Play Video
1
Walking with Beasts - Land of Giants part 1
Walking with Beasts - Land of Giants part 1
::2010/03/31::
Play Video
2
Indricotherium Paraceratherium .
Indricotherium Paraceratherium .
::2012/10/24::
Play Video
3
Walking with Beasts - Paraceratherium
Walking with Beasts - Paraceratherium
::2013/06/22::
Play Video
4
Tribute to Indricotherium aka Baluchitherium aka Paraceratherium
Tribute to Indricotherium aka Baluchitherium aka Paraceratherium
::2009/07/23::
Play Video
5
Tribute to Baluchitherium (Indricotherium or Paraceratherium).
Tribute to Baluchitherium (Indricotherium or Paraceratherium).
::2014/07/25::
Play Video
6
beast size comparison
beast size comparison
::2013/05/21::
Play Video
7
Job 39 - The Giant Giraffe Rhinoceros
Job 39 - The Giant Giraffe Rhinoceros
::2011/04/24::
Play Video
8
10 Incredible Creatures Gone Extinct - Dead But Not Forgotten
10 Incredible Creatures Gone Extinct - Dead But Not Forgotten
::2014/01/28::
Play Video
9
Real Size Animatronic Paraceratherium,Original Size Ankylosaurus Skeleton
Real Size Animatronic Paraceratherium,Original Size Ankylosaurus Skeleton
::2014/02/22::
Play Video
10
Ice Age Animatronic Paraceratherium,Amusement Water Park Lifesize dinosaur
Ice Age Animatronic Paraceratherium,Amusement Water Park Lifesize dinosaur
::2014/02/21::
Play Video
11
Ice Age Animatronic Paraceratherium,Life Size Dinosaur Replica Stegosaurus Robot
Ice Age Animatronic Paraceratherium,Life Size Dinosaur Replica Stegosaurus Robot
::2014/02/21::
Play Video
12
Titanoboa: Monster Snake - Titanoboa vs. T-Rex
Titanoboa: Monster Snake - Titanoboa vs. T-Rex
::2012/03/21::
Play Video
13
Indricotherium habitat .
Indricotherium habitat .
::2012/10/24::
Play Video
14
Top 10: Biggest Land Mammals That Ever Walked The Earth
Top 10: Biggest Land Mammals That Ever Walked The Earth
::2013/11/02::
Play Video
15
Baluchitherium "One of the largest mammal on Earth"
Baluchitherium "One of the largest mammal on Earth"
::2013/07/01::
Play Video
16
Dünya
Dünya'nın En Büyük 10 Hayvan Türü
::2014/03/29::
Play Video
17
Dünya
Dünya'nın En Büyük 10 Hayvan Türü
::2014/06/18::
Play Video
18
Top 10 Biggest Animals on Earth in All Time
Top 10 Biggest Animals on Earth in All Time
::2014/02/21::
Play Video
19
Club Penguin: Night of the Living Sled [Redub](v2) (Club Penguin comedy)
Club Penguin: Night of the Living Sled [Redub](v2) (Club Penguin comedy)
::2014/04/12::
Play Video
20
Dünyanın En Pahalı 10 Hayvanı
Dünyanın En Pahalı 10 Hayvanı
::2014/03/09::
Play Video
21
Dünya
Dünya'nın En Büyük 10 Hayvan Türü
::2013/05/14::
Play Video
22
Custom Design Animal Model-Ice Age Exhibits
Custom Design Animal Model-Ice Age Exhibits
::2013/10/15::
Play Video
23
Yanni"Reasons for Rainbows" Largest Life II(1080p)
Yanni"Reasons for Rainbows" Largest Life II(1080p)
::2012/08/25::
Play Video
24
Prehistoric predators: Dinocrocuta (info in description)
Prehistoric predators: Dinocrocuta (info in description)
::2013/02/19::
Play Video
25
This is a World were Birds Eat Horses- (C) Walking with Beasts
This is a World were Birds Eat Horses- (C) Walking with Beasts
::2012/03/21::
Play Video
26
Fossil Fighters-Champions(DeSmuME/NDS Emulator)Gameplay
Fossil Fighters-Champions(DeSmuME/NDS Emulator)Gameplay
::2012/01/05::
Play Video
27
