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Olfactory Pathway - Nerve and Tracts
Olfactory Pathway - Nerve and Tracts
Published: 2015/10/28
Channel: MEDSimplified
Olfaction - structure and function | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy
Olfaction - structure and function | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy
Published: 2013/10/25
Channel: khanacademymedicine
Cranial Nerves (1 of 12): Olfactory Nerve -- Head and Neck Anatomy 101
Cranial Nerves (1 of 12): Olfactory Nerve -- Head and Neck Anatomy 101
Published: 2012/05/17
Channel: theanatomyroom
Olfactory: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain Dissections
Olfactory: Neuroanatomy Video Lab - Brain Dissections
Published: 2015/08/13
Channel: e-channel
CRANIAL NERVE 1: OLFACTORY NERVE
CRANIAL NERVE 1: OLFACTORY NERVE
Published: 2014/11/17
Channel: Walter Jahn
Cranial Nerve I - Anatomy Lecture for Medical Students - USMLE Step 1
Cranial Nerve I - Anatomy Lecture for Medical Students - USMLE Step 1
Published: 2015/12/30
Channel: PETROMed Lectures
Olfactory Pathway
Olfactory Pathway
Published: 2016/08/10
Channel: The Medico
Anatomy - Cranial Nerves - Olfactory Nerve CN1 - Cranial Nerve - OLFACTION
Anatomy - Cranial Nerves - Olfactory Nerve CN1 - Cranial Nerve - OLFACTION
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: 5MinuteSchool
Cranial Nerve Examination: CN 1 Olfactory nerve
Cranial Nerve Examination: CN 1 Olfactory nerve
Published: 2014/09/04
Channel: Soton Brain Hub
olfactory nerve examination
olfactory nerve examination
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Medical Media
Cranial Nerves Basics - 3D Anatomy Tutorial
Cranial Nerves Basics - 3D Anatomy Tutorial
Published: 2012/08/07
Channel: AnatomyZone
NS L22 The olfactory nerve
NS L22 The olfactory nerve
Published: 2016/11/26
Channel: Abdelmoniem Elmardi
The olfactory nerve examination - First Cranial nerve
The olfactory nerve examination - First Cranial nerve
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Medical Animations
Taste & Smell: Crash Course A&P #16
Taste & Smell: Crash Course A&P #16
Published: 2015/04/27
Channel: CrashCourse
Cranial nerves I and II
Cranial nerves I and II
Published: 2015/06/19
Channel: The Noted Anatomist
Special Senses 5- Olfactory pathways
Special Senses 5- Olfactory pathways
Published: 2014/10/17
Channel: Wendy Riggs
Cranial Nerves - CI - Olfactory Nerve Disorders - Kallman Syndrome
Cranial Nerves - CI - Olfactory Nerve Disorders - Kallman Syndrome
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: 5MinuteSchool
Cranial nerve examination - Olfactory nerve
Cranial nerve examination - Olfactory nerve
Published: 2015/12/07
Channel: SohRab_IQ
CN 1: Olfactory nerve
CN 1: Olfactory nerve
Published: 2014/05/03
Channel: Simon R. Downes - Med School Radio
OLFACTORY NERVES, BULB, TRACT
OLFACTORY NERVES, BULB, TRACT
Published: 2014/11/24
Channel: Walter Jahn
Olfactory Nerve Path + Lesions | Cranial Nerves MADE EASY
Olfactory Nerve Path + Lesions | Cranial Nerves MADE EASY
Published: 2017/06/17
Channel: BabyStepMED
Cranial Nerves - Functions and Disorders
Cranial Nerves - Functions and Disorders
Published: 2012/10/17
Channel: Armando Hasudungan
4-8-1 Olfactory and optic nerves (cranial nerves I, II)
4-8-1 Olfactory and optic nerves (cranial nerves I, II)
Published: 2016/09/27
Channel: Mahmoud El-Gammal
olfactory nerve
olfactory nerve
Published: 2012/05/05
Channel: tawfiq hendieh
Smell olfactory
Smell olfactory
Published: 2009/11/03
Channel: Revolutietheorie
Neurology: Olfactory Nerve (CN I)
Neurology: Olfactory Nerve (CN I)
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: Ninja Nerd Science
How the Body Works : The Olfactory Pathway
How the Body Works : The Olfactory Pathway
Published: 2007/08/03
Channel: dan ezzo - izzo
Olfactory Nerve - Examination - CN 1 Exam - Cranial Nerve 1
Olfactory Nerve - Examination - CN 1 Exam - Cranial Nerve 1
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: 5MinuteSchool
