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Deadly Riots at Ol
Deadly Riots at Ol' Miss
Published: 2006/09/04
Channel: The Impious Digest
Trouble Brews In Mississippi (1962)
Trouble Brews In Mississippi (1962)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
James Meredith University of Mississippi 1962 Integration Riot Newsreel PublicDomainFootage.com
James Meredith University of Mississippi 1962 Integration Riot Newsreel PublicDomainFootage.com
Published: 2011/09/02
Channel: PublicDomainFootage
1962 Ole Miss Riots scene from Eyes of History, Ole Miss
1962 Ole Miss Riots scene from Eyes of History, Ole Miss
Published: 2015/09/14
Channel: OleMissJournalism
Ole Miss Riot of 1962
Ole Miss Riot of 1962
Published: 2014/03/03
Channel: Gavin Reilly
September 29, 1962 - Ross Barnett, Governor of Mississippi, giving his I Love Mississippi speech.
September 29, 1962 - Ross Barnett, Governor of Mississippi, giving his I Love Mississippi speech.
Published: 2010/01/03
Channel: HelmerReenberg
1962 ole miss riot
1962 ole miss riot
Published: 2016/02/23
Channel: Reece Simpson
Eyes On The Prize - (Part 2) Fighting Back 1957–1962
Eyes On The Prize - (Part 2) Fighting Back 1957–1962
Published: 2016/04/14
Channel: INDIVIDUAL THOUGHT
Tenn vs Ole Miss 1962
Tenn vs Ole Miss 1962
Published: 2014/10/18
Channel: Paul Tilson
Meredith & the Ole Miss Riot
Meredith & the Ole Miss Riot
Published: 2013/05/15
Channel: LibraryOfCongress
James Meredith University of Mississippi 1962 Integration Riot Newsreel PublicDomainFootag
James Meredith University of Mississippi 1962 Integration Riot Newsreel PublicDomainFootag
Published: 2016/08/17
Channel: Abel Keller
James Meredith endorses Ed Meek Photo Album on 1962 Ole Miss Riot
James Meredith endorses Ed Meek Photo Album on 1962 Ole Miss Riot
Published: 2015/09/14
Channel: OleMissJournalism
1962 Integrating Ole Miss
1962 Integrating Ole Miss
Published: 2010/05/31
Channel: Marshall Poe
Mississippi (1962)
Mississippi (1962)
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: British Pathé
Book TV - Henry Gallagher, "James Meredith and the Ole Miss Riot: A Soldier
Book TV - Henry Gallagher, "James Meredith and the Ole Miss Riot: A Soldier's Story"
Published: 2013/01/07
Channel: BookTV
James Meredith and
James Meredith and '62 Ole Miss Riots
Published: 2017/06/30
Channel: OleMissJournalism
James Meredith (stock footage / archival footage)
James Meredith (stock footage / archival footage)
Published: 2013/09/24
Channel: FilmArchivesNYC
Returning To Ole Miss
Returning To Ole Miss
Published: 2008/09/28
Channel: CBS
James Meredith and the Battle of Oxford, Mississippi, 1962: Civil Rights Movement (2001)
James Meredith and the Battle of Oxford, Mississippi, 1962: Civil Rights Movement (2001)
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: Carey Steuber
Ole Miss Riots,All Not Over It.
Ole Miss Riots,All Not Over It.
Published: 2012/11/16
Channel: Sah Ke
James Meredith and the Battle of Oxford, Mississippi, 1962: Civil Rights Movement (2001)
James Meredith and the Battle of Oxford, Mississippi, 1962: Civil Rights Movement (2001)
Published: 2017/09/24
Channel: semih karı
Mississippi University Riots 1962
Mississippi University Riots 1962
Published: 2010/05/17
Channel: Sophie Brocklesby
Listening In: JFK on Integration in University of Mississippi (September 30, 1962)
Listening In: JFK on Integration in University of Mississippi (September 30, 1962)
Published: 2012/10/11
Channel: JFK Library
Ole Miss Riots Animatic
Ole Miss Riots Animatic
Published: 2017/06/03
Channel: Marlo Alanois Xavier
Rebel Davis - Ol
Rebel Davis - Ol' Ross, Ole Miss and JFK
Published: 2017/04/20
Channel: Post-War American Political Songs
Integration of Ole Miss and Riots
Integration of Ole Miss and Riots
Published: 2009/04/27
Channel: Jay Graham
Nicholas Katzenbach (2004) on James Meredith & the Integration of Ole Miss (1962)
Nicholas Katzenbach (2004) on James Meredith & the Integration of Ole Miss (1962)
Published: 2011/01/05
