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Olfactory Pathway - Nerve and Tracts
Olfactory Pathway - Nerve and Tracts
Published: 2015/10/28
Channel: MEDSimplified
Neurology | Olfactory Nerve | Cranial Nerve I
Neurology | Olfactory Nerve | Cranial Nerve I
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: Ninja Nerd Science
Olfactory Nerve Path + Lesions | Cranial Nerves MADE EASY
Olfactory Nerve Path + Lesions | Cranial Nerves MADE EASY
Published: 2017/06/17
Channel: BabyStepMED
Cranial Nerve I - Anatomy Lecture for Medical Students - USMLE Step 1
Cranial Nerve I - Anatomy Lecture for Medical Students - USMLE Step 1
Published: 2015/12/30
Channel: PETROMed Lectures
Olfaction - structure and function | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy
Olfaction - structure and function | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy
Published: 2013/10/25
Channel: khanacademymedicine
Olfactory: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain Dissections
Olfactory: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain Dissections
Published: 2015/08/13
Channel: e-channel
Cranial Nerve Examination: CN 1 Olfactory nerve
Cranial Nerve Examination: CN 1 Olfactory nerve
Published: 2014/09/04
Channel: Soton Brain Hub
Cranial Nerves Basics - 3D Anatomy Tutorial
Cranial Nerves Basics - 3D Anatomy Tutorial
Published: 2012/08/07
Channel: AnatomyZone
Olfactory Pathway
Olfactory Pathway
Published: 2016/08/10
Channel: The Medico
Cranial Nerves - Neuroanatomy
Cranial Nerves - Neuroanatomy
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Dr. Najeeb Lectures
Anatomy - Cranial Nerves - Olfactory Nerve CN1 - Cranial Nerve - OLFACTION
Anatomy - Cranial Nerves - Olfactory Nerve CN1 - Cranial Nerve - OLFACTION
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: 5MinuteSchool
Smell olfactory
Smell olfactory
Published: 2009/11/03
Channel: Revolutietheorie
CRANIAL NERVE 1: OLFACTORY NERVE
CRANIAL NERVE 1: OLFACTORY NERVE
Published: 2014/11/17
Channel: Walter Jahn
4-8-1 Olfactory and optic nerves (cranial nerves I, II)
4-8-1 Olfactory and optic nerves (cranial nerves I, II)
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: Mahmoud El-Gammal
OLFACTORY NERVE complete pathway very important for viva!
OLFACTORY NERVE complete pathway very important for viva!
Published: 2018/01/13
Channel: selfless medicose
olfactory pathway DR SAMEH GHAZY
olfactory pathway DR SAMEH GHAZY
Published: 2014/06/02
Channel: Sameh Ghazy
Cranial nerve examination - Olfactory nerve
Cranial nerve examination - Olfactory nerve
Published: 2015/12/07
Channel: SohRab_IQ
How the Body Works : The Olfactory Pathway
How the Body Works : The Olfactory Pathway
Published: 2007/08/03
Channel: Daniel Izzo
Taste & Smell: Crash Course A&P #16
Taste & Smell: Crash Course A&P #16
Published: 2015/04/27
Channel: CrashCourse
Cranial Nerves (1 of 12): Olfactory Nerve -- Head and Neck Anatomy 101
Cranial Nerves (1 of 12): Olfactory Nerve -- Head and Neck Anatomy 101
Published: 2012/05/17
Channel: theanatomyroom
Cranial Nerve 1: The Olfactory Nerve
Cranial Nerve 1: The Olfactory Nerve
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: Carroll College
olfactory nerve cranial nerve one 1 pathway neurology anatomy
olfactory nerve cranial nerve one 1 pathway neurology anatomy
Published: 2018/01/03
Channel: doctor hope
The olfactory nerve test
The olfactory nerve test
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Medical Animations and Videos
CRANIAL NERVES by Professor Fink
CRANIAL NERVES by Professor Fink
Published: 2017/02/05
Channel: professorfink
Cranial Nerves - Olfactory Nerve Disorders - Acquired Anosmia - Infections Trauma Meningioma
Cranial Nerves - Olfactory Nerve Disorders - Acquired Anosmia - Infections Trauma Meningioma
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: 5MinuteSchool
Cranial nerves I and II
Cranial nerves I and II
Published: 2015/06/19
Channel: The Noted Anatomist
