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Open Music Model
Open Music Model
Published: 2016/01/29
Channel: WikiAudio
Open Music Model
Open Music Model
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BRANDY MELVILLE OPEN MODEL CASTING
BRANDY MELVILLE OPEN MODEL CASTING
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chuu New model 2.5 open!
chuu New model 2.5 open!
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Ozuna - La Modelo Ft Cardi B ( Video Oficial )
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Marantz Model 3200 Model 140  JBL 4312 MkⅡ music by AnyoKing  Open Cafe
Marantz Model 3200 Model 140 JBL 4312 MkⅡ music by AnyoKing Open Cafe
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Rihanna - Don
Rihanna - Don't Stop The Music
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Channel: RihannaVEVO
Model Open Call Experience ♡
Model Open Call Experience ♡
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Channel: ADOETTE
Drake - God’s Plan
Drake - God’s Plan
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Migos, Nicki Minaj, Cardi B - MotorSport (Official)
Migos, Nicki Minaj, Cardi B - MotorSport (Official)
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Open Model Calls 2015
Open Model Calls 2015
Published: 2015/05/20
Channel: MarioTricoci
Best Summer Music Mix 2018 - Kygo, Ed Sheeran, The Chainsmokers & Justin Bieber Style
Best Summer Music Mix 2018 - Kygo, Ed Sheeran, The Chainsmokers & Justin Bieber Style
Published: 2018/02/17
Channel: XDeep Music
Diversity Inclusion Fair Go 5 Model with open captions
Diversity Inclusion Fair Go 5 Model with open captions
Published: 2017/08/31
Channel: Diversity Inclusion
2016 SAF Summer Spectacular - Open and Pro Bikini Model
2016 SAF Summer Spectacular - Open and Pro Bikini Model
Published: 2016/06/29
Channel: saftelevision
Open Roof stadium model
Open Roof stadium model
Published: 2015/01/28
Channel: 3drModels
RED MODEL N.Y. / ZENZILE "Open"
RED MODEL N.Y. / ZENZILE "Open"
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Channel: dmpassion
A different kind of thrill: Roller Coaster Model Museum now open in Independence
A different kind of thrill: Roller Coaster Model Museum now open in Independence
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Channel: 41 Action News
How To: Save/Open Roblox Model File
How To: Save/Open Roblox Model File
Published: 2014/12/09
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SK Model Open Call
SK Model Open Call
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Channel: BrokeAss MUA
Aeron Cruz of Gandang Lalake - Bikini Open 2014 Finals, Model 6 (Swimwear by Sponsor)
Aeron Cruz of Gandang Lalake - Bikini Open 2014 Finals, Model 6 (Swimwear by Sponsor)
Published: 2014/12/07
Channel: Bikini Open Manila
VHRC 2016 - 1/4 Scale RC Model: Quarter scale "Open"
VHRC 2016 - 1/4 Scale RC Model: Quarter scale "Open"
Published: 2016/05/16
Channel: Rowhider RC & Racing
MODEL LOPEN IN DORDRECHT EN EEN OPEN HUIS BEZOEKEN IN ARNHEM!!
MODEL LOPEN IN DORDRECHT EN EEN OPEN HUIS BEZOEKEN IN ARNHEM!!
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X Top Model Search Open Casting
X Top Model Search Open Casting
Published: 2016/02/27
Channel: Pixcomm Production
Open 2010 Kim Dawson model search coverage
Open 2010 Kim Dawson model search coverage
Published: 2010/08/20
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Open Your Eyes - Model Film
Open Your Eyes - Model Film
Published: 2014/06/30
Channel: Katerina Marie
Ravpower Powerbank Model RP-PB03 - Open Box and Preview - The Outdoor Gear Review
Ravpower Powerbank Model RP-PB03 - Open Box and Preview - The Outdoor Gear Review
Published: 2014/02/05
Channel: TheOutdoorGearReview
Model Horse Actors Needed!! *Open*
Model Horse Actors Needed!! *Open*
Published: 2014/12/05
Channel: Willow Braun
Women
Women's Sports Model Open At The 2017 2ND ANNUAL IPL ARIZONA CHAMPIONSHIP
Published: 2017/06/11
Channel: International Physique League
MODEL (LIVE!!!) - Open To Discussion
MODEL (LIVE!!!) - Open To Discussion
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Open To Discussion
Fitness Universe Male Model Open Class 2013
Fitness Universe Male Model Open Class 2013
Published: 2013/07/07
Channel: Chanel Collette
REBUILDING A VINTAGE MODEL OPEN STEAM LAUNCH - PART #40
REBUILDING A VINTAGE MODEL OPEN STEAM LAUNCH - PART #40
Published: 2017/05/07
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Open book model
Open book model
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How to Build Model Railroad Benchwork - Open Grid
Published: 2015/03/06
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IPL Madison- Jo Women
IPL Madison- Jo Women's Sports Model Open
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Asia
Asia's Next Top Model Cycle 5 - Episode 3 | Denim on an Open Field
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[MMD] Heroes Tonight [Gumball] MODEL DL OPEN
Published: 2018/01/09
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Go Fetch! OPEN EXHAUST MODELS Model Kit Channel
Go Fetch! OPEN EXHAUST MODELS Model Kit Channel
Published: 2017/10/09
Channel: Atomicdog Scale Model Freak
Model Open Call Experience NYC:Major/Request/VNY/Boss/Red/Frame/Jewels Management -iwasintheshower
Model Open Call Experience NYC:Major/Request/VNY/Boss/Red/Frame/Jewels Management -iwasintheshower
Published: 2014/04/21
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Rowe Model - Open Your Mind
Rowe Model - Open Your Mind
Published: 2013/12/03
Channel: Rowe Model
Ford Model T - Driving on the Open Road
Ford Model T - Driving on the Open Road
Published: 2015/09/16
Channel: Mitch Taylor
Maria Isabel - Bikini Open 2014 Finals, Model 1 (Bollywood Theme)
Maria Isabel - Bikini Open 2014 Finals, Model 1 (Bollywood Theme)
Published: 2014/11/15
Channel: Bikini Open Manila
Twickenham & District Model Railway Club Open Day 2016 Promotional Video
Twickenham & District Model Railway Club Open Day 2016 Promotional Video
Published: 2016/05/22
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The Game Pens Open Letter To His Little Model Daughter California Dream — See Her Now At Age 7
The Game Pens Open Letter To His Little Model Daughter California Dream — See Her Now At Age 7
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1928 Ford Model A Open Pickup || SOLD
1928 Ford Model A Open Pickup || SOLD
Published: 2017/11/14
Channel: MotoeXotica Classic Cars
RabbitView Video Open House  - Kitchen re-model  - I Know A Guy Renovations - Calgary
RabbitView Video Open House - Kitchen re-model - I Know A Guy Renovations - Calgary
Published: 2013/12/11
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Introducing Free People
Introducing Free People's Open Call Winner | Elizabeth (Model)
Published: 2014/06/03
Channel: Free People
[MMDxOC]Bangarang[Model test]
[MMDxOC]Bangarang[Model test]
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Channel: Black false Cat
Ibiza Summer Music Mix 2018 - The Best Of Tropical Deep House ChillOut Mix | DEAMN, Ed Sheeran Style
Ibiza Summer Music Mix 2018 - The Best Of Tropical Deep House ChillOut Mix | DEAMN, Ed Sheeran Style
Published: 2018/02/15
Channel: XDeep Music
2016 Role Model Award Nominations are OPEN
2016 Role Model Award Nominations are OPEN
Published: 2016/09/01
Channel: Girls Rule Foundation
Studio B Seniors Model Open Call!
Studio B Seniors Model Open Call!
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The open music model is an economic and technological framework for the recording industry based on research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It predicts that the playback of prerecorded music will be regarded as a service rather than as individually sold products, and that the only system for the digital distribution of music that will be viable against piracy is a subscription-based system supporting file sharing and free of digital rights management. The research also indicated that US$9 per month for unlimited use would be the market clearing price at that time, but recommended $5 per month as the long-term optimal price.[1]