Channel: RobertHJacksonCenter
September 30, 1962 - President John F. Kennedy
September 30, 1962 - President John F. Kennedy's Address to the nation on radio and television.
Published: 2009/06/30
Channel: HelmerReenberg
Mississippi riot
Mississippi riot
Published: 2017/08/14
Channel: Anthony Brescia
Ole Miss Riots Post Obama. .
Ole Miss Riots Post Obama. .
Published: 2012/11/08
Channel: merrell williams
JAMES MEREDITH, THE INTEGRATION OF OLE MISS AND THE MARCH AGAINST FEAR
JAMES MEREDITH, THE INTEGRATION OF OLE MISS AND THE MARCH AGAINST FEAR
Published: 2016/06/15
Channel: OleMissJournalism
James Meredith and the Battle of Oxford, Mississippi, 1962: Civil Rights Movement (2001)
James Meredith and the Battle of Oxford, Mississippi, 1962: Civil Rights Movement (2001)
Published: 2017/09/25
Channel: vb nbn
Riot On Ole Miss Campus In Oxford, MS Because Obama Was Re-elected!
Riot On Ole Miss Campus In Oxford, MS Because Obama Was Re-elected!
Published: 2012/11/08
Channel: Fame Magazine II
Remembering September 30, 1962 Ole Miss
Remembering September 30, 1962 Ole Miss
Published: 2014/05/29
Channel: OleMissJournalism
Ole Miss Applauds 1962 Undefeated Rebels
Ole Miss Applauds 1962 Undefeated Rebels
Published: 2012/09/17
Channel: VisualFrontEnt
Campus of Mississippi University during Mississippi riots. HD Stock Footage
Campus of Mississippi University during Mississippi riots. HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/04/26
Channel: CriticalPast
Moses Newson - The Battle for Ole Miss
Moses Newson - The Battle for Ole Miss
Published: 2012/04/25
Channel: InvestigatingPower
James Meredith leaves building during Mississippi riots. HD Stock Footage
James Meredith leaves building during Mississippi riots. HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/04/26
Channel: CriticalPast
James Meredith and the Battle of Oxford, Mississippi, 1962: Civil Rights Movement (2001)
James Meredith and the Battle of Oxford, Mississippi, 1962: Civil Rights Movement (2001)
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: Kailyn Nader
RIOT: Witness to Anger and Change Promo
RIOT: Witness to Anger and Change Promo
Published: 2015/05/07
Channel: OleMissJournalism
Ole Miss Students Respond to Charlotte Riots and #OccupyLyceum
Ole Miss Students Respond to Charlotte Riots and #OccupyLyceum
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: James Lott
RIOT Update 3
RIOT Update 3
Published: 2015/06/11
Channel: OleMissJournalism
Ole Miss Integration Discussion Panel
Ole Miss Integration Discussion Panel
Published: 2012/10/08
Channel: AnnaBeerman
U.S. Marshals at Ole Miss
U.S. Marshals at Ole Miss
Published: 2011/09/29
Channel: U.S. Marshals Museum
Troop tent area during Mississippi riots. HD Stock Footage
Troop tent area during Mississippi riots. HD Stock Footage
Published: 2014/04/26
Channel: CriticalPast
RIOT Update 2
RIOT Update 2
Published: 2015/06/11
Channel: OleMissJournalism
James Meredith
James Meredith's Integration of Ole Miss Noted by Freedom Trail Marker - p
Published: 2017/03/05
Channel: Keeng New
Is James Meredith a hero? | Integrating Ole Miss | MPB
Is James Meredith a hero? | Integrating Ole Miss | MPB
Published: 2012/09/24
Channel: Mississippi Public Broadcasting
GIs Patrol Oxford Mississippi, 1962 - Film 49332
GIs Patrol Oxford Mississippi, 1962 - Film 49332
Published: 2015/11/30
Channel: HuntleyFilmArchives
james meredith
james meredith
Published: 2011/04/10
Channel: science7337
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Ole Miss riot of 1962
Part of the Civil Rights Movement
James Meredith OleMiss.jpg
Chief U.S. Marshal James McShane (left) and Assistant Attorney General for Civil Rights, John Doar (right) of the Justice Department, escorting James Meredith to class at Ole Miss.
Date September 30, 1962 – October 1, 1962 (2 days)
Location Lyceum-The Circle Historic District, University of Mississippi in Oxford, Mississippi
Caused by
Resulted in
Parties to the civil conflict
Lead figures

