Bakerloo line surface building
Location of Oxford Circus in Central London
|Local authority||City of Westminster|
|Managed by||London Underground|
|Owner||Transport for London|
|Number of platforms||6|
|London Underground annual entry and exit|
|1969||Victoria line opened|
|Listed feature||Original CLR and BS&WR buildings.|
|Entry number||1400976 (CLR)
|Added to list||20 July 2011|
|Lists of stations|
|London Transport portal|
Oxford Circus is a London Underground station serving Oxford Circus at the junction of Regent Street and Oxford Street, with entrances on all four corners of the intersection. The station is an interchange between the Bakerloo, Central and Victoria lines. It is the busiest station in the United Kingdom, with 98.51 million entries and exits in 2014. On the Central line it is between Bond Street and Tottenham Court Road, on the Bakerloo line it is between Regent's Park and Piccadilly Circus, and on the Victoria line it is between Green Park and Warren Street. The station is in Travelcard Zone 1.
The Central line station opened on 30 July 1900, and the Bakerloo line station on 10 March 1906. Both are Grade II listed. The station was rebuilt in 1912 to relieve congestion. Further congestion led to another reconstruction in 1923. Numerous improvements were made as part of the New Works Programme and as a flood protection measure. To accommodate additional passengers on the Victoria line, a new ticket hall was built. The Victoria line station opened on 7 March 1969, including cross-platform interchange with the Bakerloo line.
In the 1890s, the Central London Railway (CLR) published a notice of a private bill that would be presented to Parliament for the 1890 parliamentary session. The bill planned an underground route between Shepherd's Bush and Cornhill (now Bank station).[note 1] These plans were accepted by both Houses of Parliament on 5 August 1891.[note 2]
The CLR employed the engineers James Henry Greathead, Sir John Fowler, and Sir Benjamin Baker to design the railway.[note 3] The official opening of the CLR (now the Central line) by the Prince of Wales took place on 27 June 1900; it was opened to the public on 30 July. Oxford Circus station opened as part of the first section of the line, between Shepherd's Bush and Bank.[note 4] As part of the 1935—40 New Works Programme, the misaligned tunnels of the central section on the Central line that slowed running speeds were corrected[note 5] and the platforms lengthened to accommodate longer trains.
In November 1891, notice was given of a private bill that would be presented to Parliament for the construction of the Baker Street and Waterloo Railway (BS&WR, now the Bakerloo line). The railway was planned to run entirely underground from Marylebone to Elephant & Castle via Baker Street and Waterloo. The route was approved in 1900. Construction commenced in August 1898 under the direction of Sir Benjamin Baker, W.R. Galbraith and R.F. Church. The works were carried out by Perry & Company of Tregedar Works, Bow.[note 6] Oxford Circus was altered below ground following a Board of Trade inspection; at the end of 1905, the first test trains began running. The official opening of the BS&WR by Sir Edwin Cornwall took place on 10 March 1906. The first section of the BS&WR was between Baker Street and Lambeth North.
A proposal for a new underground railway running from Victoria to Walthamstow was first proposed by a Working Party set up by the British Transport Commission in 1948, though that largely followed a 1946 plan for an East Croydon to Finsbury Park line.[note 7] A route was approved in 1955 with future extensions to be decided later,[note 8] though funding for the construction was not approved by the government until 1962. Construction began in 1962 on the initial Walthamstow to Victoria section. The Victoria line platforms opened on 7 March 1969. The station opened as part of a second extension from Warren Street to Victoria. Cross-platform interchange between the Bakerloo and Victoria lines was provided by constructing the Victoria line platforms parallel to the Bakerloo ones.
The CLR and BSWR had separate surface buildings and lift shafts. The station buildings, which remain today as exits from the station, were built on very confined plots on either side of Argyll Street on the south side of Oxford Street, just east of the circus itself. The stations as originally built were entirely separate, but connecting passages were soon provided at platform level. The surviving Central London Railway building to the east of Argyll Street is the best surviving example of stations designed by Harry Bell Measures, and the Bakerloo line building to the west is a classic Leslie Green structure. Both are Grade II listed since 20 July 2011.
