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After Eating Okra, This Is What Happens With Your Body
After Eating Okra, This Is What Happens With Your Body
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: Home Remedy
Growing Clemson Spineless Okra - Beautiful & Delicious Okra
Growing Clemson Spineless Okra - Beautiful & Delicious Okra
Published: 2015/12/25
Channel: California Gardening
Growing and Harvesting Okra
Growing and Harvesting Okra
Published: 2015/07/11
Channel: Jeff Bernhard
வெண்டைக்காயின் அற்புத பலன்கள்! | OKRA | LADY FINGER
வெண்டைக்காயின் அற்புத பலன்கள்! | OKRA | LADY FINGER
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Suda Suda
DRINK OKRA WATER AND TREAT DIABETES, ASTHMA, CHOLESTEROL AND KIDNEY DISEASE!
DRINK OKRA WATER AND TREAT DIABETES, ASTHMA, CHOLESTEROL AND KIDNEY DISEASE!
Published: 2016/08/11
Channel: Great Life and more...
Vegetarian Curry Okra Recipe.
Vegetarian Curry Okra Recipe.
Published: 2013/04/23
Channel: caribbeanpot
After Eating Okra, This is What Happens with Your Body
After Eating Okra, This is What Happens with Your Body
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: Susana Home Remedies
Okra Health Benefits Okra For Weight Loss Okra Benefits Digest
Okra Health Benefits Okra For Weight Loss Okra Benefits Digest
Published: 2017/08/14
Channel: Susana Home Remedies
Amazing Okra Rice #TastyTuesdays | CaribbeanPot.com
Amazing Okra Rice #TastyTuesdays | CaribbeanPot.com
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: caribbeanpot
Okra & Tomatoes
Okra & Tomatoes
Published: 2012/07/19
Channel: CharmingPixieFlora
Freshly Caught Trout, Hummus And Okra  Gay Family Mukbang (먹방) - Eating Show
Freshly Caught Trout, Hummus And Okra Gay Family Mukbang (먹방) - Eating Show
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Loving Life Fam
How-To Roast Okra  (Aka Okra Fries) - Tasty and Easy
How-To Roast Okra (Aka Okra Fries) - Tasty and Easy
Published: 2012/09/19
Channel: Clean & Delicious
Keto Bhindi Masala (Stir Fried Okra) | Keto Recipes | Headbanger
Keto Bhindi Masala (Stir Fried Okra) | Keto Recipes | Headbanger's Kitchen
Published: 2017/07/28
Channel: Headbanger's Kitchen
The Best Fried Okra
The Best Fried Okra
Published: 2012/08/26
Channel: FixinThatUp
After Eating Okra, This Is What Happens With Your Body
After Eating Okra, This Is What Happens With Your Body
Published: 2016/10/04
Channel: zinta
OKRA JUICE  HOW TO LOSS WEIGHT  FAT WITHE OKRA JUICE
OKRA JUICE HOW TO LOSS WEIGHT FAT WITHE OKRA JUICE
Published: 2016/12/03
Channel: Chef Ricardo Cooking
Simple Okra: How to Cook Okra Without the Sliminess
Simple Okra: How to Cook Okra Without the Sliminess
Published: 2016/09/08
Channel: Jenna Edwards
18 "BENEFITS OF OKRA" For Skin, Diabetes, Hair and Health !!
18 "BENEFITS OF OKRA" For Skin, Diabetes, Hair and Health !!
Published: 2015/11/27
Channel: Benefits Video
Cara Mudah Menanam Buah Okra
Cara Mudah Menanam Buah Okra
Published: 2016/10/28
Channel: Zuind Su
Diabetes and Okra - a case study by Jogindra Kohli 8 14 2015
Diabetes and Okra - a case study by Jogindra Kohli 8 14 2015
Published: 2015/08/14
Channel: Jogindra Kohli
Easy Okra Recipe
Easy Okra Recipe
Published: 2012/03/23
Channel: Chef Buck
Mas de 24 razones para consumir Molondron Okra más a menudo, cáncer de colon, colesterol y más
Mas de 24 razones para consumir Molondron Okra más a menudo, cáncer de colon, colesterol y más
Published: 2015/10/27
Channel: Salud Book
Ladies finger (Okra) grow up in backyard
Ladies finger (Okra) grow up in backyard
Published: 2017/05/13
Channel: Nilkanta Halder
How To Grow Okra In Containers - Growing Nombo Giant Okra - in 4K
How To Grow Okra In Containers - Growing Nombo Giant Okra - in 4K
Published: 2016/07/09
Channel: California Gardening
Inilah Manfaat Okra Merah Bagi Kesehatan Tubuh Kita
Inilah Manfaat Okra Merah Bagi Kesehatan Tubuh Kita
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: YT Info
Tak Disangka!!!Inilah Manfaat dan Kh4siat Luar Biasa Okra Merah untuk Kesehatan
Tak Disangka!!!Inilah Manfaat dan Kh4siat Luar Biasa Okra Merah untuk Kesehatan
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: MIMI CHANNEL
How to Make Natural Okra Hair Conditioner For Hair Growth,Dandruff & Soft Hair-Beautyklove
How to Make Natural Okra Hair Conditioner For Hair Growth,Dandruff & Soft Hair-Beautyklove
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Channel: beautyklove
