Play Video
1
Iversen telling about  (Old) Occitan
Iversen telling about (Old) Occitan
::2010/10/13::
Play Video
2
Trobairitz Women Poets from Early Twelfth-Century Southern France
Trobairitz Women Poets from Early Twelfth-Century Southern France
::2011/09/28::
Play Video
3
Monia & Girolemin Old Occitan Song my version
Monia & Girolemin Old Occitan Song my version
::2011/05/29::
Play Video
4
Crèche bilingue occitan - français  /  Ninoèra bilingua
Crèche bilingue occitan - français / Ninoèra bilingua
::2012/01/25::
Play Video
5
BELA BERGERA occitan old song by Moniagdf sing with myself
BELA BERGERA occitan old song by Moniagdf sing with myself
::2012/07/17::
Play Video
6
SOCIÉTÉ : Mouvement Occitan - PAÍS  NÒSTRE
SOCIÉTÉ : Mouvement Occitan - PAÍS NÒSTRE
::2010/06/30::
Play Video
7
Nombres de 1 à 20 en Occitan du Briançonnais
Nombres de 1 à 20 en Occitan du Briançonnais
::2011/01/18::
Play Video
8
Choral Occitan Music - Lo Camin de la Ceba
Choral Occitan Music - Lo Camin de la Ceba
::2010/06/02::
Play Video
9
I TE VURRIA VASA
I TE VURRIA VASA' old song by MONIAGDF
::2012/07/18::
Play Video
10
How to Pronounce Occitan
How to Pronounce Occitan
::2013/02/24::
Play Video
11
Martin Sturge reads
Martin Sturge reads 'Solesa' in Occitan and English
::2010/07/14::
Play Video
12
Marisa Galvez - Performing Trobar - Full Interview
Marisa Galvez - Performing Trobar - Full Interview
::2011/09/30::
Play Video
13
DV 242. Quand le bouvier (en occitan) : Lo bouier
DV 242. Quand le bouvier (en occitan) : Lo bouier
::2010/08/16::
Play Video
14
Quelques images du parcours Grand Raid Occitan 2014
Quelques images du parcours Grand Raid Occitan 2014
::2013/10/09::
Play Video
15
Linguistic Diversity  Occitan#6038
Linguistic Diversity Occitan#6038
::2010/11/19::
Play Video
16
Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 29 de genièr 2011
Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 29 de genièr 2011
::2011/01/30::
Play Video
17
Learn Occitan # From 0 to 9
Learn Occitan # From 0 to 9
::2014/03/19::
Play Video
18
Prologue to The Alternate History of Francia (Crusader Kings 2)
Prologue to The Alternate History of Francia (Crusader Kings 2)
::2013/11/16::
Play Video
19
Bernat Joan i Mari at the NPLD International Conference #2
Bernat Joan i Mari at the NPLD International Conference #2
::2011/03/08::
Play Video
20
Lancelot by Monia G  V Dore song
Lancelot by Monia G V Dore song
::2011/07/27::
Play Video
21
Christian Almerge & TEST - Lo fantauma de la ciutat (ghostbuster occitan parody)
Christian Almerge & TEST - Lo fantauma de la ciutat (ghostbuster occitan parody)
::2013/08/18::
Play Video
22
France (pyrennees)occitan music
France (pyrennees)occitan music
::2011/12/27::
Play Video
23
Azam Ali- A Chantar M
Azam Ali- A Chantar M'er
::2007/11/25::
Play Video
24
Occitan
Occitan
::2008/06/09::
Play Video
25
Europeada 2012: Cultural Performance by the Occitan Team
Europeada 2012: Cultural Performance by the Occitan Team
::2012/07/05::
Play Video
26
L.Ciari et P.Geffroy lisent Félix Castan(occitan,français).Provins Jazz Poetry
L.Ciari et P.Geffroy lisent Félix Castan(occitan,français).Provins Jazz Poetry