12 cranial nerves - PART 1 - Olfactory nerve
12 cranial nerves - PART 1 - Olfactory nerve
Published: 2017/02/16
Channel: Faryal Tahir
Olfactory Nerve
Olfactory Nerve
Published: 2009/06/21
Channel: MedicineBoys
Cranial Nerve I (Update) - Anatomy Lecture for Medical Students - USMLE Step 1
Cranial Nerve I (Update) - Anatomy Lecture for Medical Students - USMLE Step 1
Published: 2017/01/31
Channel: PETROMed Lectures
Cranial Nerve 1: olfactory special test (MSJ 2012)
Cranial Nerve 1: olfactory special test (MSJ 2012)
Published: 2012/04/20
Channel: wiesmanm1
Anatomy - Cranial Nerves and Their Sensory Distribution
Anatomy - Cranial Nerves and Their Sensory Distribution
Published: 2016/08/28
Channel: DrawItKnowIt
Imaging cranial nerve 1- Olfactory nerve and cranial nerve 12 - hypoglossal nerve
Imaging cranial nerve 1- Olfactory nerve and cranial nerve 12 - hypoglossal nerve
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: Yale Radiology and Biomedical Imaging
olfactory pathway DR SAMEH GHAZY
olfactory pathway DR SAMEH GHAZY
Published: 2014/06/02
Channel: Sameh Ghazy
A&P Class  Olfactory Nerve
A&P Class Olfactory Nerve
Published: 2017/07/10
Channel: Mama Baer's School
Brain Overview 06: Olfactory Nerves
Brain Overview 06: Olfactory Nerves
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: travisteacher
Cranial Nerve 1: The Olfactory Nerve
Cranial Nerve 1: The Olfactory Nerve
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: Carroll College
ASMR Cranial Nerve Examination - Relaxing Medical Roleplay
ASMR Cranial Nerve Examination - Relaxing Medical Roleplay
Published: 2017/01/15
Channel: asmrkitten
Snap and Sniff Olfactory Test System: Threshold Instructional Video
Snap and Sniff Olfactory Test System: Threshold Instructional Video
Published: 2015/04/28
Channel: Sensonics International
Cranial Nerves - Olfactory Nerve Disorders - Acquired Anosmia - Infections Trauma Meningioma
Cranial Nerves - Olfactory Nerve Disorders - Acquired Anosmia - Infections Trauma Meningioma
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: 5MinuteSchool
Olfactory nerve
Olfactory nerve
Published: 2013/03/04
Channel: melissa rodriguez
THE CRANIAL NERVES by Professor Fink
THE CRANIAL NERVES by Professor Fink
Published: 2012/02/03
Channel: professorfink
What Is The Definition Of Olfactory nerve
What Is The Definition Of Olfactory nerve
Published: 2014/11/11
Channel: Medical Dictionary Online
Cranial Nerves Anatomy And Functions
Cranial Nerves Anatomy And Functions
Published: 2016/04/24
Channel: Animated Anatomy
Olfactory nerve
Olfactory nerve
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: Randy Spiering
Olfactory bulb main olfactory nerve layer - Anatomy of the Brain - SeeHearSayLearn
Olfactory bulb main olfactory nerve layer - Anatomy of the Brain - SeeHearSayLearn
Published: 2017/05/19
Channel: See Hear Say Learn
True navigation for gulls requires olfactory nerves
True navigation for gulls requires olfactory nerves
Published: 2015/12/07
Channel: Science Editor
Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Nerve repair - Geoff Raisman - 2014
Olfactory Ensheathing Cells for Nerve repair - Geoff Raisman - 2014
Published: 2015/11/27
Channel: Jimmy Ray
Imaging cranial nerve 1  Olfactory nerve and cranial nerve 12   hypoglossal nerve
Imaging cranial nerve 1 Olfactory nerve and cranial nerve 12 hypoglossal nerve
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: Radiology Story
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Olfactory nerve
Olfactorynerve2.jpg
Head bisection showing location of olfactory mucosa and cribriform plate. Olfactory nerves are too small to b e seen in a gross section. (Suarez, C.A. and Vilensky, J., All-in-One Anatomy Exam Review. Vol. 1 Back and Upper Limb)
Head olfactory nerve.jpg
The Olfactory Nerve
Details
Identifiers
Latin nervus olfactorius
MeSH A08.800.800.120.640
TA A14.2.01.004
A14.2.01.005
FMA 46787
Anatomical terms of neuroanatomy