Okra in Raised Beds
Okra in Raised Beds
Published: 2013/08/05
Channel: TheSonoman1976
menanam Okra
menanam Okra
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: varedysa putra
Ajaib !! Inilah 14 Manfaat Okra untuk Kesehatan Tubuh Yang Wajib Diketahui
Ajaib !! Inilah 14 Manfaat Okra untuk Kesehatan Tubuh Yang Wajib Diketahui
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: Juragan Nisah
How to Boil Okra - Simple Boiled Okra Recipe
How to Boil Okra - Simple Boiled Okra Recipe
Published: 2014/07/29
Channel: IrixGuy's Adventure Channel
Pohon OKRA lagi, Selasa, 14 Juni 2016
Pohon OKRA lagi, Selasa, 14 Juni 2016
Published: 2016/06/14
Channel: Budy Rijani Johan
AFTER EATING OKRA, This Is What Happens With Your Body!
AFTER EATING OKRA, This Is What Happens With Your Body!
Published: 2017/03/04
Channel: PowerHealthYT
how to cook okra indian style in 2 min
how to cook okra indian style in 2 min
Published: 2014/06/28
Channel: harshal lonare
Top 14 Amazing Health Benefits of Okra !
Top 14 Amazing Health Benefits of Okra !
Published: 2017/03/20
Channel: Natural Life Hacks
Okra_How to grow Okra from seed
Okra_How to grow Okra from seed
Published: 2012/12/15
Channel: bcneiman
Resep Praktis Masak Tumis Okra
Resep Praktis Masak Tumis Okra
Published: 2016/12/29
Channel: Zuind Su
Okra 101
Okra 101
Published: 2012/09/12
Channel: Clean & Delicious
After Eating Okra, This is What Happens With Your Body | Okra Health Benefits Okra For Weight Loss
After Eating Okra, This is What Happens With Your Body | Okra Health Benefits Okra For Weight Loss
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Natural Home Cures
Okra Health Benefits Okra For Weight Loss Okra Benefits Digest
Okra Health Benefits Okra For Weight Loss Okra Benefits Digest
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Article Factory
Varieties of Okra You Can Grow
Varieties of Okra You Can Grow
Published: 2013/07/31
Channel: CAMasterGardener
Estos son los 5 mejores beneficios de la Okra o Quimbombó para la salud del organismo
Estos son los 5 mejores beneficios de la Okra o Quimbombó para la salud del organismo
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: De Todo en Salud
This Is What Happens With Your Body After Eat Okra!
This Is What Happens With Your Body After Eat Okra!
Published: 2017/05/05
Channel: Robert von Rotz Roy
Manfaat Sayur Okra Untuk Menurunkan Gula Darah dan Kolesterol
Manfaat Sayur Okra Untuk Menurunkan Gula Darah dan Kolesterol
Published: 2016/08/24
Channel: dialyog khen
Planting Okra - May 2010 - Growing a Vegetable Garden
Planting Okra - May 2010 - Growing a Vegetable Garden
Published: 2010/05/27
Channel: webcajun
Beneficios De La Okra -La Okra o Quibombó es una Medicina Natural Para La Diabetes
Beneficios De La Okra -La Okra o Quibombó es una Medicina Natural Para La Diabetes
Published: 2015/10/11
Channel: hierbas medicinales
Cara Membuat Obat Diabetes Ampuh Dengan Buah Okra
Cara Membuat Obat Diabetes Ampuh Dengan Buah Okra
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: Zuind Su
You Will Never Believe What OKRA Can Do To Your Body If You Eat It
You Will Never Believe What OKRA Can Do To Your Body If You Eat It
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: Direct Trend
OKRA : Para sa Diabetes at Pumayat - Payo ni Doc Liza Ramoso-Ong #37
OKRA : Para sa Diabetes at Pumayat - Payo ni Doc Liza Ramoso-Ong #37
Published: 2015/10/01
Channel: Dr Willie Ong
Southern Style Okra And Tomatoes
Southern Style Okra And Tomatoes
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: soulfoodqueen.net
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Abelmoschus esculentus
Hong Kong Okra Aug 25 2012.JPG
Okra plant with mature and developing fruits in Hong Kong
Ladies' Finger BNC.jpg
Okra in longitudinal section
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malvales
Family: Malvaceae
Genus: Abelmoschus
Species: A. esculentus
Binomial name
Abelmoschus esculentus
(L.) Moench
Map showing worldwide okra production
Worldwide okra production
Synonyms[1]
  • Abelmoschus bammia Webb
  • Abelmoschus longifolius (Willd.) Kostel.
  • Abelmoschus officinalis (DC.) Endl.
  • Abelmoschus praecox Sickenb.
  • Abelmoschus tuberculatus Pal & Singh
  • Hibiscus esculentus L.
  • Hibiscus hispidissimus A.Chev. nom. illeg.
  • Hibiscus longifolius Willd.
  • Hibiscus praecox Forssk.

