1
Trobairitz Women Poets from Early Twelfth-Century Southern France
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DATE: 2011/09/28::
2
Iversen telling about  (Old) Occitan
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DATE: 2010/10/13::
3
Linguistic Diversity  Occitan#6038
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DATE: 2010/11/19::
4
Occitan
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DATE: 2008/06/08::
5
Nombres de 1 à 20 en Occitan du Briançonnais
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DATE: 2011/01/17::
6
Ensenhas - In hoc anni circulo (Aquitanian versus, c.1100)
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DATE: 2015/03/19::
7
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8
catalan and occitan group work
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9
Occitan Autumnal Glory - The colours of the Indian Summer in the Languedoc-Roussillon
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10
morigania - The return of the dark occitan warrior - black metal clip
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DATE: 2014/05/25::
11
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DATE: 2013/11/14::
12
Occitan revival, speak your language !
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13
Occitan Songs: La Piòu e la fai solelh
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DATE: 2009/04/16::
14
The Anti-Ageing Beauty Bible puts L
The Anti-Ageing Beauty Bible puts L'Occitane to the ultimate test!
DATE: 2011/09/22::
15
6666  Occitane 2012  Difusion Sport Plus
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DATE: 2012/06/28::
16
MARIA ROANET canta "La complenta del rainal escorgat" en occitan - Marie Rouanet
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DATE: 2012/01/10::
17
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18
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DATE: 2012/01/05::
19
Occitan Manifestation in Toulouse (Organizers speech)
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DATE: 2012/04/02::
20
L
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21
Occitan de las Valadas (La Chanal)
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DATE: 2013/02/10::
22
Congres Partit Occitan - CDC Jordi Vera
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DATE: 2009/01/23::
23
Kalenda Maya (The first of May)
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DATE: 2008/12/05::
24
Martin Sturge reads
Martin Sturge reads 'Solesa' in Occitan and English
DATE: 2010/07/14::
25
Jacme Delmas, l
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DATE: 2011/09/25::
26
L
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DATE: 2014/11/24::
27
Eau de Vétyver by L`Occitane en Provence | Fragrance Review
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28
Lourdes - Rare (Old) Recordings
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DATE: 2014/08/13::
29
OC Occitane - Cathar Per Totjorn
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DATE: 2013/07/08::
30
DV 242. Quand le bouvier (chanson traditionnelle en occitan) : Lo bouier, a capella par dominique dv
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DATE: 2010/08/16::
31
Chardon de Croisilles (de Reims): Li departies de le douce contree
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DATE: 2009/05/23::
32
Christian Almerge & TEST - Lo fantauma de la ciutat (ghostbusters occitan parody)
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DATE: 2013/08/18::
33
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34
Lo Cor de la Plana at St George
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DATE: 2011/02/25::
35
Serpentine - Country & Folk Band
Serpentine - Country & Folk Band
DATE: 2014/09/10::
36
Old time gasconne fiddle music
Old time gasconne fiddle music
DATE: 2008/09/08::
37
Adieu paure
Adieu paure
DATE: 2009/09/13::
38
Conflicting expectations in multilingual literacy acquisition, SOAS, University of London
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DATE: 2015/03/09::
39
LA BREICHE - Incantation II (Démo)
LA BREICHE - Incantation II (Démo)
DATE: 2015/02/04::
40
DV 243. Le Bouvier (chant traditionnel français du Languedoc) chanté a capella par dominique dv
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DATE: 2010/08/16::
41
Estas Tonne : The Song of the Golden Dragon & David
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DATE: 2013/12/02::
42
Flora sings Per Passar lo Ròse
Flora sings Per Passar lo Ròse
DATE: 2010/02/21::
43
Kaija Saariaho - Lonh
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DATE: 2012/09/10::
44
Présentation Du Groupe "Les Maïnatges de Montréal"
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DATE: 2012/03/26::
45
Ja Nuns Hons Pris
Ja Nuns Hons Pris
DATE: 2014/12/27::
46
Mediterranean Itinerary XXII, Occitania (under French occupation)
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DATE: 2011/05/24::
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Ja Nuns Hons Pris
Ja Nuns Hons Pris
DATE: 2014/03/27::
48
L.Ciari(musique)P.Geffroy peintures) lisent"avant" du poète S.A.Peyre(poète occitan)Jazz Poetry
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DATE: 2013/11/22::
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Brantome is a commune in the Dordogne department in southwestern France
Brantome is a commune in the Dordogne department in southwestern France
DATE: 2014/11/21::
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Lò Cor de la Plana: Session acoustique
Lò Cor de la Plana: Session acoustique
DATE: 2013/05/23::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Old Occitan
Old Provençal
Region Provence
Era 8th–14th centuries
Language codes
ISO 639-2 pro
ISO 639-3 pro
Glottolog oldp1253[1]

Old Occitan (Modern Occitan: occitan ancian, Catalan: occità antic), also called Old Provençal, was the earliest form of the Occitano-Romance languages, as attested in writings dating from the eighth through the fourteenth centuries.[2][3] Old Occitan generally includes Early and Old Occitan. Middle Occitan is sometimes included in Old Occitan, sometimes in Modern Occitan.[4] As the term occitanus appeared around the year 1300,[5] Old Occitan is referred to as "Romance" (Occitan: romans) or "Provençal" (Occitan: proensals) in medieval texts.

