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1
Iversen telling about  (Old) Occitan
Iversen telling about (Old) Occitan
::2010/10/13::
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2
Monia & Girolemin Old Occitan Song my version
Monia & Girolemin Old Occitan Song my version
::2011/05/29::
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3
Trobairitz Women Poets from Early Twelfth-Century Southern France
Trobairitz Women Poets from Early Twelfth-Century Southern France
::2011/09/28::
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4
BELA BERGERA occitan old song by Moniagdf sing with myself
BELA BERGERA occitan old song by Moniagdf sing with myself
::2012/07/17::
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5
Linguistic Diversity  Occitan#6038
Linguistic Diversity Occitan#6038
::2010/11/19::
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6
Nombres de 1 à 20 en Occitan du Briançonnais
Nombres de 1 à 20 en Occitan du Briançonnais
::2011/01/17::
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7
Francesco Benozzo - Isola e Luna
Francesco Benozzo - Isola e Luna
::2014/06/20::
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8
Christian Almerge & TEST - Lo fantauma de la ciutat (ghostbuster occitan parody)
Christian Almerge & TEST - Lo fantauma de la ciutat (ghostbuster occitan parody)
::2013/08/18::
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9
Occitan Briançonnais / 1- le travail des foins aux alpages
Occitan Briançonnais / 1- le travail des foins aux alpages
::2014/04/30::
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10
L
L'Enseignement de l'Occitan, du Basque et du Catalan
::2014/05/12::
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11
Tradestiu festival occitan et traditionnel
Tradestiu festival occitan et traditionnel
::2013/10/05::
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12
Occitan Briançonnais / 2- la fournée du pain
Occitan Briançonnais / 2- la fournée du pain
::2014/04/30::
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13
DV 242. Quand le bouvier (chanson traditionnelle en occitan) : Lo bouier, a capella par dominique dv
DV 242. Quand le bouvier (chanson traditionnelle en occitan) : Lo bouier, a capella par dominique dv
::2010/08/16::
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14
MPK Production et Cola Occitan sur France 3 Occitan
MPK Production et Cola Occitan sur France 3 Occitan
::2014/01/13::
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15
L.Ciari et P.Geffroy lisent Félix Castan(occitan,français).Provins Jazz Poetry
L.Ciari et P.Geffroy lisent Félix Castan(occitan,français).Provins Jazz Poetry
::2013/11/14::
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16
Occitan revival, speak your language !
Occitan revival, speak your language !
::2010/05/13::
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17
L
L'OCCITAN - VIRCAT
::2014/02/02::
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18
Occitan Autumnal Glory - The colours of the Indian Summer in the Languedoc-Roussillon
Occitan Autumnal Glory - The colours of the Indian Summer in the Languedoc-Roussillon
::2010/11/06::
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19
Lou Dalfin - Es Pas Tard (occitan music)
Lou Dalfin - Es Pas Tard (occitan music)
::2013/12/09::
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20
Istòria en occitan marchés (Gartempa - Marcha - Departament de Cruèsa)
Istòria en occitan marchés (Gartempa - Marcha - Departament de Cruèsa)
::2013/03/19::
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21
Original Occitan Music by Alain Bissiere
Original Occitan Music by Alain Bissiere
::2011/07/06::
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22
Children singing a song in Occitan
Children singing a song in Occitan
::2014/03/01::
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23
Doctors de Trobar / Occitan Bambaataa
Doctors de Trobar / Occitan Bambaataa
::2013/10/22::
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24
occitan courcelle épreuve 130
occitan courcelle épreuve 130
::2013/09/05::
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25
Lourdes - Rare (Old) Recordings
Lourdes - Rare (Old) Recordings
