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Open Content einfach erklärt (explainity® Erklärvideo)
Open Content einfach erklärt (explainity® Erklärvideo)
Published: 2013/03/19
Channel: explainity
How is open content a driver for personalized learning?
How is open content a driver for personalized learning?
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: McGraw-Hill Education PreK-12
Open Content for DNN (Dotnetnuke) - get started
Open Content for DNN (Dotnetnuke) - get started
Published: 2015/05/10
Channel: Sacha Trauwaen
Economics of Open Content: The Music Industry
Economics of Open Content: The Music Industry
Published: 2014/04/17
Channel: WGBHForum
Open Content Infomercial
Open Content Infomercial
Published: 2013/09/15
Channel: Ray Cinti
Economics of Open Content: Archives, Museums, and Libraries
Economics of Open Content: Archives, Museums, and Libraries
Published: 2014/04/17
Channel: WGBHForum
Open Content video
Open Content video
Published: 2016/10/28
Channel: Alexa Garcia-Frederick
Matt Federoff: The Open Content Revolution
Matt Federoff: The Open Content Revolution
Published: 2011/03/31
Channel: ACU
Open Content and Public Broadcasting: Future Business Models
Open Content and Public Broadcasting: Future Business Models
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: WGBHForum
Open Content Licensing for Educators
Open Content Licensing for Educators
Published: 2012/05/11
Channel: Stephen Downes
Open content in Your Phone on Your PC With Open It App
Open content in Your Phone on Your PC With Open It App
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: Live Geekz
Open Content
Open Content
Published: 2010/05/18
Channel: Josh1223334444
NOVA | Car of the Future | Open Content | PBS
NOVA | Car of the Future | Open Content | PBS
Published: 2008/04/16
Channel: PBS
Economics of Open Content: Creative Production in the Digital Age
Economics of Open Content: Creative Production in the Digital Age
Published: 2014/04/17
Channel: WGBHForum
Open Content : 2010 NMC Horizon Report
Open Content : 2010 NMC Horizon Report
Published: 2010/01/27
Channel: NewMediaConsortium
K-12 BITS: #GoOpen with Blackboard Open Content
K-12 BITS: #GoOpen with Blackboard Open Content
Published: 2016/12/12
Channel: Blackboard Inc.
Add Slider using Open Content
Add Slider using Open Content
Published: 2017/05/18
Channel: Timo Breumelhof
Second-Generation Open Access: Building on Open Content
Second-Generation Open Access: Building on Open Content
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford
Open Dialogues: How to make open content accessible
Open Dialogues: How to make open content accessible
Published: 2017/07/31
Channel: Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology, University of British Columbia
how to open content of applock without password
how to open content of applock without password
Published: 2016/07/16
Channel: World Dreams
Dash Web2.0 Open Content Platform
Dash Web2.0 Open Content Platform
Published: 2007/11/08
Channel: DashNavigation
DESTINY 2 NEWS HAUL! (Open World NPC’s, Post Campaign Content, & Heroic Triggers & More!)
DESTINY 2 NEWS HAUL! (Open World NPC’s, Post Campaign Content, & Heroic Triggers & More!)
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Mesa Sean
eZ Platform - Open Content Management System - Open Source CMS
eZ Platform - Open Content Management System - Open Source CMS
Published: 2017/01/11
Channel: eZ Systems
Economics of Open Content: Film and Television I
Economics of Open Content: Film and Television I
Published: 2014/04/17
Channel: WGBHForum
Content Analsyis of Open-Ended Questions
Content Analsyis of Open-Ended Questions
Published: 2016/02/22
Channel: Dr. Robin Kay
Basics of copyright and open content for educators
Basics of copyright and open content for educators
Published: 2014/03/03
Channel: Tarmo Toikkanen
CommonsFest 2014 - From open source to open content
CommonsFest 2014 - From open source to open content
