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MY FIRST  OPIUM  POPPY HARVEST GIANT PODS PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM
MY FIRST OPIUM POPPY HARVEST GIANT PODS PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM
Published: 2011/09/19
Channel: MegaThecandyman
OPIUM POPPY GROWING  PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM 2013 PT 2
OPIUM POPPY GROWING PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM 2013 PT 2
Published: 2013/04/09
Channel: MegaThecandyman
Opium Farming - How do they do it ?
Opium Farming - How do they do it ?
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Channel: Ayurveda School
Opium Poppy Growing PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM 2013 Pt 6
Opium Poppy Growing PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM 2013 Pt 6
Published: 2013/05/22
Channel: MegaThecandyman
#WikiHow How to Grow Poppies | Growing Poppy Seeds from Pod to Flower
#WikiHow How to Grow Poppies | Growing Poppy Seeds from Pod to Flower
Published: 2015/06/04
Channel: Organical Botanicals
Important Facts U may not know, about How Somniferum Poppy Plants Grow, bro
Important Facts U may not know, about How Somniferum Poppy Plants Grow, bro
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harversted local organic papaver somniferum
harversted local organic papaver somniferum
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Channel: Dr Drew
Ópio - Papaver Somniferum
Ópio - Papaver Somniferum
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: O Psiconauta
Papaver Poppy
Papaver Poppy's Harvest Opium
Published: 2014/06/21
Channel: lunar lies
Harvesting Opium Poppys ~jStevieO
Harvesting Opium Poppys ~jStevieO
Published: 2011/11/06
Channel: jStevieO
Poppy Video 3 Tasmanian persian blue (papaver somniferum)
Poppy Video 3 Tasmanian persian blue (papaver somniferum)
Published: 2008/04/04
Channel: wastinmytyme90
Opium  Poppy growing 1 PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM
Opium Poppy growing 1 PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM
Published: 2011/01/10
Channel: MegaThecandyman
Jumbo Turkish Oval GIANT PAPAVER Somniferum Poppies - 7
Jumbo Turkish Oval GIANT PAPAVER Somniferum Poppies - 7' RECORD BREAKER!
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: Organical Botanicals
,,, PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM ,,, HONEY BEES LOVE OPIUM POPPIES ,,, 2017
,,, PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM ,,, HONEY BEES LOVE OPIUM POPPIES ,,, 2017
Published: 2017/07/23
Channel: Dennis Wiseman
Opium Poppy Growing PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM 2013 Pt 3
Opium Poppy Growing PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM 2013 Pt 3
Published: 2013/04/17
Channel: MegaThecandyman
Growing Somniferum Opium Poppies Outdoors in Warm Climates | Pots vs. Rows
Growing Somniferum Opium Poppies Outdoors in Warm Climates | Pots vs. Rows
Published: 2017/03/12
Channel: aDollarSEO Clerk
Life and Death of the Opium Poppy - Papaver somniferum
Life and Death of the Opium Poppy - Papaver somniferum
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: Sarah
Giganteum Papaver Somniferum GIANT Poppies
Giganteum Papaver Somniferum GIANT Poppies
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: Organical Botanicals
opium poppy growing PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM 2013 Pt 4
opium poppy growing PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM 2013 Pt 4
Published: 2013/04/23
Channel: MegaThecandyman
OPIUM POPPY GROWING 2013 PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM Pt 8 ready for flowering
OPIUM POPPY GROWING 2013 PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM Pt 8 ready for flowering
Published: 2013/06/14
Channel: MegaThecandyman
World
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Tasmanian purple papaver somniferum warning regarding tasmanian poppies
Tasmanian purple papaver somniferum warning regarding tasmanian poppies
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Channel: Health and Fitness
Grow Poppies in Stages: (#5/5) Identifying
Grow Poppies in Stages: (#5/5) Identifying 'Somniferum' #Opium Poppy | When to Harvest Seed Pods
Published: 2015/07/15
Channel: aDollarSEO Clerk
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Papaver somniferum
Published: 2014/10/06
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OPIUM POPPY GROWING  4  PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM
OPIUM POPPY GROWING 4 PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM
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Poppy seed (Papaver Somniferum).
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Hens n Chicks Papaver Somniferum Opium Poppies Odd Pods
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Opium Poppy - Papaver somniferum - Early stages of growth
Opium Poppy - Papaver somniferum - Early stages of growth
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OPIUM POPPY PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM FIRST FLOWERS 2013
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Starting Poppies Outdoors LATE Season, Or in WARM Climates
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Channel: Organical Botanicals
Cây Anh Túc | Papaver somniferum (Opium Poppy) | Medicinal Plants
Cây Anh Túc | Papaver somniferum (Opium Poppy) | Medicinal Plants
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Published: 2016/07/04
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Pavots toute sorte/papaver somniferum
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Poppy Harvest ~  Papaver Somniferum-Orientalis. - Power Plant-Indica Kush
Poppy Harvest ~ Papaver Somniferum-Orientalis. - Power Plant-Indica Kush
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Tasmanian persian blue poppy papaver somniferum 2007
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Day one of papaver somniferum growing
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Opio, adormidera ( Papaver somniferum )
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PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM 2016 (Pequeño auto cultivo.Medicinal planting)
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Binaural Beats - Opium (Papaver somniferum) |Digital Drug Dose|
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Papaver somniferum pt. 2
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Papaver somniferum- Opium Poppy
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Papaver somniferum
Illustration Papaver somniferum0.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
Order: Ranunculales
Family: Papaveraceae
Genus: Papaver
Species: P. somniferum
Binomial name
Papaver somniferum
L.[1]