Okra or okro (US: /ˈkrə/ or UK: /ˈɒkrə/), known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers or ochro, is a flowering plant in the mallow family. It is valued for its edible green seed pods. The geographical origin of okra is disputed, with supporters of West African, Ethiopian, and South Asian origins. The plant is cultivated in tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions around the world.[2]

Vernacular names in English-speaking nations[edit]

The name okra is most often used in the UK, United States and the Philippines, with a variant pronunciation in Caribbean English and Nigeria of okro. The word okra is from the Igbo ọ́kụ̀rụ̀.[3][4] The plant and its seed pods are also known as "lady's fingers".[5] In various Bantu languages, okra is called (ki)ngombo or a variant,[6] and this is possibly the origin of the name "gumbo", used in parts of the United States and the English-speaking Caribbean (via Spanish/Portuguese "quingombo").[7]

Origin and distribution[edit]

Whole plant

Okra is an allopolyploid of uncertain parentage (proposed parents include Abelmoschus ficulneus, A. tuberculatus and a reported "diploid" form of okra). Truly wild (as opposed to naturalised) populations are not known with certainty and the species may be a cultigen.

The geographical origin of okra is disputed, with supporters of South Asian, Ethiopian and West African origins. Supporters of a South Asian origin point to the presence of its proposed parents in that region. Supporters of a West African origin point to the greater diversity of okra in that region.