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: Commons Fest
OpenContent Policy and Claim - Bulk Uploading Claim Documents
OpenContent Policy and Claim - Bulk Uploading Claim Documents
Published: 2017/09/01
Channel: Technology Services Group
Open Content Presentation Part 1
Open Content Presentation Part 1
Published: 2010/11/19
Channel: Matt Federoff
Open Content
Open Content
Published: 2014/05/20
Channel: Maggie Klingensmith
OpenContent Compliance Solution - Obsolete Document
OpenContent Compliance Solution - Obsolete Document
Published: 2015/01/30
Channel: Technology Services Group
OpenContent Policy and Claim - Video Annotations for Auto Damage
OpenContent Policy and Claim - Video Annotations for Auto Damage
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: Technology Services Group
Kreativität mit OpenSource / OpenContent / CreativeCommons
Kreativität mit OpenSource / OpenContent / CreativeCommons
Published: 2012/11/16
Channel: Blender 3D Tutorials von blenderHilfe.de
Regards d
Regards d'ailleurs : l'expérience Open Content du Yale Center for British Art
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: Clic France
Open Content - Flat Class Project For Teachers
Open Content - Flat Class Project For Teachers
Published: 2013/10/19
Channel: Avylon Magarey
The Greatest Open Finishes [Sponsor Content]
The Greatest Open Finishes [Sponsor Content]
Published: 2016/06/23
Channel: Golf Digest
Open Education Matters: Why is it important to share content?
Open Education Matters: Why is it important to share content?
Published: 2012/06/05
Channel: Nadia Mireles
How to Build an Open Content Marketing Platform with Drupal 8 [October 18, 2016]
How to Build an Open Content Marketing Platform with Drupal 8 [October 18, 2016]
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: Acquia
Open your heart - Mlp Speedpaint (Blood content)
Open your heart - Mlp Speedpaint (Blood content)
Published: 2017/09/11
Channel: ManeBlue
Economics of Open Content: Wealth of Networks
Economics of Open Content: Wealth of Networks
Published: 2014/04/17
Channel: WGBHForum
#GoOpen: Using Open Educational Resources to Develop Dynamic Digital Content for Classrooms
#GoOpen: Using Open Educational Resources to Develop Dynamic Digital Content for Classrooms
Published: 2016/05/31
Channel: Alliance for Excellent Education
Watchdogs 2 Hands On Preview - Open World Content, Design, Music, Sound, Graphics, Gameplay
Watchdogs 2 Hands On Preview - Open World Content, Design, Music, Sound, Graphics, Gameplay
Published: 2016/10/24
Channel: ACG
John Dehlin, The expanding role of video in the open content movement
John Dehlin, The expanding role of video in the open content movement
Published: 2009/03/25
Channel: Columbia
What Are The Open
What Are The Open's Greatest Finishes? [Sponsor Content]
Published: 2016/06/23
Channel: Golf Digest
TouchBooks: Open Content Alliance
TouchBooks: Open Content Alliance
Published: 2015/04/29
Channel: Bill Daul
Swiss IGF Workshop - Open content SRG
Swiss IGF Workshop - Open content SRG
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: Team Swiss Data Alliance
Finding Open Content Using Google Images and Wikimedia Commons
Finding Open Content Using Google Images and Wikimedia Commons
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Matthew Bloom
OpenContent Compliance Solution - Periodic Review
OpenContent Compliance Solution - Periodic Review
Published: 2015/01/30
Channel: Technology Services Group
Open Content and Public Broadcasting: What Is Open Content?
Open Content and Public Broadcasting: What Is Open Content?
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: WGBHForum
OpenContent
OpenContent
Published: 2014/04/29
Channel: Krista Brakhage
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The Open Content Project logo (1998)
The logo on the screen in the subject's left hand is a Creative Commons license, while the paper in his right hand explains that the image is open content.