OLFACTORY NERVES, BULB, TRACT
OLFACTORY NERVES, BULB, TRACT
Published: 2014/11/24
Channel: Walter Jahn
CN 1: Olfactory nerve
CN 1: Olfactory nerve
Published: 2014/05/03
Channel: Simon R. Downes - Med School Radio
Olfactory Nerve - Examination - CN 1 Exam - Cranial Nerve 1
Olfactory Nerve - Examination - CN 1 Exam - Cranial Nerve 1
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: 5MinuteSchool
olfactory nerve
olfactory nerve
Published: 2012/05/05
Channel: tawfiq hendieh
Cranial Nerves - CI - Olfactory Nerve Disorders - Kallman Syndrome
Cranial Nerves - CI - Olfactory Nerve Disorders - Kallman Syndrome
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: 5MinuteSchool
The olfactory nerve examination - First Cranial nerve
The olfactory nerve examination - First Cranial nerve
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Medical Animations and Videos
Olfactory nerve
Olfactory nerve
Published: 2013/03/04
Channel: melissa rodriguez
Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Nerve repair - Geoff Raisman - 2014
Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Nerve repair - Geoff Raisman - 2014
Published: 2015/11/27
Channel: Cool Hand Luke
Olfactory nerve (I) examination (1-2014) by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle
Olfactory nerve (I) examination (1-2014) by Dr Khaled A Abulfadle
Published: 2014/01/13
Channel: Dr Khaled A Abulfadle
5.5 Cranial Nerves: Nuclei
5.5 Cranial Nerves: Nuclei
Published: 2017/09/25
Channel: UChicago Online
What Is The Definition Of Olfactory nerve
What Is The Definition Of Olfactory nerve
Published: 2014/11/11
Channel: Medical Dictionary Online
Cranial Nerve 1: olfactory special test (MSJ 2012)
Cranial Nerve 1: olfactory special test (MSJ 2012)
Published: 2012/04/20
Channel: wiesmanm1
olfactory nerve
olfactory nerve
Published: 2013/12/18
Channel: Fidel Nivelo Román
NS L22 The olfactory nerve
NS L22 The olfactory nerve
Published: 2016/11/26
Channel: Abdelmoniem Elmardi
Special Senses 5- Olfactory pathways
Special Senses 5- Olfactory pathways
Published: 2014/10/17
Channel: Wendy Riggs
ASMR cranial nerve exam - smell test - male voice - for sleep & tingles
ASMR cranial nerve exam - smell test - male voice - for sleep & tingles
Published: 2014/03/18
Channel: SimonASMR
01 OLFACTORY NERVE (RAJOOJ
01 OLFACTORY NERVE (RAJOOJ'S CLINICAL SKILLS VIDEOS)
Published: 2014/09/08
Channel: Saif Fadhil
[DSTP002] Olfactory Nerve Eine Tragödie (2017)
[DSTP002] Olfactory Nerve Eine Tragödie (2017)
Published: 2018/02/16
Channel: Details Sound
Cranial Nerve I olfactory
Cranial Nerve I olfactory
Published: 2014/11/04
Channel: WVSOM Clinical Skills
Medical vocabulary: What does Olfactory Nerve Injuries mean
Medical vocabulary: What does Olfactory Nerve Injuries mean
Published: 2016/01/20
Channel: botcaster inc. bot
Medical vocabulary: What does Olfactory Nerve Diseases mean
Medical vocabulary: What does Olfactory Nerve Diseases mean
Published: 2016/01/20
Channel: botcaster inc. bot
Olfactory Nerve
Olfactory Nerve
Published: 2018/01/29
Channel: محمد أشرف أمين
Medical vocabulary: What does Olfactory Nerve mean
Medical vocabulary: What does Olfactory Nerve mean
Published: 2016/01/17
Channel: botcaster inc. bot
Neurologic Exam Cranial Nerves Normal : Cranial Nerve 1- Olfaction
Neurologic Exam Cranial Nerves Normal : Cranial Nerve 1- Olfaction
Published: 2010/03/30
Channel: onlinemedicalvideo
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Olfactory nerve
Olfactorynerve2.jpg
Head bisection showing location of olfactory mucosa and cribriform plate. Olfactory nerves are too small to b e seen in a gross section. (Suarez, C.A. and Vilensky, J., All-in-One Anatomy Exam Review. Vol. 1 Back and Upper Limb)
Head olfactory nerve.jpg
The Olfactory Nerve
Details
Identifiers
Latin nervus olfactorius
MeSH D009832
NeuroNames 32
TA A14.2.01.004
A14.2.01.005
FMA 46787
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell.