Papaver somniferum, the opium poppy,[2] is a species of flowering plant in the family Papaveraceae. It is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are derived and is a valuable ornamental plant, grown in gardens. Its native range is probably the eastern Mediterranean, but is now obscured by ancient introductions and cultivation.

The opium poppy is the only species of Papaveraceae that is grown as an agricultural crop on a large scale. Other poppy species, such as Papaver rhoeas and Papaver argemone, are important agricultural weeds, and may be mistaken for the crop.

Description[edit]

Papaver somniferum flower
Papaver somniferum plant showing the typical glaucous appearance

Papaver somniferum is an annual herb growing to about 100 cm. The plant is strongly glaucous, giving a greyish-green appearance, and the stem and leaves are sparsely covered with coarse hairs. The leaves are lobed and clasp the stem at the base. The flowers are up to 120mm diameter, normally with four white, mauve or red petals, sometimes with dark markings at the base. The fruit is a hairless, rounded capsule topped with 12–18 radiating stigmatic rays. All parts of the plant exude white latex when wounded.[3]:87[4]:32

Varieties and cultivars[edit]

Papaver somniferum has many subspecies or varieties and cultivars. Colors of the flower vary widely, as do other physical characteristics, such as number and shape of petals, number of flowers and fruits, number of seeds, color of seeds, production of opium, etc.[citation needed]

Papaver somniferum Paeoniflorum Group (sometimes called Papaver paeoniflorum) is a subtype of opium poppy whose flowers are highly double, and are grown in many colors. P. somniferum Laciniatum Group (sometimes called Papaver laciniatum) is a subtype of opium poppy whose flowers are highly double and deeply lobed, to the point of looking like a ruffly pom-pom.

A few of the varieties and cultivars, notably the cultivars "Norman" and "Przemko",[5] have low morphine content (less than 1%), and much higher concentrations of other alkaloids. Most varieties, however, including those most popular for ornamental use or seed production, have a higher morphine content, with the average content being 10%.[6]

Distribution[edit]

The native range of opium poppy is probably the Eastern Mediterranean, but extensive cultivation and introduction of the species throughout Europe since ancient times have obscured its origin. It has escaped from cultivation, or has been introduced and become naturalized extensively in all regions of the British Isles, particularly in the south and east[7] and in almost all other countries of the world with suitable, temperate climates.[8]

Opiates[edit]

Dried poppy seed pods and stems (plate), and seeds (bowl)
Capsule of Papaver somniferum showing latex (opium) exuding from incision

The opium poppy, as its name indicates, is the principal source of opium, the dried latex produced by the seed pods. Opium contains a class of naturally occurring alkaloids known as opiates, that include morphine, thebaine, codeine, papaverine, noscapine and oripavine. The Latin epithet somniferum means "sleep-bringing", referring to the sedative properties of some of these opiates.