Open content is a neologism coined by David Wiley in 1998[1] which describes a creative work that others can copy or modify freely, without asking for permission. The term evokes the related concept of open-source software.[2]

History[edit]

Originally, the Open content concept and term was evangelized via the Open Content Project by David A. Wiley in 1998, and described works licensed under the Open Content License (a non-free share-alike license, see 'Free content' below) and other works licensed under similar terms.[2]

It has since come to describe a broader class of content without conventional copyright restrictions. The openness of content can be assessed under the '5Rs Framework' based on the extent to which it can be reused, revised, remixed and redistributed by members of the public without violating copyright law.[3] Unlike open-source and free content, there is no clear threshold that a work must reach to qualify as 'open content'.

Although open content has been described as a counterbalance to copyright,[4] open content licenses rely on a copyright holder's power to license their work, similarly as copyleft which also utilizes copyright for such a purpose.

In 2003 Wiley announced that the Open Content Project has been succeeded by Creative Commons and their licenses, where he joined as "Director of Educational Licenses".[5][6]

In 2006 the Creative Commons' successor project was the Definition of Free Cultural Works[7] for free content, put forth by Erik Möller,[8] Richard Stallman, Lawrence Lessig, Benjamin Mako Hill,[8] Angela Beesley,[8] and others. The Definition of Free Cultural Works is used by the Wikimedia Foundation.[9] In 2008, the Attribution and Attribution-ShareAlike Creative Commons licenses were marked as "Approved for Free Cultural Works" among other licenses.[10]

Open Knowledge Foundation

Another successor project is the Open Knowledge Foundation (OKF),[11] founded by Rufus Pollock in Cambridge, UK in 2004[12] as a global non-profit network to promote and share open content and data.[13] In 2007 the Open Knowledge Foundation gave a Open Knowledge Definition for "Content such as music, films, books; Data be it scientific, historical, geographic or otherwise; Government and other administrative information".[14] In October 2014 with version 2.0 Open Works and Open Licenses were defined and "open" is described as synonymous to the definitions of open/free in the Open Source Definition, the Free Software Definition and the Definition of Free Cultural Works.[15] A distinct difference is the focus given to the public domain and that it focuses also on the accessibility ("open access") and the readability ("open formats"). Among several conformant licenses, six are recommended, three own (Open Data Commons Public Domain Dedication and Licence (PDDL), Open Data Commons Attribution License (ODC-BY), Open Data Commons Open Database License (ODbL)) and the CC BY, CC BY-SA, and CC0 creative commons licenses.[16][17][18]

"Open content" definition[edit]

The OpenContent website once defined OpenContent as 'freely available for modification, use and redistribution under a license similar to those used by the open-source / free software community'.[2] However, such a definition would exclude the Open Content License (OPL) because that license forbade charging 'a fee for the [OpenContent] itself', a right required by free and open-source software licenses.[citation needed]

The term since shifted in meaning. OpenContent "is licensed in a manner that provides users with free and perpetual permission to engage in the 5R activities."[3]

The 5Rs are put forward on the OpenContent website as a framework for assessing the extent to which content is open:

  1. Retain – the right to make, own, and control copies of the content (e.g., download, duplicate, store, and manage)
  2. Reuse – the right to use the content in a wide range of ways (e.g., in a class, in a study group, on a website, in a video)
  3. Revise – the right to adapt, adjust, modify, or alter the content itself (e.g., translate the content into another language)
  4. Remix – the right to combine the original or revised content with other open content to create something new (e.g., incorporate the content into a mashup)
  5. Redistribute – the right to share copies of the original content, your revisions, or your remixes with others (e.g., give a copy of the content to a friend)[3]

This broader definition distinguishes open content from open-source software, since the latter must be available for commercial use by the public. However, it is similar to several definitions for open educational resources, which include resources under noncommercial and verbatim licenses.[19][20]

The later Open Definition by the Open Knowledge Foundation (now kown as Open Knowledge International) define open knowledge with open content and open data as sub-elements and draws heavily on the Open Source Definition; it preserves the limited sense of open content as free content,[21] unifying both.

Open access[edit]

Open access logo, originally designed by Public Library of Science

"Open access" refers to toll-free or gratis access to content, mainly published originally peer-reviewed scholarly journals. Some open access works are also licensed for reuse and redistribution ("libre open access"), which would qualify them as open content.

Open content and education[edit]

Over the past decade, open content has been used to develop alternative routes towards higher education. Traditional universities are expensive, and their tuition rates are increasing.[22] Open content allows a free way of obtaining higher education that is "focused on collective knowledge and the sharing and reuse of learning and scholarly content."[23] There are multiple projects and organizations that promote learning through open content, including OpenCourseWare Initiative, The Saylor Foundation and Khan Academy. Some universities, like MIT, Yale, and Tufts are making their courses freely available on the internet.[24]

Textbooks[edit]