Almost from the outset, overcrowding has been a constant problem, and there have been numerous improvements to the facilities and below-ground arrangements to deal with this. After much discussion between the then two separate operators, a major reconstruction began in 1912. This entailed a new ticket hall, serving both lines, being built in the basement of the Bakerloo station, with the Bakerloo lifts removed and new deep-level escalators opened down to the Bakerloo line level. Access to the CLR was by way of existing deep-level subways. The new works came into use on 9 May 1914 with the CLR lifts still available for passengers. By 1923 even this rearrangement was unable to cope, so a second rebuilding began. This involved a second set of escalators being built directly down to the Central line and the CLR station building becoming exit-only. On 2 October 1928, a third escalator leading to the Bakerloo platforms was opened. Unusually, lifts came back into prominence at an Underground station when, in 1942, a set of high-speed lifts came into use, largely used as an exit route from the Central line platforms directly to the Argyll Street exit building.
The station was closed between 31 August and 20 November 1939 to facilitate flood protection works for the preparation of The Second World War. Although street access was closed, trains still called, and interchange between the Bakerloo and Central lines was still possible within the station.
Station reconstruction to accommodate the Victoria line was described as the most time-consuming for the Victoria line project.[note 9] To handle the additional Victoria line passenger loads, a new ticket hall was constructed directly under the road junction. Separate banks of escalators to each line were to be built, with the existing structure to be used as exits with The lifts to be removed. A new one-way interchange subways system was to be built between the Bakerloo/Victoria lines and the Central line. To excavate the new ticket hall below the roadway, traffic was diverted for 5.5 years (August 1963 to Easter 1968) onto a temporary bridge-like structure known as the "umbrella" covering the Regent Street/Oxford Street intersection. It consisted of 245 pieces of separate prefabricated steel work. The deck plates were placed on top of a system of steel girders which in turn rested on 25 cylindrical 3 ft diameter concrete foundations, sunk from 43 up to 73 ft deep at night. The cylindrical piles had to clear the sites of the main and secondary roof beams of the new ticket hall and various low-level obstructions. The piles had to be built with wide footings to avoid them from collapsing. Service tunnels were constructed to carry water mains and telecom cables past the new ticket hall. The umbrella deck was extended eastwards along Oxford Street to facilitate the construction of a connecting passageway between the old and new ticket halls during the weekend of the August Bank Holiday in 1966. Construction of the Victoria line station tunnels with their platforms, the new escalator shafts and the linking passages to the Central line platforms was carried out from access shafts sunk from nearby Cavendish Square, Upper Regent Street and Argyll Street.[note 10] For the construction of the southbound Victoria line platform tunnel, a special design of tunnel segment, fabricated with mild steel was adopted as there was limited space available for the construction of the platform tunnel. A pre-stressed concrete raft was constructed below the Peter Robinson's third basement level as an extra precaution against settlement before driving the platform tunnel.[note 11] The interchange passageway between the Central line and the Bakerloo line in the area of the former junction with the Bakerloo line lift landing was replaced by the southbound Victoria line platform tunnel.[note 12] From there, a pilot tunnel Ventilation systems were rearranged with a new ventilation plant installed in the former Bakerloo line lift shaft. A new substation for the Bakerloo line was built at the bottom of the shaft.[note 13] With the additional escalators in place, the one-way circulation scheme was introduced and the remaining lifts were removed.
In 2007 the station underwent a major modernisation, removing the murals installed on the Central and Bakerloo line platforms in the 1980s and replacing them with plain white tiles, in a style similar to those used when the station opened in 1900. One 1980s mural remains on one of the platforms. The Central line platform works were substantially complete and a new Station Operations Room at top level opened. This enabled the entire CCTV system to be switched over to new recordable digital technology. The original motifs designed by Hans Unger on the Victoria line platforms were restored.
Oxford Circus station has 14 escalators.[note 14] Major escalator refurbishment took place in 2010–11. Platform humps were also installed at the station to provide step-free access to trains.[note 15] The Victoria line humps resemble in form the Harrington Hump.
On this line, it is between Regent's Park and Piccadilly Circus stations. Trains generally run every 4–9 minutes between 06:17 and 00:15 in both directions, a little less frequently than the Central and Victoria lines.
On this line, the station is between Bond Street and Tottenham Court Road stations. The typical off-peak service in trains per hour (tph) is as follows:
On this line, the station is located between Warren Street and Green Park. The typical off-peak service in trains per hour (tph) is:
London Bus routes 3, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, 23, 25, 55, 73, 88, 94, 98, 137, 139, 159, 189, 390, 453 and C2, and night routes N3, N7, N8, N13, N18, N55, N73, N98, N109, N113, N136, N137 and N207 serve the station. Additionally, bus routes 6, 10, 12, 23, 25, 88, 94, 139, 159, 189, 390, 453 and C2 provide a 24-hour bus service.
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|Preceding station||London Underground||Following station|
towards Harrow & Wealdstone
towards Elephant & Castle
towards Walthamstow Central