The Egyptians and Moors of the 12th and 13th centuries used the Arabic word for the plant, bamya, suggesting it had come into Egypt from Arabia, but earlier it was probably taken from Ethiopia to Arabia. The plant may have entered southwest Asia across the Red Sea or the Bab-el-Mandeb straight to the Arabian Peninsula, rather than north across the Sahara, or from India. One of the earliest accounts is by a Spanish Moor who visited Egypt in 1216 and described the plant under cultivation by the locals who ate the tender, young pods with meal.[7]

From Arabia, the plant spread around the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and eastward. The plant was introduced to the Americas by ships plying the Atlantic slave trade[8] by 1658, when its presence was recorded in Brazil. It was further documented in Suriname in 1686. Okra may have been introduced to southeastern North America from Africa in the early 18th century. By 1748, it was being grown as far north as Philadelphia. Thomas Jefferson noted it was well established in Virginia by 1781. It was commonplace throughout the Southern United States by 1800, and the first mention of different cultivars was in 1806.[7]

Botany and cultivation[edit]

Okra flower, close-up

The species is a perennial, often cultivated as an annual in temperate climates, and often grows to around 2 metres (6.6 ft) tall. It is related to such species as cotton, cocoa, and hibiscus. The leaves are 10–20 centimetres (3.9–7.9 in) long and broad, palmately lobed with 5–7 lobes. The flowers are 4–8 centimetres (1.6–3.1 in) in diameter, with five white to yellow petals, often with a red or purple spot at the base of each petal. The fruit is a capsule up to 18 centimetres (7.1 in) long with pentagonal cross-section, containing numerous seeds.

Abelmoschus esculentus is cultivated throughout the tropical and warm temperate regions of the world for its fibrous fruits or pods containing round, white seeds. It is among the most heat- and drought-tolerant vegetable species in the world and will tolerate soils with heavy clay and intermittent moisture, but frost can damage the pods.

In cultivation, the seeds are soaked overnight prior to planting to a depth of 1–2 centimetres (0.39–0.79 in). Germination occurs between six days (soaked seeds) and three weeks. Seedlings require ample water. The seed pods rapidly become fibrous and woody and, to be edible as a vegetable, must be harvested when immature, usually within a week after pollination.[9] Okra is available in two varieties, green and red. Red okra carries the same flavor as the more popular green okra and differs only in color. When cooked, the red okra pods turn green.[10]

The most common disease afflicting the okra plant is verticillium wilt, often causing a yellowing and wilting of the leaves. Other diseases include powdery mildew in dry tropical regions, leaf spots, and root-knot nematodes.[11]

Food[edit]

Okra, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 138 kJ (33 kcal)
7.45 g
Sugars 1.48 g
Dietary fiber 3.2 g
0.19 g
1.9 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(5%)
36 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(17%)
0.2 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(5%)
0.06 mg
Niacin (B3)
(7%)
1 mg
Folate (B9)
(15%)
60 μg
Vitamin C
(28%)
23 mg
Vitamin E
(2%)
0.27 mg
Vitamin K
(30%)
31.3 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(8%)
82 mg
Iron
(5%)
0.62 mg
Magnesium
(16%)
57 mg
Phosphorus
(9%)
61 mg
Potassium
(6%)
299 mg
Zinc
(6%)
0.58 mg
Other constituents
Water 89.6 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Raw okra slices

The products of the plant are mucilaginous, resulting in the characteristic "goo" or slime when the seed pods are cooked; the mucilage contains soluble fiber.[12] Pods are cooked, pickled, eaten raw, or included in salads. Okra may be used in developing countries to mitigate malnutrition and alleviate food insecurity.[12]

Nutrition[edit]

Raw okra is 90% water, 2% protein, 7% carbohydrates and negligible in fat (table). In a 100 gram amount, raw okra is rich (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV) in dietary fiber, vitamin C and vitamin K, with moderate contents of thiamin, folate and magnesium (table).