LifeForms: Walking with Beasts
LifeForms: Walking with Beasts
::2008/08/02::
Play Video
28
Carnivores : Ice Age - HD Gameplay [iPad/iPad2]
Carnivores : Ice Age - HD Gameplay [iPad/iPad2]
::2012/01/29::
Play Video
29
PDFC - Spinosaurus vs Ankylosaurus
PDFC - Spinosaurus vs Ankylosaurus
::2009/08/27::
Play Video
30
Let
Let's Play World Primeval Chapter 20
::2013/08/30::
Play Video
31
United States
United States's Badland National Park
::2011/10/24::
Play Video
32
Real Size Animatronic Animal,Simulation Fiberglass Dinosaur Triceratops
Real Size Animatronic Animal,Simulation Fiberglass Dinosaur Triceratops
::2014/02/22::
Play Video
33
Realistic Elephant,Museum Dinosaur Fossils Skeleton Hadrosaurs
Realistic Elephant,Museum Dinosaur Fossils Skeleton Hadrosaurs
::2014/02/22::
Play Video
34
dinosaur images
dinosaur images
::2009/07/21::
Play Video
35
BBC Walking with Beasts.flv
BBC Walking with Beasts.flv
::2010/04/11::
Play Video
36
Animatronic Carnotaurus,Replica Animal
Animatronic Carnotaurus,Replica Animal
::2014/02/19::
Play Video
37
Jurassic Park Builder - Elasmosaurus [Aquatic Park]  [Limited]
Jurassic Park Builder - Elasmosaurus [Aquatic Park] [Limited]
::2013/06/30::
Play Video
38
Battle arena - T-rex vs Raptor
Battle arena - T-rex vs Raptor
::2010/03/29::
Play Video
39
Indricotherium Körperbau Skellet Analyse  Körpermerkmale Analyse.
Indricotherium Körperbau Skellet Analyse Körpermerkmale Analyse.
::2014/07/28::
Play Video
40
Huge Animal Claws of Dinopark Landscape,Dino Alive Animatronic Tyrannosaurus Rex
Huge Animal Claws of Dinopark Landscape,Dino Alive Animatronic Tyrannosaurus Rex
::2014/02/21::
Play Video
41
Smilodon is the strongest land mammal carnivore in history .
Smilodon is the strongest land mammal carnivore in history .
::2012/10/25::
Play Video
42
van halen-baluchitherium (studio quality)
van halen-baluchitherium (studio quality)
::2009/08/26::
Play Video
43
Bull elephant vs Lion pride. Bull elephant SAVES BABY ELEPHANT AND DOMINATES LION PRIDE
Bull elephant vs Lion pride. Bull elephant SAVES BABY ELEPHANT AND DOMINATES LION PRIDE
::2010/01/05::
Play Video
44
Toot!Toot!
Toot!Toot!
::2009/10/06::
Play Video
45
10 Hours of the Walking With Beasts Theme
10 Hours of the Walking With Beasts Theme
::2012/09/29::
Play Video
46
spinosaur,vs wooly mammoth, vs 3 saber tooth tiger
spinosaur,vs wooly mammoth, vs 3 saber tooth tiger
::2011/05/13::
Play Video
47
Android Games 56- Carnivores: Ice Age APK [FWVGA]
Android Games 56- Carnivores: Ice Age APK [FWVGA]
::2013/01/16::
Play Video
48
Retro in Berlin Avetik
Retro in Berlin Avetik
::2010/06/02::
Play Video
49
White bear
White bear
::2009/04/24::
Play Video
50
Primeval Cast - Only Teardrops
Primeval Cast - Only Teardrops
::2013/07/19::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Paraceratherium
Temporal range: Oligocene, 34–23Ma
Indricotherium.jpg
Skeleton cast of P. transouralicum, National Museum of Nature and Science, Tokyo
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Perissodactyla
Family: Hyracodontidae
Subfamily: Indricotheriinae
Genus: Paraceratherium
Forster Cooper, 1911
Type species
Aceratherium bugtiense
Pilgrim, 1908
Species
  • P. bugtiense Pilgrim, 1908
  • P. transouralicum Pavlova, 1922
  • ?P. orgosensis Chiu, 1973
Synonyms