The opiate drugs are extracted from opium. The latex oozes from incisions made on the green seed pods and is collected once dry. Tincture of opium or laudanum, consisting of opium dissolved in alcohol or a mixture of alcohol and water, is one of many unapproved drugs regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Its marketing and distribution persists because its historical use preceded the Federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act of 1938.[9] Tincture of opium B.P., containing 1% w/v of anhydrous morphine, also remains in the British Pharmacopoeia,[10] listed as a Class A substance under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971.

Morphine is the predominant alkaloid found in the cultivated varieties of opium poppy.[11] Raw opium contains about 8–14% morphine by dry weight, or more in high-yield cultivars.[12] It may be used directly or chemically modified to produce synthetic opioids such as heroin.

Poppy seeds and oil[edit]

Polish makowiec, a nut roll filled with poppy seed paste, used commonly in Poland, Germany, Austria, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary

Poppy seeds from Papaver somniferum are an important food item and the source of poppyseed oil, an edible oil that has many uses. The seeds contain very low levels of opiates and the oil extracted from them contains even less.[13] Both the oil and the seed residue also have commercial uses.

Poppy seeds are used as a food in many cultures. They may be used whole by bakers to decorate their products or milled and mixed with sugar as a sweet filling.[14] They have a creamy and nut-like flavor, and when used with ground coconut, the seeds provide a unique and flavour-rich curry base. They can be dry roasted and ground to be used in wet curry (curry paste) or dry curry.[15]

History[edit]

Use of the opium poppy predates written history. Images of opium poppies have been found in ancient Sumerian artifacts (circa 4000 BC). The making and use of opium was known to the ancient Minoans.[16] Its sap was later named opion by the ancient Greeks, from whence it gained its modern name of opium.

Opium was used for treating asthma, stomach illnesses, and bad eyesight.

The First and Second Opium Wars between China, and the British Empire and France, took place in the late 1830s through the early 1860s, when the Chinese attempted to stop western traders from selling and later smuggling opium into their country from the large crops grown in India. The British in particular had a deep trade deficit with China, and the sale of British-owned Indian opium helped balance it.

Many modern writers, particularly in the 19th century, have written on the opium poppy and its effects, notably Thomas de Quincey in Confessions of an English Opium Eater.

The French Romantic composer Hector Berlioz used opium for inspiration, subsequently producing his Symphonie Fantastique. In this work, a young artist overdoses on opium and experiences a series of visions of his unrequited love.

Opium poppies (flower and fruit) appear on the coat of arms of the Royal College of Anaesthetists.

Legality[edit]

Poppy seed is commonly grown and available across Europe in food stores and on the Internet.[14]