The textbook industry is one of the educational industries in which open content can make the biggest impact.[25] Traditional textbooks, aside from being expensive, can also be inconvenient and out of date, because of publishers' tendency to constantly print new editions.[26] Open textbooks help to eliminate this problem, because they are online and thus easily updatable. Being openly licensed and online can be helpful to teachers, because it allows the textbook to be modified according to the teacher's unique curriculum.[25] There are multiple organizations promoting the creation of openly licensed textbooks. Some of these organizations and projects include The University of Minnesota's Open Textbook Library, Connexions, OpenStax College, The Saylor Foundation Open Textbook Challenge and Wikibooks

Licenses[edit]

According to the current definition of open content on the OpenContent website, any general, royalty-free copyright license would qualify as an open license because it 'provides users with the right to make more kinds of uses than those normally permitted under the law. These permissions are granted to users free of charge.'[3]

However, the narrower definition used in the Open Definition effectively limits open content to libre content, any free content license, defined by the Definition of Free Cultural Works, would qualify as an open content license. According to this narrower criteria, the following still-maintained licenses qualify:

(For more licenses see Open Knowledge, Free content and Free Cultural Works licenses)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Grossman, Lev (18 July 1998). "New Free License to Cover Content Online". Netly News. Archived from the original on 19 June 2000. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  2. ^ a b c Wiley, David (1998). "Open Content". OpenContent.org. Archived from the original on 28 January 1999. Retrieved 2012-04-17. 
  3. ^ a b c d Wiley, David. "Open Content". OpenContent.org. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  4. ^ "Lawrence Liang, "Free/Open Source Software Open Content", ''Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme: e-Primers on Free/Open Source Software'', United Nations Development Programme – Asia-Pacific Development Information Programme, 2007." (PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-23. 
  5. ^ OpenContent is officially closed. And that's just fine. on opencontent.org (30 June 2003, archived)
  6. ^ Creative Commons Welcomes David Wiley as Educational Use License Project Lead by matt (23 June 2003)
  7. ^ "Revision history of "Definition" – Definition of Free Cultural Works". Freedomdefined.org. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  8. ^ a b c "History – Definition of Free Cultural Works". Freedomdefined.org. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  9. ^ "Resolution:Licensing policy". Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  10. ^ "Approved for Free Cultural Works". Creative Commons. 24 July 2009. Retrieved 2012-11-14. 
  11. ^ Davies, Tim (12 April 2014). "Data, information, knowledge and power – exploring Open Knowledge's new core purpose". Tim's Blog. Retrieved 25 October 2015. 
  12. ^ "Open Knowledge Foundation launched". Open Knowledge Foundation Weblog. Retrieved 25 October 2015. 
  13. ^ "Open Knowledge: About". okfn.org. Retrieved 25 October 2015. 
  14. ^ version 1.0 on opendefinition.org (archived 2007)
  15. ^ Open Definition 2.1 on opendefinition.org
  16. ^ licenses on opendefintion.com
  17. ^ Creative Commons 4.0 BY and BY-SA licenses approved conformant with the Open Definition by Timothy Vollmer on creativecommons.org (27 December 2013)
  18. ^ Open Definition 2.0 released by Timothy Vollmer on creativecommons.rog (7 October 2014)
  19. ^ Atkins, Daniel E.; John Seely Brown; Allen L. Hammond (February 2007). A Review of the Open Educational Resources (OER) Movement: Achievements, Challenges, and New Opportunities (PDF). Menlo Park, CA: The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. p. 4. Retrieved 2010-12-03. 
  20. ^ Geser, Guntram (January 2007). Open Educational Practices and Resources. OLCOS Roadmap 2012. Salzburg, Austria: Salzburg Research, EduMedia Group. p. 20. Retrieved 2010-11-06. 
  21. ^ "Open Definition". OpenDefinition.org. Retrieved 2011-11-18. 
  22. ^ Kantrowitz, Mark (2012). "Tuition Inflation". FinAid.org. Retrieved 2012-04-18. 
  23. ^ NMC (2012). "One Year or Less: Open Content". 2010 Horizon Report. Retrieved 2012-04-18. 
  24. ^ Admin (2012). "Open.edu: Top 50 University Open Courseware Collections". DIY Learning. Retrieved 2012-04-18. 
  25. ^ a b Fitzgerald, Bill (2012). "Using Open Content To Drive Educational Change". Funny Monkey. Retrieved 2012-04-18. 
  26. ^ Moushon, James (2012). "e-Textbooks: How do they stack up against tradition textbooks". Self Publishing Review. Retrieved 2012-04-18. 

External links[edit]

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