History[edit]

Among the earliest records of Occitan are the Tomida femina, the Boecis, and the Cançó de Santa Fe. Old Occitan, the language used by the troubadours, was the first Romance language with a literary corpus and had an enormous influence on the development of lyric poetry in other European languages. The interpunct was a feature of its orthography, and survives today in Catalan and Gascon.

The Old Catalan language diverged from Old Occitan between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries.[6] Early texts in the Catalan dialect are the Homilies d'Organyà and the Greuges de Guitard Isarn. It never underwent the shift from /u/ to /y/, nor the shift from /o/ to /u/ (except in unstressed syllables in some dialects), so it had diverged phonologically before those changes affected Old Occitan.

Phonology[edit]

Old Occitan changed and evolved somewhat during its history, but the basic sound system can be summarised as follows:[7]

Consonants[edit]

Old Occitan consonants
Bilabial Labio-
dental
Dental/
alveolar
Postalveolar/
palatal
Velar
Nasal      m      n      ɲ
Plosive p   b t   d k   ɡ
Fricative f   v s   z
Affricate ts   dz  
Lateral      l      ʎ
Trill r
Tap ɾ

Notes:

  • Written ch is believed to have represented the affricate [tʃ]; but, since the spelling often alternates with c, it may also have represented [k].
  • Word-final g may sometimes represent [tʃ], as in gaug "joy" (also spelled gauch).
  • Intervocalic z could represent either [z] or [dz].
  • Written j could represent either [dʒ] or [j].

Vowels[edit]

Monophthongs[edit]

Old Occitan vowels
  Front Back
Close i   y u
Close-mid e (o)
Open-mid ɛ ɔ
Open a ɑ

Notes:

  • [o] apparently raised to [u] during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries; but the spelling was unaffected, hence flor /fluɾ/ "flower".[8]
  • The open-mid vowels [ɛ] and [ɔ] appear as allophones of /e/ and /u/ respectively under certain circumstances in stressed syllables.

Diphthongs and triphthongs[edit]

Old Occitan diphthongs and triphthongs
IPA Example Meaning
falling
/aj/ paire father
/aw/ autre other
/uj/ conoiser to know
/uw/ dous sweet
/ɔj/ pois then
/ɔw/ mou it moves
/ej/ vei I see
/ew/ beure to drink
/ɛj/ seis six
/ɛw/ breu short
/yj/ cuid I believe
/iw/ estiu summer
rising
/jɛ/ miels better
/wɛ/ cuelh he receives
/wɔ/ cuolh he receives
triphthongs
stress always falls on middle vowel
/jɛj/ lieis her
/jɛw/ ieu I
/wɔj/ nuoit night
/wɛj/ pueis then
/wɔw/ uou egg
/wɛw/ bueu ox

Extracts[edit]

  • From Bertran de Born's Ab joi mou lo vers e·l comens (ca. 1200, translated by James H. Donalson):

Bela Domna·l vostre cors gens
E·lh vostre bel olh m'an conquis,
E·l doutz esgartz e lo clars vis,
E·l vostre bels essenhamens,
Que, can be m'en pren esmansa,
De beutat no·us trob egansa:
La genser etz c'om posc'e·l mon chauzir,
O no·i vei clar dels olhs ab que·us remir.

O pretty lady, all your grace
and eyes of beauty conquered me,
sweet glance and brightness of your face
and all your nature has to tell
so if I make an appraisal
I find no one like in beauty:
most pleasing to be found in all the world
or else the eyes I see you with have dimmed.

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Nathaniel B. Smith, Thomas Goddard Bergin, An Old Provençal primer, Garland, 1984, ISBN 0-8240-9030-6
  • Paden, William D. 1998. An Introduction to Old Occitan. Modern Language Association of America. ISBN 0-87352-293-1.
  • Povl Skårup, Morphologie élémentaire de l'ancien occitan, Museum Tusculanum Press, 1997, ISBN 87-7289-428-8
  • Romieu, Maurice; Bianchi, André (2002). Iniciacion a l'occitan ancian / Initiation à l'ancien occitan (in Occitan and French). Pessac: Presses Universitaires de Bordeaux. ISBN 2-86781-275-5. 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Old Provençal". Glottolog. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  2. ^ Rebecca Posner, The Romance Languages, Cambridge University Press, 1996, ISBN 0-521-28139-3
  3. ^ Frank M. Chambers, An Introduction to Old Provençal Versification. Diane, 1985 ISBN 0-87169-167-1
  4. ^ "The Early Occitan period is generally considered to extend from ca. 800 to 1000, Old Occitan from 1000 to 1350, and Middle Occitan from 1350 to 1550" in William W. Kibler, Medieval France: An Encyclopedia, Routledge, 1995, ISBN 0-8240-4444-4
  5. ^ Smith and Bergin, Old Provençal Primer, p. 2
  6. ^ Riquer, Martí de, Història de la Literatura Catalana, vol. 1. Barcelona: Edicions Ariel, 1964
  7. ^ The charts are based on phonologies given in Paden, William D., An Introduction to Old Occitan, New York 1998
  8. ^ See Paden 1998, p. 101

External links[edit]

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