Opium poppy fields near Metheringham, Lincolnshire, England
Dried poppy seed pods next to glass jars of blue, gray, and white poppy seeds used for pastries in Germany.
White poppy seeds, close up.
Poppy seed production in metric tons (2012)
Source: FAOSTAT[17]
 Czech Republic 12,814
 Spain 7,000
 Hungary 4,698
 Turkey 3,844
 Germany 3,200
 France 3,000
 Palestine 2,600
 Romania 2,350
 Croatia 1,509
 Austria 1,098
 Serbia 1,000
 Netherlands 400
 Slovakia 296
 Macedonia 91
  • In most of Central Europe (Austria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Switzerland) poppy seed is commonly used for traditional pastries and cakes. It is legal to grow poppies in all of these countries, though Germany requires a license.
  • The United Kingdom does not require a license for opium poppy cultivation, but does for extracting opium for medicinal products.[18]
  • Canada forbids possessing, seeking or obtaining opium poppy (Papaver somniferum), its preparations, derivatives, alkaloids and salts, although an exception is made for poppy seeds.[19]
  • Italy forbids cultivation of P. somniferum to extract the alkaloids, but small numbers of specimens can be grown without special permits for purely ornamental purposes.[citation needed]
  • In Australia P. somniferum is illegal to cultivate. 100 plants are required for determining a court of trial and 25 plants is considered intent to sell and supply.[20]
  • United Arab Emirates: cultivation of the opium poppy is illegal, as is possession of poppy seeds. At least one man has been imprisoned for possessing poppy seeds obtained from a bread roll.[21]
  • In New Zealand it is legal to cultivate opium poppy as long as it is not used to produce banned drugs.[22]
  • Burma bans cultivation in certain provinces. In northern Burma bans have ended a century-old tradition of growing opium poppy. Between 20,000 and 30,000 former poppy farmers left the Kokang region as a result of the ban in 2002.[23] People from the Wa region, where the ban was implemented in 2005, fled to areas where growing opium is still possible.
  • In the United States cultivation of poppies for food is illegal.[dubious ] However, this is not typically enforced for poppies grown or sold for food or ornamental purposes.[14][unreliable source?] In addition, "Opium poppy and poppy straw" are also prohibited.[24] As the opium poppy is legal for culinary or esthetic reasons, poppies were once grown as a cash crop by farmers in California. The law of poppy cultivation in the United States is somewhat ambiguous.[25] The reason for the ambiguity is because the Opium Poppy Control Act of 1942 (now repealed)[26][27][28] stated that any opium poppy should be declared illegal, even if the farmers were issued a state permit.[29] § 3 of the Opium Poppy Control Act stated:

    It shall be unlawful for any person who is not the holder of a license authorizing him to produce the opium poppy, duly issued to him by the Secretary of the Treasury in accordance with the provisions of this Act, to produce the opium poppy, or to permit the production of the opium poppy in or upon any place owned, occupied, used, or controlled by him.

    This led to the Poppy Rebellion, and to the Narcotics Bureau arresting anyone planting opium poppies and forcing the destruction of poppy fields of anyone who defied the prohibition of poppy cultivation.[30][31] Though the press of those days favored the Federal Bureau of Narcotics, the state of California supported the farmers who grew opium poppies for their seeds for uses in foods such as poppyseed muffins. Today, this area of law has remained vague and remains somewhat controversial in the United States.[32] The Opium Poppy Control Act of 1942 was repealed on 27 October 1970.[33][34]

Medicine[edit]

Australia (Tasmania), Turkey and India are the major producers of poppy for medicinal purposes and poppy-based drugs, such as morphine or codeine.[35] The USA has a policy of sourcing 80% of its narcotic raw materials from the traditional producers, India and Turkey.[36]

A recent initiative to extend opium production for medicinal purposes called Poppy for Medicine was launched by The Senlis Council which proposes that Afghanistan could produce medicinal opium under a scheme similar to that operating in Turkey and India.[37] The Council proposes licensing poppy production in Afghanistan, within an integrated control system supported by the Afghan government and its international allies, to promote economic growth in the country, create vital drugs and combat poverty and the diversion of illegal opium to drug traffickers and terrorist elements. Senlis is on record advocating reintroduction of poppy into areas of Afghanistan, specifically Kunduz, which has been poppy free for some time.

