scholer HR, Tomilin A, Jaenisch R (Oct 2007). "Oct4 expression is not required for mouse somatic stem cell self-renewal". Cell Stem Cell. 1 (4): 403–15. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2007.07.020. PMC 2151746Freely accessible. PMID 18159219. 
  23. ^ Lengner CJ, Welstead GG, Jaenisch R (Mar 2008). "The pluripotency regulator Oct4: a role in somatic stem cells?". Cell Cycle. 7 (6): 725–8. doi:10.4161/cc.7.6.5573. PMID 18239456. 
  24. ^ Zangrossi S, Marabese M, Broggini M, Giordano R, D'Erasmo M, Montelatici E, Intini D, Neri A, Pesce M, Rebulla P, Lazzari L (Jul 2007). "Oct-4 expression in adult human differentiated cells challenges its role as a pure stem cell marker". Stem Cells. 25 (7): 1675–80. doi:10.1634/stemcells.2006-0611. PMID 17379765. 
  25. ^ Kim RJ, Nam JS (Jun 2011). "OCT4 Expression Enhances Features of Cancer Stem Cells in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer". Laboratory Animal Research. 27 (2): 147–52. doi:10.5625/lar.2011.27.2.147. PMC 3145994Freely accessible. PMID 21826175. 
  26. ^ Atlasi Y, Mowla SJ, Ziaee SA, Bahrami AR (Apr 2007). "OCT-4, an embryonic stem cell marker, is highly expressed in bladder cancer". International Journal of Cancer. 120 (7): 1598–602. doi:10.1002/ijc.22508. PMID 17205510. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license