Since its creation in 2002, a number of its principles have been adopted throughout the recording industry,[2] and it has been cited as the basis for the business model of many music subscription services.[3][4]

Overview[edit]

The model asserts that there are five necessary requirements for a viable commercial music digital distribution network:

# Requirement Description
1 Open file sharing users must be free to share files with each other
2 Open file formats content must be distributed in open formats with no DRM restrictions
3 Open membership copyright holders must be able to freely register to receive payment
4 Open payment payment should be accepted via multiple means, not a closed system
5 Open competition multiple such systems must exist which can interoperate, not a designed monopoly

The model was proposed by Shuman Ghosemajumder in his 2002 research paper Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models[1] at the MIT Sloan School of Management. The following year, it was publicly referred to as the Open Music Model.[5]

The model suggests changing the way consumers interact with the digital property market: rather than being seen as a good to be purchased from online vendor, music would be treated as a service being provided by the industry, with firms based on the model serving as intermediaries between the music industry and its consumers. The model proposed giving consumers unlimited access to music for the price of US$5 per month[1] (as of 2002), based on research showing that this could be a long-term optimal price, expected to bring in a total revenue of over US$3 billion per year.[1]

The research demonstrated the demand for third-party file sharing programs. Insofar as the interest for a particular piece of digital property is high, and the risk of acquiring the good via illegitimate means is low, people will naturally flock towards third-party services such as Napster and Morpheus (more recently, Bittorrent and The Pirate Bay).[1]

The research showed that consumers would use file sharing services not primarily due to cost but because of convenience, indicating that services which provided access to the most music would be the most successful.[1]

Industry adoption[edit]

The model predicted the failure of online music distribution systems based on digital rights management.[5][6]

Criticisms of the model included that it would not eliminate the issue of piracy.[7] Others countered that it was in fact the most viable solution to piracy,[8] since piracy was "inevitable".[9] Supporters argued that it offered a superior alternative to the current law-enforcement based methods used by the recording industry.[10] One startup in Germany, Playment, announced plans to adapt the entire model to a commercial setting as the basis for its business model.[11]