The Senlis proposal is based in part on the assertion that there is an acute global shortage of opium poppy–based medicines some of which (morphine) are on the World Health Organisation's list of essential drugs as they are the most effective way of relieving severe pain. This assertion is contradicted by the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), the "independent and quasi-judicial control organ monitoring the implementation of the United Nations drug control conventions". INCB reports that the supply of opiates is greatly in excess of demand.[38]

In March 2010, researchers from the Department of Biological Sciences at the University of Calgary published an article in Nature Chemical Biology about their discovery of two enzymes and their encoding genes, thebaine 6-O-demethylase (T6ODM) and codeine O-demethylase (CODM), involved in morphine biosynthesis derived from the opium poppy.[39] The enzymes were identified as non-heme dioxygenases, and were isolated using functional genomics.[39] Codeine O-demethylase produces the enzyme that converts codeine into morphine.[40]

In late 2007, the British government permitted the pharmaceutical company Macfarlan Smith (a Johnson Matthey company, FTSE 100) to cultivate opium poppies in England for medicinal reasons[41] after Macfarlan Smith's primary source, India, decided to increase the price of export opium latex. This move is well received by British farmers,[citation needed] with a major opium poppy field based in Didcot, England. As of 2012, they were growing in Dorset, Hampshire, Oxfordshire and Lincolnshire as a spring-sown breakcrop recognised under the single payment scheme farm subsidy.[42] The Office of Fair Trading has alerted the government to their monopoly position on growing in the UK and worldwide production of diamorphine and recommended consideration.[41] The government's response advocated the status quo, being concerned interference might cause the company to stop production.[43]

Ornamental cultivation[edit]

A red opium poppy flower used for ornamental purposes

Once known as the "common garden poppy",[citation needed] live plants and seeds of the opium poppy are widely sold by seed companies and nurseries in most of the western world, including the United States. Poppies are sought after by gardeners for the vivid coloration of the blooms, the hardiness and reliability of the poppy plants, the exotic chocolate-vegetal fragrance note of some cultivars, and the ease of growing the plants from purchased flats of seedlings or by direct sowing of the seed. Poppy seed pods are also sold for dried flower arrangements.

Since "opium poppy and poppy straw" are listed in Schedule II of the United States' Controlled Substances Act, a DEA license may be required to grow poppies in ornamental or display gardens. In fact, the legal status of strictly ornamental poppy gardens is more nuanced, and destruction of ornamental poppy installations or prosecution of gardeners (except those caught extracting opium via capsule scarification or tea extraction) are virtually unheard of.[citation needed] During the summer, opium poppies can be seen flowering in gardens throughout North America and Europe, and displays are found in many private plantings, as well as in public botanical and museum gardens such as United States Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden, and North Carolina Botanical Garden.

Many countries grow the plants, and some rely heavily on the commercial production of the drug as a major source of income. As an additional source of profit, the seeds of the same plants are sold for use in foods, so the cultivation of the plant is a significant source of income. This international trade in seeds of P. somniferum was addressed by a UN resolution "to fight the international trade in illicit opium poppy seeds" on 28 July 1998.

Afghanistan[edit]