Leaves and seeds[edit]

Stir fried okra with diced chili peppers

Okra leaves may be cooked in a similar way to the greens of beets or dandelions.[13] The leaves are also eaten raw in salads. Okra seeds may be roasted and ground to form a caffeine-free substitute for coffee.[7] When importation of coffee was disrupted by the American Civil War in 1861, the Austin State Gazette said, "An acre of okra will produce seed enough to furnish a plantation with coffee in every way equal to that imported from Rio."[14]

Greenish-yellow edible okra oil is pressed from okra seeds; it has a pleasant taste and odor, and is high in unsaturated fats such as oleic acid and linoleic acid.[15] The oil content of some varieties of the seed is about 40%. At 794 kg/ha, the yield was exceeded only by that of sunflower oil in one trial.[16] A 1920 study found that a sample contained 15% oil.[17] A 2009 study found okra oil suitable for use as a biofuel.[18]

Bast fibre[edit]

Bast fibre from the stem of the plant has industrial uses.[19]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  2. ^ National Research Council (2006-10-27). "Okra". Lost Crops of Africa: Volume II: Vegetables. Lost Crops of Africa. 2. National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-10333-6. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 
  3. ^ Harper, Douglas. "okra". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  4. ^ McWhorter, John H. (2000). The Missing Spanish Creoles: Recovering the Birth of Plantation Contact Languages. University of California Press. p. 77. ISBN 0-520-21999-6. Retrieved 2008-11-29. 
  5. ^ "Alternative Cold Remedies: Lady's Fingers Plant", curing-colds.com (accessed 3 June 2009) Archived May 13, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ "gumbo". Oxford English Dictionary (1st ed.). Oxford University Press. 1933. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Okra, or 'Gumbo,' from Africa, tamu.edu
  8. ^ " Okra gumbo and rice" by Sheila S. Walker, The News Courier, unknown date
  9. ^ "Okra Seed" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-10-17. 
  10. ^ "Red Okra Information, Recipes and Facts". Retrieved 2015-09-30. 
  11. ^ "Growing okra". Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Queensland. 19 September 2007. Archived from the original on June 11, 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2012. 
  12. ^ a b Gemede, H. F.; Haki, G. D.; Beyene, F; Woldegiorgis, A. Z.; Rakshit, S. K. (2015). "Proximate, mineral, and antinutrient compositions of indigenous Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) pod accessions: Implications for mineral bioavailability". Food Science & Nutrition. 4 (2): 223–33. PMC 4779480Freely accessible. PMID 27004112. doi:10.1002/fsn3.282. 
  13. ^ network.com: Okra Greens and Corn Saute, M.S. Milliken & S. Feniger, 1996
  14. ^ Austin State Gazette [TEX.], November 9, 1861, p. 4, c. 2, copied in Confederate Coffee Substitutes: Articles from Civil War Newspapers Archived September 28, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., University of Texas at Tyler
  15. ^ Martin, Franklin W. (1982). "Okra, Potential Multiple-Purpose Crop for the Temperate Zones and Tropics". Economic Botany. 36 (3): 340–345. doi:10.1007/BF02858558. 
  16. ^ Mays, D.A., W. Buchanan, B.N. Bradford, and P.M. Giordano (1990). "Fuel production potential of several agricultural crops". Advances in New Crops: 260–263. 
  17. ^ Jamieson, George S.; Baughman, Walter F. (1920). "Okra Seed Oil.1". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 42: 166. doi:10.1021/ja01446a023. 
  18. ^ Farooq, Anwar; Umer Rashid; Muhammad Ashraf; Muhammad Nadeem (March 2010). "Okra (Hibiscus esculentus) seed oil for biodiesel production". Applied Energy. 87 (3): 779–785. doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2009.09.020. 
  19. ^ De Rosa, I.M.; Kenny, J.M.; Puglia, D.; Santulli, C.; Sarasini, F. (2010). "Morphological, thermal and mechanical characterization of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) fibres as potential reinforcement in polymer composites". Composites Science and Technology. 70 (1): 116–122. doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2009.09.013. 

External links[edit]

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