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1
Monia & Girolemin Old Occitan Song my version
Monia & Girolemin Old Occitan Song my version
::2011/05/29::
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2
Iversen telling about  (Old) Occitan
Iversen telling about (Old) Occitan
::2010/10/13::
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3
Trobairitz Women Poets from Early Twelfth-Century Southern France
Trobairitz Women Poets from Early Twelfth-Century Southern France
::2011/09/28::
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4
BELA BERGERA occitan old song by Moniagdf sing with myself
BELA BERGERA occitan old song by Moniagdf sing with myself
::2012/07/17::
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5
Linguistic Diversity  Occitan#6038
Linguistic Diversity Occitan#6038
::2010/11/19::
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Ernest et Celestine en occitan extrèit 1
Ernest et Celestine en occitan extrèit 1
::2014/08/20::
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Nombres de 1 à 20 en Occitan du Briançonnais
Nombres de 1 à 20 en Occitan du Briançonnais
::2011/01/17::
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8
Occitan
Occitan
::2008/06/08::
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9
Occitan revival, speak your language !
Occitan revival, speak your language !
::2010/05/13::
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Ernest et Celestine en occitan extrèit 3
Ernest et Celestine en occitan extrèit 3
::2014/08/22::
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Djahlekt   Occitan Dins Paris
Djahlekt Occitan Dins Paris
::2014/04/09::
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Occitan Songs: La Piòu e la fai solelh
Occitan Songs: La Piòu e la fai solelh
::2009/04/16::
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13
Christian Almerge & TEST - Lo fantauma de la ciutat (ghostbuster occitan parody)
Christian Almerge & TEST - Lo fantauma de la ciutat (ghostbuster occitan parody)
::2013/08/18::
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14
Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 12 de febrièr 2011
Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 12 de febrièr 2011
::2011/02/13::
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DV 242. Quand le bouvier (chanson traditionnelle en occitan) : Lo bouier, a capella par dominique dv
DV 242. Quand le bouvier (chanson traditionnelle en occitan) : Lo bouier, a capella par dominique dv
::2010/08/16::
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L.Ciari et P.Geffroy lisent Félix Castan(occitan,français).Provins Jazz Poetry
L.Ciari et P.Geffroy lisent Félix Castan(occitan,français).Provins Jazz Poetry
::2013/11/14::
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How to Pronounce Occitan
How to Pronounce Occitan
::2012/11/15::
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Francesco Benozzo - Isola e Luna
Francesco Benozzo - Isola e Luna
::2014/06/20::
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19
Occitan de las Valadas (La Chanal)
Occitan de las Valadas (La Chanal)
::2013/02/10::
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20
Doctors de Trobar / Occitan Bambaataa
Doctors de Trobar / Occitan Bambaataa
::2013/10/22::
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21
Lou Dalfin - Es Pas Tard (occitan music)
Lou Dalfin - Es Pas Tard (occitan music)
::2013/12/09::
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morigania - The return of the dark occitan warrior - black metal clip
morigania - The return of the dark occitan warrior - black metal clip
::2014/05/25::
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⚡ SONOLOCO - Occitan warriors - Album DANGEROSA (Official Lyrics video) ♫
⚡ SONOLOCO - Occitan warriors - Album DANGEROSA (Official Lyrics video) ♫
::2013/04/26::
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Se Canto - sung in Occitan
Se Canto - sung in Occitan
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MPK Production et Cola Occitan sur France 3 Occitan