After the ousting of the Taliban from the town of Marja in the southern Afghan province Helmand by Operation Moshtarak, American and NATO commanders were confronted with the dilemma of, on the one hand, the need to "win the hearts and minds" of the local population and, on the other, the need to eradicate poppy fields and destroy the opium economy that allegedly financed the Taliban insurgency. It has been speculated that US Marines were initially ordered to ignore the crops to avoid trampling the local farmers' livelihood, and that this might have been because there were no significant poppy fields there before the first US forces arrived.[44][45]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Linnaeus, Carl von (1753). Species Plantarum. Laurentius Salvius. p. 508. 
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-02-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  3. ^ Stace, C. A. (2010). New Flora of the British Isles (Third ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521707725. 
  4. ^ Blamey, M.; Fitter, R.; Fitter, A (2003). Wild flowers of Britain and Ireland: The Complete Guide to the British and Irish Flora. London: A & C Black. ISBN 978-1408179505. 
  5. ^ US 6067749 - Papaver somniferum strain with high concentration of thebaine and oripavine
  6. ^ Ayatollah (2006-02-25). "How potent are the major culinary (spicerack) varieties such as McCormick?". Poppies. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  7. ^ "BSBI Distribution Maps, Papaver somniferum". London, U.K.: Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. 
  8. ^ "Papaver somniferum L.". Copenhagen, Denmark: Global Biodiversity Information Facility, GBIF.org. 
  9. ^ "Unapproved Drugs, What's the Big Deal?" (PDF). International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Winter 2006. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 
  10. ^ The Extra Pharmacopeia Martindale. Vol. 1, 24th edition. London: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1958, page 924.
  11. ^ "International Narcotics Control Bureau, Technical Reports, 2008, Part IV, Statistical information on narcotic drugs" (PDF). Retrieved 30 December 2011. 
  12. ^ Kapoor L (1995). Opium Poppy: Botany, Chemistry, and pharmacology. United States: CRC Press. p. 164. ISBN 1-56024-923-4. 
  13. ^ hort.purdue.edu
  14. ^ a b c http://www.amazon.com/Solo-Poppy-Seed-Pastry-Filling/dp/B004LKC2CO/ref=sr_1_8_s_it?s=grocery&ie=UTF8&qid=1458304459&sr=1-8&keywords=poppy+seed+for+food
  15. ^ "Mahanandi » Gasagasalu ~ Bendakaaya". Nandyala.org. Retrieved 30 December 2011. 
  16. ^ Askitopoulou, Helen; Ramoutsaki, Ioanna A; Konsolaki, Eleni. "Archaeological evidence on the use of opium in the Minoan world". International Congress Series. ScienceDirect. 1242: 23–29. doi:10.1016/S0531-5131(02)00769-0. 
  17. ^ Faostat. Faostat.fao.org (2014-10-23). Retrieved on 2015-04-24.
  18. ^ Phillip, Rhodri, & Barry Wigmore (2007-07-14). "The painkilling fields: England's opium poppies that tackle the NHS morphine crisis". Evening Standard. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  19. ^ Controlled Drugs and Substances Act 1996 http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/c-38.8/
  20. ^ Misuse of Drugs Act 1981 (2015) http://www.slp.wa.gov.au/pco/prod/FileStore.nsf/Documents/MRDocument:28280P/$FILE/Misuse%20Of%20Drugs%20Act%201981%20-%20%5B06-e0-00%5D.pdf?OpenElement
  21. ^ McGrath, Ginny (2008-02-08). "Travellers who 'smuggle' poppy seeds face Dubai jail". The Times. UK. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  22. ^ Section 9(4) of the Misuse of Drugs Act states, "It shall be a defense to a charge under subsection (1) [Cultivation of prohibited plants] if the person charged proves that the prohibited plant to which the charge relates was of the species Papaver somniferum, and that it was not intended to be a source of any controlled drug or that it was not being developed as a strain from which a controlled drug could be produced.""New Zealand Legislation: Misuse of Drugs Act 1975". Retrieved 7 July 2012. 
  23. ^ page 4 of the Drug Policy Briefing nr. 29 by the Transnational Institute
  24. ^ Ayatollah. "Drug Scheduling". Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved 2009-09-02. 
  25. ^ "Bulletin on Narcotics – 1950 Issue 3 – 002". UNODC. Retrieved 30 December 2011. 
  26. ^ uscode.house.gov
  27. ^ "Controlled Substances Import and Export Act". Fda.gov. Retrieved 30 December 2011. 
  28. ^ "21 U.S.C. § 188 : US Code – Section 188 TO 188N: Repealed. Pub. L. 91-513, title III, Sec. 1101(a)(7), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1292". Codes.lp.findlaw.com. Retrieved 30 December 2011. 
  29. ^ "Poppy Flowers". Backyardnature.net. Retrieved 30 December 2011. 
  30. ^ wcl.american.edu
  31. ^ Association, American Bar (September 1952). "ABA Journal". 
  32. ^ "Poppin’ Up Poppies". Texasgardener.com. Retrieved 30 December 2011. 
  33. ^ "United States Code: Title 21,188 to 188n. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–513, title III, 1101(a)(7), Oct. 27, 1970, 84 Stat. 1292 | LII / Legal Information Institute". Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved 30 December 2011. 
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Bibliography

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