Paraceratherium, also commonly known as Indricotherium or Baluchitherium (see taxonomic discussion below), is an extinct genus of gigantic hornless rhinoceros-like mammals of the family Hyracodontidae, endemic to Eurasia and Asia during the Oligocene epoch. It is the largest terrestrial mammal known to have existed.

Taxonomy[edit]

Illustration of the holotype lower jaw of P. bugtiense, from Forster Cooper, 1911

The taxonomic history of Paraceratherium and the species within the genus is complex, due to the fragmentary nature of the known fossils, as well as the fact that western, Soviet and Chinese scientists worked in isolation from each other for much of the 20th century. Many genera were named by Russian and Chinese scientists on the basis of subtle differences in molar characteristics, features that otherwise vary within populations of other rhinos, and are therefore not accepted for distinguishing species by western scientists.[1]

A soldier named Vickaery brought back to London the first known indricothere fossils from Baluchistan in 1846, but these fragments were unidentifiable at the time.[2] The first fossils of Paraceratherium were discovered by Guy Ellcock Pilgrim during his time in British India in 1907–1908. His material consisted of an upper jaw, lower teeth, and the back of a jaw. They were collected in the Dera Bugti area of Balochistan in what is now Pakistan, south of the Siwalik Hills, where Pilgrim had previously been exploring. In 1908, he referred the species to the extinct rhino genus Aceratherium, as the new species A. bugtiense. Aceratherium was by then a wastebasket taxon which included several unrelated species of hornless rhinos, many of which have since been moved to other genera.[3][4]

In 1910, more material was discovered in Balochistan, during an expedition by the English paleontologist and Cambridge University Museum of Zoology director Sir Clive Forster Cooper.[5] Paraceratherium was first described by Forster Cooper in 1911. The genus Baluchitherium was first described by Forster Cooper in 1913. The genus Indricotherium was first described by Borissiak in 1915.

A: H. F. Osborn's 1923 skeletal restoration of P. transouralicum with proportions similar to those of a modern rhinoceros B: his later, long-limbed restoration

Baluchitherium is now widely regarded as a synonym of (i.e. the same as) either Paraceratherium or Indricotherium.[6] However, there has been disagreement over whether Indricotherium is a distinct genus from Paraceratherium. Lucas and Sobus in their 1989 review of the subfamily Indricotheriinae (see reference below), argue for synonymy, and consider that the differences between the two are of species level at most, and may even be the result of sexual dimorphism in a single species, with the larger more robust Indricotherium with larger incisors being probably the male, and the more gracile Paraceratherium the female. Others,[who?] however, have expressed doubts about this (concerning the interpretation of the shape of the skull). Even if these two do turn out to be distinct genera, they would still be similar in size and appearance.

If they are considered the same genus, then Indricotherium would become a junior synonym of Paraceratherium, because, according to the priority principle of scientific classification, the first publication, and hence the oldest valid name, takes priority and the name Paraceratherium predates the other.

Here Lucas and Sobus are followed. They consider Indricotherium, Baluchitherium, Thaumastotherium Forster Cooper, 1913a, Aralotherium Borissiak, 1939, and Dzungariotherium Xu and Wang, 1973 all as junior synonyms of Paraceratherium.