MPK Production et Cola Occitan sur France 3 Occitan
::2014/01/13::
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26
Original Occitan Music by Alain Bissiere
Original Occitan Music by Alain Bissiere
::2011/07/06::
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27
Tradestiu festival occitan et traditionnel
Tradestiu festival occitan et traditionnel
::2013/10/05::
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28
L
L'OCCITAN - VIRCAT
::2014/02/02::
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29
Occitan Songs: L ase d alegre
Occitan Songs: L ase d alegre
::2009/04/16::
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30
Occitan Briançonnais / 1- le travail des foins aux alpages
Occitan Briançonnais / 1- le travail des foins aux alpages
::2014/04/30::
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31
Lou Jardin dau Papa (occitan folk song)
Lou Jardin dau Papa (occitan folk song)
::2010/04/06::
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32
Recèpta dau bolhabaissa - en occitan de Provènça
Recèpta dau bolhabaissa - en occitan de Provènça
::2012/01/05::
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Occitan bagpipe music in Toulouse
Occitan bagpipe music in Toulouse
::2012/10/23::
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34
Learn Occitan # From 0 to 9
Learn Occitan # From 0 to 9
::2014/03/21::
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35
Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 29 de genièr 2011
Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 29 de genièr 2011
::2011/01/30::
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How to Pronounce Occitan
How to Pronounce Occitan
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37
Occitan Music The Curenta 3 by MoniaG..wmv
Occitan Music The Curenta 3 by MoniaG..wmv
::2011/10/12::
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38
Kalenda Maya (The first of May)
Kalenda Maya (The first of May)
::2008/12/05::
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39
Occitan Onion Music in St. Andre
Occitan Onion Music in St. Andre
::2010/06/02::
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40
DRAPEAUX OCCITAN MACAREL
DRAPEAUX OCCITAN MACAREL
::2010/08/03::
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41
Children singing a song in Occitan
Children singing a song in Occitan
::2014/03/01::
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42
Vidéo Parachutisme Occitan 2012
Vidéo Parachutisme Occitan 2012
::2012/08/15::
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43
St Martial bal occitan
St Martial bal occitan
::2012/08/06::
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44
christian almerge (occitan) PaSSa ToN BaC!!
christian almerge (occitan) PaSSa ToN BaC!!
::2013/03/17::
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45
Apprenez une langue # occitan # De 0 à 9
Apprenez une langue # occitan # De 0 à 9
::2014/03/20::
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46
Dialogue Occitan Xavier et Andy
Dialogue Occitan Xavier et Andy
::2012/10/24::
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47
BELA BERGERA OCCITAN SONG country version live BY MONIAGDF
BELA BERGERA OCCITAN SONG country version live BY MONIAGDF
::2012/10/28::
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48
Street Music in Toulouse (France) for occitan demonstration vid1
Street Music in Toulouse (France) for occitan demonstration vid1
::2012/04/01::
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49
Occitan sous la selle de Dayane
Occitan sous la selle de Dayane
::2014/01/21::
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50
Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 19 de març 2011
Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 19 de març 2011
::2011/03/28::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Old Provençal)
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Old Occitan
Old Provençal
Region Provence
Era 8th–14th centuries
Language codes
ISO 639-2 pro
ISO 639-3 pro
Glottolog oldp1253[1]

Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, Catalan: occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.[2][3] Old Occitan generally includes Early and Old Occitan. Middle Occitan is sometimes included in Old Occitan, sometimes in Modern Occitan.[4] As the term occitanus appeared around the year 1300,[5] Old Occitan is referred to as "Romance" (Occitan: romans) or "Provençal" (Occitan: proensals) in medieval texts.

History[edit]

Among the earliest records of Occitan are the Tomida femina, the Boecis, and the Cançó de Santa Fe. Old Occitan, the language used by the troubadours, was the first Romance language with a literary corpus and had an enormous influence on the development of lyric poetry in other European languages. The interpunct was a feature of the language, and survives today in Catalan and Gascon.

The Old Catalan language diverged from Old Occitan between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries.[6] Early texts in the Catalan dialect are the Homilies d'Organyà and the Greuges de Guitard Isarn. It never underwent the shift from /u/ to /y/, nor the shift from /o/ to /u/ (except in unstressed syllables in some dialects), so it had diverged phonologically before those changes affected Old Occitan.

Phonology[edit]

Old Occitan changed and evolved somewhat during its history, but the basic sound system can be summarised as follows:[7]

Consonants[edit]

Old Occitan consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
alveolar
Postalveolar/
palatal
Velar
Nasal      m      n      ɲ
Plosive p   b t   d k   ɡ
Fricative f   v s   z
Affricate ts   dz  
Lateral      l      ʎ
Trill r
Tap ɾ

Notes:

  • Written ch is believed to have represented the affricate [tʃ]; but, since the spelling often alternates with c, it may also have represented [k].
  • Word-final g may sometimes represent [tʃ], as in gaug "joy" (also spelled gauch).
  • Intervocalic z could represent either [z] or [dz].
  • Written j could represent either [dʒ] or [j].

Vowels[edit]

Monophthongs[edit]

Old Occitan vowels
  Front Back
Close i   y u
Close-mid e (o)
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a ɑ

Notes:

  • [o] apparently raised to [u] during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; but the spelling was unaffected, hence flor /fluɾ/ "flower".[8]
  • The open-mid vowels [ɛ] and [ɔ] appear as allophones of /e/ and /u/ respectively under certain circumstances in stressed syllables.

Diphthongs and triphthongs[edit]

Old Occitan diphthongs and triphthongs
IPA Example Meaning
falling
/aj/ paire father
/aw/ autre other
/uj/ conoiser to know
/uw/ dous sweet
/ɔj/ pois then
/ɔw/ mou it moves
/ej/ vei I see
/ew/ beure to drink
/ɛj/ seis six
/ɛw/ breu short
/yj/ cuid I believe
/iw/ estiu summer
rising
/jɛ/ miels better
/wɛ/ cuelh he receives
/wɔ/ cuolh he receives
triphthongs
stress always falls on middle vowel
/jɛj/ lieis her
/jɛw/ ieu I
/wɔj/ nuoit night
/wɛj/ pueis then
/wɔw/ uou egg
/wɛw/ bueu ox

Extracts[edit]

  • From Bertran de Born's Ab joi mou lo vers e·l comens (ca. 1200, translated by James H. Donalson):

Bela Domna·l vostre cors gens
E·lh vostre bel olh m'an conquis,
E·l doutz esgartz e lo clars vis,
E·l vostre bels essenhamens,
Que, can be m'en pren esmansa,
De beutat no·us trob egansa:
La genser etz c'om posc'e·l mon chauzir,
O no·i vei clar dels olhs ab que·us remir.

O pretty lady, all your grace
and eyes of beauty conquered me,
sweet glance and brightness of your face
and all your nature has to tell
so if I make an appraisal
I find no one like in beauty:
most pleasing to be found in all the world
or else the eyes I see you with have dimmed.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Nathaniel B. Smith, Thomas Goddard Bergin, An Old Provençal primer, Garland, 1984, ISBN 0-8240-9030-6
  • Paden, William D. 1998. An Introduction to Old Occitan. Modern Language Association of America. ISBN 0-87352-293-1.
  • Povl Skårup, Morphologie élémentaire de l'ancien occitan, Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, ISBN 87-7289-428-8
  • Romieu, Maurice; Bianchi, André (2002). Iniciacion a l'occitan ancian / Initiation à l'ancien occitan (in Occitan and French). Pessac: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux. ISBN 2-86781-275-5. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Old Provençal". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Rebecca Posner, The Romance Languages, Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-28139-3
  3. ^ Frank M. Chambers, An Introduction to Old Provençal Versification. Diane, 1985 ISBN 0-87169-167-1
  4. ^ "The Early Occitan period is generally considered to extend from ca. 800 to 1000, Old Occitan from 1000 to 1350, and Middle Occitan from 1350 to 1550" in William W. Kibler, Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 1995, ISBN 0-8240-4444-4
  5. ^ Smith and Bergin, Old Provençal Primer, p. 2
  6. ^ Riquer, Martí de, Història de la Literatura Catalana, vol. 1. Barcelona: Edicions Ariel, 1964
  7. ^ The charts are based on phonologies given in Paden, William D., An Introduction to Old Occitan, New York 1998
  8. ^ See Paden 1998, p. 101

External links[edit]

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