Student

The White House

State of Mississippi

Protest leader

Casualties
Death(s) 2
Injuries 300

The Ole Miss riot of 1962, or Battle of Oxford, was fought between Southern segregationist civilians and federal and state forces beginning the night of September 30, 1962; segregationists were protesting the enrollment of James Meredith, a black US military veteran, at the University of Mississippi (known affectionately as Ole Miss) at Oxford, Mississippi. Two civilians were killed during the night, including a French journalist, and over 300 people were injured,[1] including one third of the US Marshals deployed.

Background[edit]

In 1954 the US Supreme Court had ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. Meredith applied as a legitimate student with strong experience as an Air Force veteran and good grades in completed coursework at Jackson State University. Despite this, his entrance was barred first by university officials, and later by segregationist Governor Ross Barnett who nominated himself as registrar and, on September 13, said on television:

There is no case in history where the Caucasian race has survived social integration. We will not drink from the cup of genocide. ... We must either submit to the unlawful dictates of the federal government or stand up like men and tell them never! ... No school will be integrated in Mississippi while I am your Governor![2]

In late September, 1962, the administration of President John F. Kennedy had extensive discussions with Governor Barnett and his staff about protecting Meredith, but Barnett publicly vowed to keep the university segregated. The President and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy wanted to avoid bringing in federal forces for several reasons. Robert Kennedy hoped that legal means, along with the escort of U.S. Marshals, would be enough to force the Governor to comply.[3] He also was very concerned there might be a "mini-civil war" between the U.S. Army troops and armed protesters.[3][2]

Governor Barnett, under pressure from the courts, conducted secret back door discussions in response to calls from the Kennedy administration between Thursday September 27 and Sunday the 30th.[4]

He was committed to maintain civil order and reluctantly agreed to allow Meredith to register in exchange for a scripted face-saving event. Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy ordered 500 U.S. Marshals to accompany Meredith during his arrival and registration.[5]

The days preceding the riot, bands of racists drove cars with stickers stating that "The South shall rise again" and waving Confederate flags while others assaulted any Black they could find.[6]

Events[edit]

Start of the riot[edit]

In accordance with Barnett and Kennedy's plan, on Sunday evening, September 30, the day before the anticipated showdown, Meredith was flown to Oxford. He was quietly escorted by Mississippi Highway Patrol as he moved into a dorm room.

The federal marshals assembled on to campus, supported by the 70th Army Engineer Combat Battalion from Fort Campbell, Kentucky.