P. transouralicum skull cast mounted in a life-sized silhouette, AMNH

Lucas and Sobus recognise four valid species of Paraceratherium. The Paraceratherium species are: Paraceratherium bugtiense (Forster Cooper, 1911) from the Oligocene of Pakistan is the type species of Paraceratherium. Baluchitherium osborni Forster Cooper, 1913a is a junior synonym. It was first found in the Chitarwata Formation of the Bugti Hills, Balochistan, after which it was originally named. New specimens of P. bugtiense were unearthed in the last decade by a French-Pakistani team (Antoine et al., 2004; Métais et al., 2009). P. transouralicum (Pavlova, 1922). Also known as Indricotherium transouralicum, this is the best known and most widespread species, known from the middle and late Oligocene of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Nei Monggol in northern China. Lucas and Sobus list the following species as synonyms: Baluchitherium grangeri Osborn, 1923, Indricotherium asiaticum Borissiak, 1923, Indricotherium minus Borissiak, 1923. Paraceratherium orgosensis (Chiu, 1973) is the largest species, the teeth being at least a quarter again as big as P. transouralicum (see Lucas and Sobus p. 363/fig.19.2). It is known from the middle and late Oligocene of Xinjiang, northwest China. The three synonyms are Dzungariotherium orgosensis Chiu, 1973 and (each of the following named after a separate skull) Dzungariotherium turfanensis Xu & Wang, 1978 and Paraceratherium lipidus Xu & Wang, 1978. While there is some variation in details of the proportions of the skull (perhaps due to sexual dimorphism), all occur in a close geographical region and have distinct first and second upper molar crochets. Paraceratherium prohorovi (Borissiak, 1939) from the late Oligocene or early Miocene of eastern Kazakhstan. Paraceratherium zhajremensis (Osborn, 1923) from the Middle and late Oligocene of India.

Evolution[edit]

Comparison of the incisors of Amynodon, Paraceratherium, and Trigonias

The superfamily Rhinocerotoidae can be traced back to about 50 million years ago, in the Early Eocene period, with early precursors such as Hyrachyus. Rhinocerotoidea contains three families, the Amynodontidae, the Rhinocerotidae ("true rhinos"), and the Hyracodontidae. The diversity within the rhino group was much larger in prehistoric times, with sizes ranging from dog-sized to the size of Paraceratherium, with long-legged, cursorial forms, and squat, semi aquatic forms. Most species did not possess horns.[7]

Rhino fossils are identified as such mainly by characteristics of their teeth, which is the part of the animals most likely to be preserved. The upper molars of most rhinos are characteristic in having a pi (π) shaped pattern on the crown, whereas each lower molar has paired L-shapes. Skull features are also used for identification of fossil rhinos. The Indricotherinae subfamily, of which Paraceratherium belongs, are considered part of the Hyracodontidae, a group containing long legged members, adapted to running. All indricothere genera are known from Eurasia. The earliest known indricothere is the dog-sized Forstercooperia from the Middle and late Eocene. The dog-sized Juxia is known from the Middle Eocene, and by the Late Eocene, the genus Urtinotherium (U. incisivum was initially described as a species of Indricotherium) had almost reached the size of Paraceratherium.[7] Paraceratherium itself lived during the Oligocene period, 23 and 34 million years ago, a span of 11 million years.[8]

The cladogram below follows the 1989 analysis by Lucas and Sobus:



 Triplopodinae


 Indricotheriinae

 Forstercooperia




 Juxia




 Urtinotherium



 Paraceratherium






Indricotheres have traditionally been regarded as part of the hyracodontidae family, but Luke Holbrook found them to be outside this group in a 1999 study.[9]

Description[edit]

Size (dark grey) compared to that of a human and other rhinos

Paraceratherium is considered the largest known land mammal that has ever existed, but it's exact size is unclear, due to the lack of complete specimens. Early estimates of 30 tonnes are now considered exaggerated, and it may rather have been in the 15-20 ton range.[1] Estimates have been made based on skull, teeth, and upper limb bone measurements, each resulting in different weights.[10] Height has been estimated as 6 m (20 ft) tall at the shoulders.[8] 8.0 m (26.2 ft) in length from nose to rump.[11]