::2013/11/14::
Play Video
27
Branle: bal ancien occitan
Branle: bal ancien occitan
::2012/07/02::
Play Video
28
Fastest and Easiest Way to Trap Small Game
Fastest and Easiest Way to Trap Small Game
::2012/11/16::
Play Video
29
Amnesia: A Machine For Pigs (Blind) #12 - Accidentally On Purpose
Amnesia: A Machine For Pigs (Blind) #12 - Accidentally On Purpose
::2013/10/29::
Play Video
30
Learn Occitan # From 0 to 9
Learn Occitan # From 0 to 9
::2014/03/21::
Play Video
31
Passat deman trad occitan
Passat deman trad occitan
::2013/06/26::
Play Video
32
DV 243. Le Bouvier  (chant traditionnel français du Languedoc)
DV 243. Le Bouvier (chant traditionnel français du Languedoc)
::2010/08/16::
Play Video
33
Kalenda Maya (The first of May)
Kalenda Maya (The first of May)
::2008/12/05::
Play Video
34
Original Occitan Music by Alain Bissiere
Original Occitan Music by Alain Bissiere
::2011/07/07::
Play Video
35
Viet vo dao Vovinam - démo du club Vovinam Occitan - 2/4
Viet vo dao Vovinam - démo du club Vovinam Occitan - 2/4
::2013/09/29::
Play Video
36
Ensenhas - Fort m
Ensenhas - Fort m'enoya (Monge de Montaudon) English subtitles Русские субтитры
::2013/07/23::
Play Video
37
Countradanso Jusep Da Rous - Encà Sonar - Musica Folk Tradizionale Occitana
Countradanso Jusep Da Rous - Encà Sonar - Musica Folk Tradizionale Occitana
::2013/03/17::
Play Video
38
How to Pronounce Occitan
How to Pronounce Occitan
::2012/11/16::
Play Video
39
Amazing Singing in Carcassonne Cathedral - French Castle Male Choir Music
Amazing Singing in Carcassonne Cathedral - French Castle Male Choir Music
::2013/01/23::
Play Video
40
Federico Mompou plays Mompou Cançons i danses No. 4-5-6
Federico Mompou plays Mompou Cançons i danses No. 4-5-6
::2010/09/02::
Play Video
41
Wheel Fiddle Player Sings in Occitan in Slovakia
Wheel Fiddle Player Sings in Occitan in Slovakia
::2011/08/25::
Play Video
42
JOSQUIN DESPREZ - EL GRILLO
JOSQUIN DESPREZ - EL GRILLO
::2009/07/06::
Play Video
43
Iversen telling about Old French
Iversen telling about Old French
::2010/10/11::
Play Video
44
Due Note per Rosa
Due Note per Rosa
::2011/05/29::
Play Video
45
L.Ciari(musique)P.Geffroy peintures) lisent"avant" du poète S.A.Peyre(poète occitan)Jazz Poetry
L.Ciari(musique)P.Geffroy peintures) lisent"avant" du poète S.A.Peyre(poète occitan)Jazz Poetry
::2013/11/22::
Play Video
46
manif langue provençale
manif langue provençale
::2009/10/09::
Play Video
47
enfin le monde.avi
enfin le monde.avi
::2012/06/12::
Play Video
48
Ja Nus Hons Pris by Owain Phyfe
Ja Nus Hons Pris by Owain Phyfe
::2013/05/01::
Play Video
49
Malaterra -  Massilia Sound System
Malaterra - Massilia Sound System
::2008/02/03::
Play Video
50
P.Geffroy.L.Ciari(Musique)lisent N.Drano-Stamberg"Resurgièncias dau riu Agamàs dins lo desert
P.Geffroy.L.Ciari(Musique)lisent N.Drano-Stamberg"Resurgièncias dau riu Agamàs dins lo desert
::2014/02/04::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Old Provençal)
Jump to: navigation, search
Old Occitan
Old Provençal
Region Provence
Era 8th–14th centuries
Language codes
ISO 639-2 pro
ISO 639-3 pro

Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, Catalan: occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.[1][2] Old Occitan generally includes Early and Old Occitan. Middle Occitan is sometimes included in Old Occitan, sometimes in Modern Occitan.[3] As the term occitanus appeared around the year 1300,[4] Old Occitan is referred to as "Romance" (Occitan: romans) or "Provençal" (Occitan: proensals) in medieval texts.

History[edit]

Among the earliest records of Occitan are the Tomida femina, the Boecis, and the Cançó de Santa Fe. Old Occitan, the language used by the troubadours, was the first Romance language with a literary corpus and had an enormous influence on the development of lyric poetry in other European languages. The interpunct was a feature of the language, and survives today in Catalan and Gascon.

The Old Catalan language diverged from Old Occitan between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries.[5] Early texts in the Catalan dialect are the Homilies d'Organyà and the Greuges de Guitard Isarn. It never underwent the shift from /u/ to /y/, nor the shift from /o/ to /u/ (except in unstressed syllables in some dialects), so it had diverged phonologically before those changes affected Old Occitan.

Phonology[edit]

Old Occitan changed and evolved somewhat during its history, but the basic sound system can be summarised as follows:[6]

Consonants[edit]

Old Occitan consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
alveolar
Postalveolar/
palatal
Velar
Nasal      m      n      ɲ
Plosive p   b t   d k   ɡ
Fricative f   v s   z
Affricate ts   dz  
Lateral      l      ʎ
Trill r
Tap ɾ

Notes:

  • Written <ch> is believed to have represented the affricate [tʃ]; but, since the spelling often alternates with <c>, it may also have represented [k].
  • Word-final <g> may sometimes represent [tʃ], as in gaug "joy" (also spelled gauch).
  • Intervocalic <z> could represent either [z] or [dz].
  • Written <j> could represent either [dʒ] or [j].

Vowels[edit]

Monophthongs[edit]

Old Occitan vowels
  Front Back
Close i   y u
Close-mid e (o)
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a ɑ

Notes:

  • [o] apparently raised to [u] during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; but the spelling was unaffected, hence flor /fluɾ/ "flower".[7]
  • The open-mid vowels [ɛ] and [ɔ] appear as allophones of /e/ and /u/ respectively under certain circumstances in stressed syllables.

Diphthongs and triphthongs[edit]

Old Occitan diphthongs and triphthongs
IPA Example Meaning
falling
/aj/ paire father
/aw/ autre other
/uj/ conoiser to know
/uw/ dous sweet
/ɔj/ pois then
/ɔw/ mou it moves
/ej/ vei I see
/ew/ beure to drink
/ɛj/ seis six
/ɛw/ breu short
/yj/ cuid I believe
/iw/ estiu summer
rising
/jɛ/ miels better
/wɛ/ cuelh he receives
/wɔ/ cuolh he receives
triphthongs
stress always falls on middle vowel
/jɛj/ lieis her
/jɛw/ ieu I
/wɔj/ nuoit night
/wɛj/ pueis then
/wɔw/ uou egg
/wɛw/ bueu ox

Extracts[edit]

  • From Bertran de Born's Ab joi mou lo vers e·l comens (ca. 1200, translated by James H. Donalson):

Bela Domna·l vostre cors gens
E·lh vostre bel olh m'an conquis,
E·l doutz esgartz e lo clars vis,
E·l vostre bels essenhamens,
Que, can be m'en pren esmansa,
De beutat no·us trob egansa:
La genser etz c'om posc'e·l mon chauzir,
O no·i vei clar dels olhs ab que·us remir.

O pretty lady, all your grace
and eyes of beauty conquered me,
sweet glance and brightness of your face
and all your nature has to tell
so if I make an appraisal
I find no one like in beauty:
most pleasing to be found in all the world
or else the eyes I see you with have dimmed.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Nathaniel B. Smith, Thomas Goddard Bergin, An Old Provençal primer, Garland, 1984, ISBN 0-8240-9030-6
  • Paden, William D. 1998. An Introduction to Old Occitan. Modern Language Association of America. ISBN 0-87352-293-1.
  • Povl Skårup, Morphologie élémentaire de l'ancien occitan, Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, ISBN 87-7289-428-8
  • Romieu, Maurice; Bianchi, André (2002). Iniciacion a l'occitan ancian / Initiation à l'ancien occitan (in Occitan and French). Pessac: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux. ISBN 2-86781-275-5. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rebecca Posner, The Romance Languages, Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-28139-3
  2. ^ Frank M. Chambers, An Introduction to Old Provençal Versification. Diane, 1985 ISBN 0-87169-167-1
  3. ^ "The Early Occitan period is generally considered to extend from ca. 800 to 1000, Old Occitan from 1000 to 1350, and Middle Occitan from 1350 to 1550" in William W. Kibler, Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 1995, ISBN 0-8240-4444-4
  4. ^ Smith and Bergin, Old Provençal Primer, p. 2
  5. ^ Riquer, Martí de, Història de la Literatura Catalana, vol. 1. Barcelona: Edicions Ariel, 1964
  6. ^ The charts are based on phonologies given in Paden, William D., An Introduction to Old Occitan, New York 1998
  7. ^ See Paden 1998, p. 101

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License

Mashpedia enables any individual or company to promote their own Youtube-hosted videos or Youtube Channels, offering a simple and effective plan to get them in front of our engaged audience.

Want to learn more? Please contact us at: hello@mashpedia.com

Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014