The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons, transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system, where they are perceived by the sense of smell (olfaction). Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is somewhat unusual among cranial nerves because it is capable of some regeneration if damaged. The olfactory nerve is sensory in nature and originates on the olfactory mucosa in the upper part of the nasal cavity.[1] From the olfactory mucosa, the nerve (actually many small nerve fascicles) travels up through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to reach the surface of the brain. Here the fascicles enter the olfactory bulb and synapse there; from the bulbs (one on each side) the olfactory information is transmitted into the brain via the olfactory tract.[2] The fascicles of the olfactory nerve are not visible on a cadaver brain because they are severed upon removal.[3] :548

Structure[edit]

The specialized olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are located in the olfactory mucosa of the upper parts of the nasal cavity. The olfactory nerves consist of a collection of many sensory nerve fibers that extend from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb, passing through the many openings of the cribriform plate, a sieve-like structure of the ethmoid bone.

The sense of smell arises from the stimulation of receptors by small molecules in inspired air of varying spatial, chemical, and electrical properties that reach the nasal epithelium in the nasal cavity during inhalation. These stimulants are transduced into electrical activity in the olfactory neurons, which then transmit these impulses to the olfactory bulb and from there to the rest of the central nervous system via the olfactory tract.

The olfactory nerve is the shortest of the twelve cranial nerves and, similar to the optic nerve, does not emanate from the brainstem.[2]

Function[edit]

The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons, transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system, where they are perceived by the sense of smell (olfaction).

The functional components of the olfactory nerve include SVA, special visceral afferent, which carries the modality of smell.

Clinical significance[edit]

Examination[edit]

Damage to this nerve impairs the sense of smell. To simply test the function of the olfactory nerve, each nostril is tested with a pungent odor. If the odor is smelt, the olfactory nerve is likely functioning. On the other hand, the nerve is only one of several reasons that could explain if the odor is not smelt. There are olfactory testing packets in which strong odors are embedded into cards and the responses of the patient to each odor can be determined.[2]

Lesions[edit]

Lesions to the olfactory nerve can occur because of "blunt trauma", such as coup-contra-coup damage, meningitis, and tumors of the frontal lobe of the brain. These injuries often lead to a reduced ability to taste and smell. Lesions of the olfactory nerve do not lead to a reduced ability to sense pain from the nasal epithelium. This is because pain from the nasal epithelium is not carried to the central nervous system by the olfactory nerve - it is carried to the central nervous system by the trigeminal nerve.

Aging and smell[edit]

Decreases in the ability to smell is a normal consequence of human aging, and usually is more pronounced in men than in women. It is often unrecognized in patients except that they may note a decreased ability to taste (much of taste is actually based on reception of food odor). Some of this decrease results from repeated damage to the olfactory nerve receptors due likely to repeated upper respiratory infections. Patients with Alzheimer's disease almost always have an abnormal sense of smell when tested.[2]

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mcgraw Hill's Anatomy and Physiology Revealed
  2. ^ a b c d Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, Wendy; Suarez-Quian, Carlos (2015). The Clinical Anatomy of the Cranial Nerves: The Nerves of "On Old Olympus Towering Top". Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1118492017. 
  3. ^ Saladin, Kenneth. "The Cranial Nerves." Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function. 6th ed. New York City: Mcgraw-Hill, 2012. 548.

External links[edit]

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