No complete set of vertebrae and ribs of Paraceratherium have yet been found, and the tail is completely unknown, which has proved hard to make composite reconstructions, as those elements that have been found belonged to individuals of different sizes. The atlas and axis vertebrae of the neck are wider than in most modern rhinos, with space for strong ligaments and muscles, which would be needed to hold up the large head. The rest of the vertebrae were also very wide, and large zygapophyses, with much room for muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves, to support the head, neck, and spine.[1] Like sauropod dinosaurs, Paraceratherium had pleurocoel-like openings in their presacral vertebrae, which may have helped to lighten the skeleton.[12] The neural spines were long, and formed a long "hump" along the back, where neck muscles and nuchal ligaments for holding up the skull were attached. The ribs were similar to those of modern rhinos, but the ribcage would have looked smaller in proportion to the long legs and large bodies, as modern rhinos are comparatively short limbed. The last vertebrae of the lower back was fused to the sacrum, a feature found in advanced rhinos.[1]

Restoration of P. bugtiense

The limbs were large and robust to support the large weight of the animal, and were in some ways similar to and convergent with those of elephants and sauropod dinosaurs with their likewise graviportal builds. Unlike such animals, which tend to lengthen the upper limb bones, while shortening, fusing and compressing the lower limb bones, hand and foot bones, Paraceratherium had short upper limb bones, and long hand and foot bones (except for the phalanges, which were disc-shaped), similar to the running rhinos which they descended from. Some foot bones were almost 50 cm (20 in) long. The thigh bones typically measured 1.5 m (5 ft), a size only exceeded by those of some elephants and dinosaurs. The thigh bones were pillar-like and much thicker and more robust than those of other rhinos, and the three trocanthers on the sides were much reduced, as this robustness diminished their importance. The limbs were held in a columnar posture instead of bent, as in smaller animals, which reduced the need for large limb muscles.[1]

Due to the fragmentary nature of known Paraceratherium fossils, the animal has been restored in several different ways since its discovery. In 1923, Osborn supervised an artist to draw a restoration of the skeleton based on the then even less complete specimens known by then, by using the proportions of a modern rhino as guide. The result was too squat and compact, and he had a more slender version drawn later the same year. There are no indications of the colour and skin texture of the animal, as no skin impressions or mummies are known, but most restorations show it as thick, folded, grey and hairless, based on modern rhinos. Hair holds in body heat, so large modern animals such as elephants and rhinos are largely hairless. The American palaeontologist Donald Prothero has proposed that, contrary to most depictions, Paraceratherium had large, elephant-like ears, used for thermoregulation. The ears of elephants enlarge the body surface and are full of blood vessels, which makes it easier for them to release excess heat. Prothero believes this would have been true for Paraceratherium as well, and also points to it having robust bones around the ear openings.[1] The palaeontologists Pierre-Olivier Antoine and Darren Naish have expressed scepticism towards this idea.[13][14]

Skull[edit]

P. transouralicum skull, American Museum of Natural History

The largest skulls of supposed male Paraceratherium measure around 1.3 metres (5 ft) long, 33-38 cm at the back of the skull, and 61 cm (2 ft) wide across by the zygomatic arches. Skulls of supposed females were almost as large. Paraceratherium had a long, domed forehead, which was smooth and lacked the roughened area that serves as attachment point for the horns of other rhinos. The bones above the nasal region are long, and the nasal incision goes far into the skull. This indicates that Paraceratherium had a prehensile upper lip, similar to the black rhino and the Indian rhino, or a short proboscis or trunk, as in tapirs. The back of the skull was low and narrow, without the large lambdoid crests at the top, which are found in horned and tusked animals which need strong muscles to push and fight. The occipital condyle was very wide, and Paraceratherium appears to have had large and strong neck muscles, which allowed it to sweep the head strongly downwards, while foraging from branches.[1]

Upper teeth of P. transouralicum, Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris

Unlike most primitive rhinos, the front teeth of Paraceratherium were reduced to a single pair of incisors in either jaw, which were large and conical, and have been described as tusks. The upper incisors pointed downwards, while the lower ones were shorter and pointed forwards. Among known rhinos, this arrangement is unique to Paraceratherium and the related Urtinotherium. The canines otherwise found behind the incisors were lost.[1]

The incisors were separated from the row of cheek teeth by a large diastema (gap). The upper molars had a pi (π) shaped pattern, except for the third upper molar, which was V-shaped, and had a reduced metastyle. The premolars only partially formed the pi pattern Each molar was the size of a human fist, and among mammals they were only exceeded in size by elephants, though they were small relative to the size of the skull. The lower cheek teeth were L-shaped, which is typical of rhinos.[1]