Responding to the federal presence, a crowd of a thousand, mostly students quickly crowded onto campus, led by Edwin Walker who, four days earlier, said, on radio, the following:

Mississippi: It is time to move. We have talked, listened and been pushed around far too much by the anti-Christ Supreme Court! Rise...to a stand beside Governor Ross Barnett at Jackson, Mississippi! Now is the time to be heard! Thousands strong from every State in the Union! Rally to the cause of freedom! The Battle Cry of the Republic! Barnett yes! Castro no! Bring your flag, your tent and your skillet. It's now or never! The time is when the President of the United States commits or uses any troops, Federal or State, in Mississippi! The last time in such a situation I was on the wrong side. That was in Little Rock, Arkansas in 1957-1958. This time -- out of uniform -- I am on the right side! I will be there![2]

As the scene grew more out of control, at first the highway patrol helped hold off the crowds, but, despite Barnett's renewed commitment, they were withdrawn by State Senator George Yarbrough starting at about 7:25 pm local time.[7][8] The students, increasingly joined by other agitators, started to break out into a full riot on the Oxford campus. At 7:30 pm, Barnett announced on radio Meredith has been brought to Mississippi by force and, afrer signing his enrollment, said to the Federal troops:

Gentlemen, you are trampling on the sovereignty of this great state and depriving it of every vestige of honor and respect as a member of the United States. You are destroying the Constitution of the United States. May God have mercy on your souls.[5]

Violence on the campus[edit]

The crowd eventually swelled to about three thousand. As its behavior turned increasingly violent, including the death of a journalist, the marshals ran out of tear gas defending the officials in the Lyceum. President Kennedy reluctantly decided to call in reinforcements in the middle of the night under the command of Brigadier General Charles Billingslea. He ordered in U.S. Army military police from the 503rd and 716th Military Police Battalions, which had previously been readied for deployment under cover of the nuclear war Exercise Spade Fork, plus the U.S. Border Patrol and the federalized Mississippi National Guard. U.S. Navy medical personnel (physicians and hospital corpsmen) attached to the U.S. Naval Hospital in Millington, Tennessee, were also sent to the university.

Before they arrived, rioters roaming the campus discovered Meredith was in Baxter Hall and started to assault it. Early in the morning, as Gen. Billingslea's party entered the university gate, a white mob attacked his staff car and set it on fire. Billingslea, the Deputy Commanding General John Corley, and aide, Capt Harold Lyon, were trapped inside the burning car, but they forced the door open, then crawled 200 yards under gunfire from the mob to the University Lyceum Building. The army did not return this fire.

To keep control, Gen Billingslea had established a series of escalating secret code words for issuing ammunition down to the platoons, a second one for issuing it to squads, and a third one for loading, none of which could take place without the General confirming the secret codes.

By the end, one third of the US Marshals, a total of 166 men, were injured in the melee, and 40 soldiers and National Guardsmen were wounded.[9][6]

Bilan[edit]

US Army trucks loaded with steel-helmeted US Marshals roll across the University of Mississippi campus on October 3, 1962.

Two men were murdered during the first night of the riots: French journalist Paul Guihard, on assignment for Agence France-Presse (AFP), who was found behind the Lyceum building with a gunshot wound to the back; and 23-year-old Ray Gunter, a white jukebox repairman who had visited the campus out of curiosity.[10][11] Gunter was found with a bullet wound in his forehead. Law enforcement officials described these as execution-style killings.[12]

Finally, on October 1, 1962, Meredith became the first African-American student to be enrolled at the University of Mississippi,[13] and attended his first class, in American History.[1] Meredith graduated from the university on August 18, 1963 with a degree in political science.[14] At that time, there were still hundreds of troops guarding him 24 hours a day although, in order to appease the local sensitivities, 4,000 Black soldiers were removed from the Federal troops under Robert Kennedy's secret orders.[15][6]

Governor Barnett was fined $10,000 and sentenced to jail for contempt. The charges were later dismissed by the 5th Circuit Court of Appeals.[16]

Representation in other media[edit]

Television[edit]

Sports journalist Wright Thompson wrote an article "Ghosts of Mississippi" (2010),[5] that described the riot and the football team's season that year. It was adapted as a documentary film for the ESPN 30 for 30 series, entitled The Ghosts of Ole Miss (2012), about the 1962 football team's perfect season and the early violence in the fall over integration of the historic university.[17]

Music[edit]

Several singers made songs about this event:[18][19]

Legacy[edit]

The event is regarded as a pivotal moment in the history of civil rights in the United States.