Several aspects of the model have been adopted by the recording industry and its partners over time:

Why would the big four music companies agree to let Apple and others distribute their music without using DRM systems to protect it? The simplest answer is because DRMs haven't worked, and may never work, to halt music piracy.
Steve Jobs, Thoughts on Music[12] open letter, 2007
  • The abolition of digital rights management represented a major shift for the industry. In 2007, Steve Jobs, CEO of Apple, published a letter[12] calling for an end to DRM in music. A few months later, Amazon.com launched a store single individual DRM-free mp3's.[13] One year later, iTunes Store abolished DRM on most of its individual tracks.[14]
  • Open payment was relatively straightforward to implement, and the iTunes Store offered gift cards, which could be purchased with cash, from its launch in 2003.
  • In 2010, Rhapsody announced a download ability[15] for their subscribers using iPhones.
  • In 2011, Apple launched its iTunes Match service with a subscription model, supporting file-sharing between a user's own devices.[16] However, the subscription price did not include the cost of acquiring content, which would still have to be purchased on a per track basis from the iTunes Store.
  • Pricing close to the model's suggested $5 per month price, or its $9 per month market clearing price, has been adopted by many platforms:
    • In 2005, Yahoo! Music was launched at $5 per month with digital rights management.
    • In 2011, Spotify introduced a $5 per month premium subscription in the United States with digital rights management.[17]
    • In 2011, Microsoft Zune offered a subscription service for music downloads with digital rights management known as a Zune Pass, at $10 a month.
    • in 2012, Google Play Music launched unlimited music streaming for a subscription price of $9.99 per month.[18] Users can upload their own MP3s to the service and download them, but cannot download songs they have not uploaded themselves.
    • In 2014, Amazon added DRM music streaming to their Amazon Prime service.[19]
    • In 2015, Apple announced Apple Music, which would offer unlimited streaming of songs encrypted with FairPlay DRM for a subscription price of $9.99 per month, and compensate artists on the basis of song popularity. Apple reportedly wanted to enter the market with a lower price but was pressured by record labels to adopt a higher subscription fee.[20]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Shuman Ghosemajumder (May 10, 2002). "Advanced Peer-Based Technology Business Models". MIT Sloan School of Management. 
  2. ^ Gautham Somraj Koorma (November 27, 2015). "On-Demand Music Streaming to battle Piracy". iRunway. 
  3. ^ Marco Consoli (July 3, 2014). "Spotify, il business folle sbarca a Wall Street". L'Espresso. 
  4. ^ Karol Kopańko (June 5, 2015). "Dla użytkowników streaming muzyki jest spełnieniem marzeń, a dla wytwórni – źródłem obaw". Gazeta.pl. 
  5. ^ a b Ruth Suehle (November 3, 2011). "The DRM graveyard: A brief history of digital rights management in music". Red Hat Magazine. 
  6. ^ Emanuele Lunadei; Christian Valdiva Torres; Erik Cambria (May 18, 2014). "Collective Copyright". International World Wide Web Conference 2014. 
  7. ^ Sungwon Peter Choe (2006). "Music Distribution: Technology and the Value of Art in Society". KAIST. 
  8. ^ Andrew Traub (November 25, 2009). "Open music model". US Intellectual Property Law. 
  9. ^ Yrjö Raivio (December 4, 2009). "Mobile Services and the Internet: A Study of Emerging Business Models" (PDF). Helsinki University of Technology. 
  10. ^ Matěj Myška (December 2007). "Flat Fee Music" (PDF). Masaryk University Journal of Law and Technology. 
  11. ^ Playment. "Playment – Our Solution". playment.com. 
  12. ^ a b Steve Jobs (February 6, 2007). "Thoughts on Music". Apple Inc. 
  13. ^ Marshall Kirkpatrick (September 25, 2007). "Amazon MP3 Launches DRM-Free Music Store". ReadWriteWeb. 
  14. ^ Peter Cohen (January 6, 2009). "iTunes Store goes DRM-free". MacWorld. 
  15. ^ Kit Eaton (April 26, 2010). "Rhapsody First Subscription Service in U.S. to Offer Offline Music on iPhone". FastCompany. 
  16. ^ Erik Rasmussen (November 16, 2011). "Cloud Music and iTunes Match". 
  17. ^ Charlie Sorrel (July 14, 2011). "Spotify Launches in the U.S at Last". Wired. 
  18. ^ Jefferson Graham (June 24, 2015). "First Look – Google Play Music has 1000s of free music playlists". USA Today. 
  19. ^ http://www.windowsobserver.com/2014/06/12/the-gotchas-of-the-amazon-prime-music-service/
  20. ^ Popper, Ben; Singleton, Micah (June 8, 2015). "Apple announces its streaming music service, Apple Music". The Verge. Vox Media. Archived from the original on June 8, 2015. Retrieved June 8, 2015. 

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