Palaeobiology[edit]

Hind foot of P. transouralicum, AMNH

The best living analogues for Paraceratherium may be elephants, rhinos and hippos, due to their large size. To aid in thermoregulation, these animals cool down during the day by resting in the shade, or by wallowing in water and mud. They also forage and move mainly at night. Due to its large size, Paraceratherium would not have been able to run and move fast, but they would have been able to move across large distance, which they would need in an environment with scarce food. They may therefore have had large home ranges, and performed migrations. Adult individuals would be too large for most predators, but the young would have been vulnerable. Bite marks on bones from the Bugti beds indicate that even adults may have been preyed upon by 10-11 metre (33-36 ft) large crocodiles, Crocodylus bugtiensis. Like in elephants, the gestation period of Paraceratherium may have been long, and individuals may have had long lifespans.[1] Paraceratherium may have lived in small herds, perhaps consisting of females and their calves, which they protected from predators.[8] Movement, sound and other behaviour seen in CGI documentaries such as "Walking With Beasts" are entirely conjectural.[1]

Diet[edit]

Restoration of a foraging P. transouralicum with calf

The simple, low crowned teeth indicate that Paraceratherium was a browser with a diet consisting of relatively soft leaves and shrubs. Later rhinos are grazers and instead have high crowned teeth due to their diet containing grit, which quickly wears down their teeth. Studies of mesowear on Paraceratherium teeth confirm a soft diet of leaves, but microwear studies have yet to be conducted.[1] Isotope analysis show that Paraceratherium fed chiefly on C3 plants, which is mainly leaves.[15] Like its perissodactyl relatives, the horses, tapirs and other rhinos, Paraceratherium would had been a hindgut fermenter, which means it would extract relatively little nutrition from its food, and would have to eat large volumes to survive. Like other large herbivores, Paraceratherium would have had a large digestive tract and gut.[1]

It has been argued that the large incisors were used for defence, or for jerking loose shrubs by moving the neck downwards, thereby acting as picks and levers. Tapirs use their proboscis to wrap around branches while stripping off bark with the front teeth, and such a feature would have been helpful to Paraceratherium as well.[1] Herds of Paraceratherium may have moved from area to area, while continuously foraging from tall trees, which smaller mammals could not reach.[8]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Locations of fossil finds

Remains referable to Paraceratherium or related taxa were found in Southeastern Europe and Asia Minor, notably in Turkey.[16][17][18][19]

The habitat of Paraceratherium appears to have varied from arid desert basin with few tall trees and brush, to woody shrubland, and dry, temperate to subtropical forest.[8]