::2014/08/13::
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26
Recèpta de la bolhabaissa - en occitan de Provènça
Recèpta de la bolhabaissa - en occitan de Provènça
::2012/01/05::
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27
morigania - The return of the dark occitan warrior - black metal clip
morigania - The return of the dark occitan warrior - black metal clip
::2014/05/25::
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28
Parachutisme Occitan à Gimont 2013
Parachutisme Occitan à Gimont 2013
::2013/10/07::
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29
occitan
occitan
::2013/01/05::
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30
Dialogue Occitan Xavier et Andy
Dialogue Occitan Xavier et Andy
::2012/10/24::
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31
christian almerge (occitan) PaSSa ToN BaC!!
christian almerge (occitan) PaSSa ToN BaC!!
::2013/03/17::
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32
Mix de morceaux Kabyle et occitan avec Nadia Ammour et Grive&ours
Mix de morceaux Kabyle et occitan avec Nadia Ammour et Grive&ours
::2014/09/10::
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Learn Occitan # From 0 to 9
Learn Occitan # From 0 to 9
::2014/03/21::
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34
L
L'Occitan Cologne Eau De Toilette, 3 4 fl oz
::2014/04/03::
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35
Jean-Michel Lattes en occitan de Mistral a Tolosa
Jean-Michel Lattes en occitan de Mistral a Tolosa
::2014/04/22::
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36
Learn Occitan # From 0 to 9
Learn Occitan # From 0 to 9
::2014/03/19::
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37
How to Pronounce Occitan
How to Pronounce Occitan
::2012/11/15::
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38
Occitan bagpipe music in Toulouse
Occitan bagpipe music in Toulouse
::2012/10/23::
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39
Imne Nacionau de Còsta Rica dab sostítols en aranés / occitan
Imne Nacionau de Còsta Rica dab sostítols en aranés / occitan
::2010/11/18::
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40
Street Music in Toulouse (France) for occitan demonstration vid1
Street Music in Toulouse (France) for occitan demonstration vid1
::2012/04/01::
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41
Martin Sturge reads
Martin Sturge reads 'Solesa' in Occitan and English
::2010/07/14::
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42
Occitan sous la selle de Dayane
Occitan sous la selle de Dayane
::2014/01/21::
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43
How to Pronounce Occitan
How to Pronounce Occitan
::2013/02/24::
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44
St Martial bal occitan
St Martial bal occitan
::2012/08/06::
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45
MARIA ROANET canta "La complenta del rainal escorgat" en occitan - Marie Rouanet
MARIA ROANET canta "La complenta del rainal escorgat" en occitan - Marie Rouanet
::2012/01/10::
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46
Lou Jardin dau Papa (occitan folk song)
Lou Jardin dau Papa (occitan folk song)
::2010/04/06::
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47
BELA BERGERA OCCITAN SONG country version live BY MONIAGDF
BELA BERGERA OCCITAN SONG country version live BY MONIAGDF
::2012/10/28::
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Lei de l
Lei de l'occitan reportatge de Joan Peire Laval 27 09 2010
::2010/09/30::
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Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 19 de març 2011
Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 19 de març 2011
::2011/03/28::
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Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 29 de genièr 2011
Jornalet Occitan de France 3 dau 29 de genièr 2011
::2011/01/30::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Old Provençal)
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Old Occitan
Old Provençal
Region Provence
Era 8th–14th centuries
Language codes
ISO 639-2 pro
ISO 639-3 pro
Glottolog oldp1253[1]

Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, Catalan: occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.[2][3] Old Occitan generally includes Early and Old Occitan. Middle Occitan is sometimes included in Old Occitan, sometimes in Modern Occitan.[4] As the term occitanus appeared around the year 1300,[5] Old Occitan is referred to as "Romance" (Occitan: romans) or "Provençal" (Occitan: proensals) in medieval texts.

History[edit]

Among the earliest records of Occitan are the Tomida femina, the Boecis, and the Cançó de Santa Fe. Old Occitan, the language used by the troubadours, was the first Romance language with a literary corpus and had an enormous influence on the development of lyric poetry in other European languages. The interpunct was a feature of the language, and survives today in Catalan and Gascon.

The Old Catalan language diverged from Old Occitan between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries.[6] Early texts in the Catalan dialect are the Homilies d'Organyà and the Greuges de Guitard Isarn. It never underwent the shift from /u/ to /y/, nor the shift from /o/ to /u/ (except in unstressed syllables in some dialects), so it had diverged phonologically before those changes affected Old Occitan.

Phonology[edit]

Old Occitan changed and evolved somewhat during its history, but the basic sound system can be summarised as follows:[7]

Consonants[edit]

Old Occitan consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
alveolar
Postalveolar/
palatal
Velar
Nasal      m      n      ɲ
Plosive p   b t   d k   ɡ
Fricative f   v s   z
Affricate ts   dz  
Lateral      l      ʎ
Trill r
Tap ɾ

Notes:

  • Written ch is believed to have represented the affricate [tʃ]; but, since the spelling often alternates with c, it may also have represented [k].
  • Word-final g may sometimes represent [tʃ], as in gaug "joy" (also spelled gauch).
  • Intervocalic z could represent either [z] or [dz].
  • Written j could represent either [dʒ] or [j].

Vowels[edit]

Monophthongs[edit]

Old Occitan vowels
  Front Back
Close i   y u
Close-mid e (o)
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a ɑ

Notes:

  • [o] apparently raised to [u] during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; but the spelling was unaffected, hence flor /fluɾ/ "flower".[8]
  • The open-mid vowels [ɛ] and [ɔ] appear as allophones of /e/ and /u/ respectively under certain circumstances in stressed syllables.

Diphthongs and triphthongs[edit]

Old Occitan diphthongs and triphthongs
IPA Example Meaning
falling
/aj/ paire father
/aw/ autre other
/uj/ conoiser to know
/uw/ dous sweet
/ɔj/ pois then
/ɔw/ mou it moves
/ej/ vei I see
/ew/ beure to drink
/ɛj/ seis six
/ɛw/ breu short
/yj/ cuid I believe
/iw/ estiu summer
rising
/jɛ/ miels better
/wɛ/ cuelh he receives
/wɔ/ cuolh he receives
triphthongs
stress always falls on middle vowel
/jɛj/ lieis her
/jɛw/ ieu I
/wɔj/ nuoit night
/wɛj/ pueis then
/wɔw/ uou egg
/wɛw/ bueu ox

Extracts[edit]

  • From Bertran de Born's Ab joi mou lo vers e·l comens (ca. 1200, translated by James H. Donalson):

Bela Domna·l vostre cors gens
E·lh vostre bel olh m'an conquis,
E·l doutz esgartz e lo clars vis,
E·l vostre bels essenhamens,
Que, can be m'en pren esmansa,
De beutat no·us trob egansa:
La genser etz c'om posc'e·l mon chauzir,
O no·i vei clar dels olhs ab que·us remir.

O pretty lady, all your grace
and eyes of beauty conquered me,
sweet glance and brightness of your face
and all your nature has to tell
so if I make an appraisal
I find no one like in beauty:
most pleasing to be found in all the world
or else the eyes I see you with have dimmed.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Nathaniel B. Smith, Thomas Goddard Bergin, An Old Provençal primer, Garland, 1984, ISBN 0-8240-9030-6
  • Paden, William D. 1998. An Introduction to Old Occitan. Modern Language Association of America. ISBN 0-87352-293-1.
  • Povl Skårup, Morphologie élémentaire de l'ancien occitan, Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, ISBN 87-7289-428-8
  • Romieu, Maurice; Bianchi, André (2002). Iniciacion a l'occitan ancian / Initiation à l'ancien occitan (in Occitan and French). Pessac: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux. ISBN 2-86781-275-5. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Old Provençal". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Rebecca Posner, The Romance Languages, Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-28139-3
  3. ^ Frank M. Chambers, An Introduction to Old Provençal Versification. Diane, 1985 ISBN 0-87169-167-1
  4. ^ "The Early Occitan period is generally considered to extend from ca. 800 to 1000, Old Occitan from 1000 to 1350, and Middle Occitan from 1350 to 1550" in William W. Kibler, Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 1995, ISBN 0-8240-4444-4
  5. ^ Smith and Bergin, Old Provençal Primer, p. 2
  6. ^ Riquer, Martí de, Història de la Literatura Catalana, vol. 1. Barcelona: Edicions Ariel, 1964
  7. ^ The charts are based on phonologies given in Paden, William D., An Introduction to Old Occitan, New York 1998
  8. ^ See Paden 1998, p. 101

External links[edit]

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