Charles W. Eagle described Meredith's achievement by the following:

"In a major victory against white supremacy, he had inflicted a devastating blow to white massive resistance to the civil rights movement and had goaded the national government into using its overpowering force in support of the black freedom struggle."[23]

  • Because of the civil rights significance of Meredith's admission, the Lyceum-The Circle Historic District where the riot took place has been designated as a National Historic Landmark and state historic district.
  • A statue of Meredith has been erected on the campus to commemorate his historic role.
  • The university conducted a series of programs for a year beginning in 2002 to mark the 40th anniversary of its integration. In 2012, it initiated a yearlong series of programs to mark its 50th anniversary of integration.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Integrating Ole Miss: A Transformative, Deadly Riot". NPR. 2012-10-01. Retrieved 2015-03-23. 
  2. ^ a b c "James Meredith". The Great Rebellion. Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  3. ^ a b Schlesinger 2002, pp. 317-320.
  4. ^ Branch 1988, p. 650.
  5. ^ a b c Thompson, Wright (February 2010). "Ghosts of Mississippi". Outside the Lines. ESPN. Retrieved November 3, 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c Hartford, Bruce. "James Meredith Integrates 'Ole Miss (Sept-Oct)". Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  7. ^ Branch 1988, p. 662.
  8. ^ Bryant 2006, 71.
  9. ^ Farber, David and Beth Bailey. The Columbia Guide to America in the 1960s. 
  10. ^ "Though the Heavens Fall (5 of 7)". TIME. October 12, 1962. Retrieved 2007-10-03. 
  11. ^ Wickham, Kathleen Woodruff (Summer 2011). "Murder in Mississippi: The Unsolved Case of Agence French-Presse's Paul Guihard". Journalism History. 37 (2): 102–112. 
  12. ^ Bryant (2006), 70-71.
  13. ^ "1962: Mississippi race riots over first black student". BBC News - On this day. October 1, 1962. Retrieved 2007-10-02. 
  14. ^ Leslie M. Alexander; Walter C. Rucker (2010). Encyclopedia of African American History, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 890. 
  15. ^ Gallagher 2012, p. 187.
  16. ^ "United States of America v. Ross R. Barnett and Paul B. Johnson, Jr, 346 F.2d 99 (5th Cir. 1965)". Justia Law. Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  17. ^ Thompson, Wright (October 30, 2012). "'Ghosts' a story of family, home". ESPN Films. ESPN.com. Retrieved November 3, 2012. 
  18. ^ Taylor, Jeff; Israelson, Chad (2015-07-15). The Political World of Bob Dylan: Freedom and Justice, Power and Sin. Springer. ISBN 9781137477477. 
  19. ^ "Songs Of Innocence – "…but it's here I wanna stay…"". Shadows That Shine. 2012-05-06. Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  20. ^ "Ballad of Oxford (Jimmy Meredith)". web.cecs.pdx.edu. Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  21. ^ Greenblath, Gene. "Talking Ole Miss". Antiwar Songs. Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  22. ^ "Alma Mater lyrics - THE CHAD MITCHELL TRIO". www.oldielyrics.com. Retrieved 2017-10-01. 
  23. ^ Eagles, Charles W. (Spring 2009). "'The Fight for Men's Minds': The Aftermath of the Ole Miss Riot of 1962" (PDF). The Journal of Mississippi History. 71 (1): 1–53. , reprinted at Mississippi Department of Archives and History website, accessed 1 August 2014

Bibliography[edit]

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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