The Oligocene fauna which coexisted with Paraceratherium included various other rhinos, artiodactyls, rodents, beardogs, weasels, hyaenodonts, nimravids and cats. Most predators in their habitat were relatively small, and therefore not a threat. It is unknown why Paraceratherium went extinct after surviving for 11 million years, but it is unlikely that one factor was the single cause.[8] Theories include climate change, low reproduction rate, and invasion by gomphothere proboscideans from Africa in the late Oligocene. These may have been able to change the habitats they entered considerably, like African elephants do today, by turning forests into grasslands by destroying the trees of an area. Once their food source became scarcer and their populations dwindled, Paraceratherium populations would have become more vulnerable to various other threats.[20] Large predators like Hyaenaelurus and Amphicyon also entered Asia from Africa during the early Miocene, and these may have preyed upon Paraceratherium calves. Other herbivores invaded Asia during this time as well.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Prothero, 2013. pp. 87–106
  2. ^ Prothero, 2013. pp. 35–52
  3. ^ Prothero, 2013. pp. 17–34
  4. ^ Pilgrim, G. E. (1910). "Notices of new mammalian genera and species from the Tertiaries of India". Records of the Geological Survey of India 40 (1): 63–71. 
  5. ^ Forster-Cooper, C. (1911). "LXXVIII.—Paraceratherium bugtiense, a new genus of Rhinocerotidae from the Bugti Hills of Baluchistan.—Preliminary notice". Journal of Natural History Series 8 8 (48): 711. doi:10.1080/00222931108693085.  edit
  6. ^ Lucas, S. G.; Sobus, J. C. (1989), "The Systematics of Indricotheres", in Prothero, D. R.; Schoch, R. M., The Evolution of Perissodactyls, New York, New York & Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, pp. 358–378, ISBN 978-0-19-506039-3, OCLC 19268080 
  7. ^ a b Prothero, 2013. pp. 53–66
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Prothero, 2013. pp. 107–121
  9. ^ Holbrook, L. (1999). "The Phylogeny and Classification of Tapiromorph Perissodactyls (Mammalia)". Cladistics 15 (3): 331. doi:10.1006/clad.1999.0107.  edit
  10. ^ Fortelius, M.; Kappelman, J. (1993). "The largest land mammal ever imagined". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 108: 85. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.1993.tb02560.x.  edit
  11. ^ Tsubamoto, Takehisa (2012). "Estimating body mass from the astragalus in mammals". Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. doi:10.4202/app.2011.0067.  edit
  12. ^ Sander, P. M.; Christian, A.; Clauss, M.; Fechner, R.; Gee, C. T.; Griebeler, E. M.; Gunga, H. C.; Hummel, J. R.; Mallison, H.; Perry, S. F.; Preuschoft, H.; Rauhut, O. W. M.; Remes, K.; Tütken, T.; Wings, O.; Witzel, U. (2011). "Biology of the sauropod dinosaurs: The evolution of gigantism". Biological Reviews 86 (1): 117–55. doi:10.1111/j.1469-185X.2010.00137.x. PMC 3045712. PMID 21251189.  edit
  13. ^ Antoine, P. O. (2014). "There were giants upon the earth in those days". Palaeovertebrata 38: 1–3. 
  14. ^ http://blogs.scientificamerican.com/tetrapod-zoology/2013/06/29/tet-zoo-bookshelf/
  15. ^ Martin, C.; Bentaleb, I.; Antoine, P. -O. (2011). "Pakistan mammal tooth stable isotopes show paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes since the early Oligocene". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 311: 19. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.07.010.  edit
  16. ^ Sen, S.; Antoine, P. O.; Varol, B.; Ayyildiz, T.; Sözeri, K. (2011). "Giant rhinoceros Paraceratherium and other vertebrates from Oligocene and middle Miocene deposits of the Kağızman-Tuzluca Basin, Eastern Turkey". Naturwissenschaften 98 (5): 407–23. doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0786-z. PMID 21465174.  edit
  17. ^ Antoine, P. O.; Ibrahim Shah, S. M.; Cheema, I. U.; Crochet, J. Y.; Franceschi, D. D.; Marivaux, L.; Métais, G. G.; Welcomme, J. L. (2004). "New remains of the baluchithere Paraceratherium bugtiense from the Late/latest Oligocene of the Bugti hills, Balochistan, Pakistan". Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 24: 71. doi:10.1016/j.jaes.2003.09.005.  edit
  18. ^ Antoine, P. O.; Karadenizli, L.; Saraç, G. E.; Sen, S. (2008). "A giant rhinocerotoid (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from the Late Oligocene of north-central Anatolia (Turkey)". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 152 (3): 581. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2007.00366.x.  edit
  19. ^ Métais, G. G.; Antoine, P. O.; Baqri, S. R. H.; Crochet, J. Y.; De Franceschi, D.; Marivaux, L.; Welcomme, J. L. (2009). "Lithofacies, depositional environments, regional biostratigraphy and age of the Chitarwata Formation in the Bugti Hills, Balochistan, Pakistan". Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 34 (2): 154. doi:10.1016/j.jseaes.2008.04.006.  edit
  20. ^ Putshkov, P. V. (2001). ""Proboscidean agent" of some Tertiary megafaunal extinctions". Terra degli elefanti Congresso internazionale: The world of elephants: 133–136. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Prothero, D. (2013). Rhinoceros Giants: The Palaeobiology of Indricotheres. Indiana: Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-00819-0. 
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014