The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibres relating to smell.

The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons, transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system, where they are perceived by the sense of smell (olfaction). Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is somewhat unusual among cranial nerves because it is capable of some regeneration if damaged. The olfactory nerve is sensory in nature and originates on the olfactory mucosa in the upper part of the nasal cavity.[1] From the olfactory mucosa, the nerve (actually many small nerve fascicles) travels up through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to reach the surface of the brain. Here the fascicles enter the olfactory bulb and synapse there; from the bulbs (one on each side) the olfactory information is transmitted into the brain via the olfactory tract.[2] The fascicles of the olfactory nerve are not visible on a cadaver brain because they are severed upon removal.[3] :548

Structure[edit]

The specialized olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory nerve are located in the olfactory mucosa of the upper parts of the nasal cavity. The olfactory nerves consist of a collection of many sensory nerve fibers that extend from the olfactory epithelium to the olfactory bulb, passing through the many openings of the cribriform plate, a sieve-like structure of the ethmoid bone.

The sense of smell arises from the stimulation of receptors by small molecules in inspired air of varying spatial, chemical, and electrical properties that reach the nasal epithelium in the nasal cavity during inhalation. These stimulants are transduced into electrical activity in the olfactory neurons, which then transmit these impulses to the olfactory bulb and from there to the rest of the central nervous system via the olfactory tract.

The olfactory nerve is the shortest of the twelve cranial nerves and, similar to the optic nerve, does not emanate from the brainstem.[2]

Function[edit]

The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons, transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system, where they are perceived by the sense of smell (olfaction).

The functional components of the olfactory nerve include SVA, special visceral afferent, which carries the modality of smell.

Clinical significance[edit]

Examination[edit]

Damage to this nerve impairs the sense of smell. To simply test the function of the olfactory nerve, each nostril is tested with a pungent odor. If the odor is smelt, the olfactory nerve is likely functioning. On the other hand, the nerve is only one of several reasons that could explain if the odor is not smelt There are olfactory testing packets in which strong odors are embedded into cards and the responses of the patient to each odor can be determined.[2]

Lesions[edit]

Lesions to the olfactory nerve can occur because of "blunt trauma", such as coup-contra-coup damage, meningitis, and tumors of the frontal lobe of the brain. These injuries often lead to a reduced ability to taste and smell. Lesions of the olfactory nerve do not lead to a reduced ability to sense pain from the nasal epithelium. This is because pain from the nasal epithelium is not carried to the central nervous system by the olfactory nerve - it is carried to the central nervous system by the trigeminal nerve.

Aging and smell[edit]

Decreases in the ability to smell is a normal consequence of human aging, and usually is more pronounced in men than in women. It is often unrecognized in patients except that they may note a decreased ability to taste (much of taste is actually based on reception of food odor). Some of this decrease results from repeated damage to the olfactory nerve receptors due likely to repeated upper respiratory infections. Patients with Alzheimer's disease almost always have an abnormal sense of smell when tested.[2]

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Mcgraw Hill's Anatomy and Physiology Revealed
  2. ^ a b c d Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, Wendy; Suarez-Quian, Carlos (2015). The Clinical Anatomy of the Cranial Nerves: The Nerves of "On Old Olympus Towering Top". Ames, Iowa: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1118492017. 
  3. ^ Saladin, Kenneth. "The Cranial Nerves." Anatomy and Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function. 6th ed. New York City: Mcgraw-Hill, 2012. 548.

External links[edit]

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