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Sea Bath, South 24 Parganas ,West Bengal, India
Sea Bath, South 24 Parganas ,West Bengal, India
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: dbiswas
#AIMIM_BENGAL  Marwarikal, Naihati 24 pargana Bengal me halat bahut krarab hai. bomb goli chal raha
#AIMIM_BENGAL Marwarikal, Naihati 24 pargana Bengal me halat bahut krarab hai. bomb goli chal raha
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: Aimim Kolkatta
south 24 pargana news
south 24 pargana news
Published: 2016/04/29
Channel: 24 ghanta
lathi charge north 24 pargana habra vote  HD 1080p
lathi charge north 24 pargana habra vote HD 1080p
Published: 2015/09/29
Channel: Tubai Das
Santal Pargana Sona Dissom ....Stage Performance
Santal Pargana Sona Dissom ....Stage Performance
Published: 2017/03/12
Channel: Santal Pargana JOHAR
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part I (Hindi)
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part I (Hindi)
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: Tivra Academy
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part II (Hindi)
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part II (Hindi)
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: Tivra Academy
Visit to Kamarpole [South 24 Parganas, West Bengal]
Visit to Kamarpole [South 24 Parganas, West Bengal]
Published: 2015/06/10
Channel: Avik Saha in Community
CM Mamata issues warning to South 24 Parganas DM over 100 days work
CM Mamata issues warning to South 24 Parganas DM over 100 days work
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: ABP ANANDA
Amazing Tourist Spot Bakkhali Sea Beach, Namkhana, South 24 Parganas, India
Amazing Tourist Spot Bakkhali Sea Beach, Namkhana, South 24 Parganas, India
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: Amazing India
Sea Bathing Video of Bakkhali Sea,Namkhana, South 24 pargana,West Bengal
Sea Bathing Video of Bakkhali Sea,Namkhana, South 24 pargana,West Bengal
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: dbiswas
Voilation of Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act, 1949 by Jharkhand govenment
Voilation of Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act, 1949 by Jharkhand govenment
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: VideoVolunteers
IMRAN NAZAR MIDH PARGANA.wmv
IMRAN NAZAR MIDH PARGANA.wmv
Published: 2011/12/14
Channel: SHAUKET GONDAL RUKKAN
SP of North 24 Pargana on arrest of Shyamal Karmakar main accused of Bamangachi case
SP of North 24 Pargana on arrest of Shyamal Karmakar main accused of Bamangachi case
Published: 2014/07/09
Channel: ABP ANANDA
Tuzla: Promocija knjige "Tradicija Bosne i Hercegovine - zanati˝ Mehmeda Pargana
Tuzla: Promocija knjige "Tradicija Bosne i Hercegovine - zanati˝ Mehmeda Pargana
Published: 2016/08/18
Channel: wwwTuzlarijenet
Claudia Pargana / Sara Franco - Sarau 2016
Claudia Pargana / Sara Franco - Sarau 2016
Published: 2016/07/10
Channel: Fernando Pargana
Battleground Bhangore in South 24 pargana District at West Bengal.
Battleground Bhangore in South 24 pargana District at West Bengal.
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: newswelle live
Kolkata output 24 Pargana khana ban gaila Tu Pyar Badha Bangla
Kolkata output 24 Pargana khana ban gaila Tu Pyar Badha Bangla
Published: 2017/01/03
Channel: Arman Mondol
24 pargana village masacare
24 pargana village masacare
Published: 2016/06/09
Channel: 24 ghanta
Otyacher by Baruipur Police SOUTH 24-PARGANA West Bengal
Otyacher by Baruipur Police SOUTH 24-PARGANA West Bengal
Published: 2017/02/14
Channel: Pchandra pramanick
Top 10 Crime | Protest in south 24 Pargana after businessman killed in the area
Top 10 Crime | Protest in south 24 Pargana after businessman killed in the area
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: Zee News
Hindu - Muslim riots in Hajinagar, Naihati, 24 pargana, west Bengal.
Hindu - Muslim riots in Hajinagar, Naihati, 24 pargana, west Bengal.
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Manprit Singh
Destroyed Pakistan.. From:North 24 pargana,Habra,Banipur
Destroyed Pakistan.. From:North 24 pargana,Habra,Banipur
Published: 2016/09/21
Channel: John Nandi
South 24 Pargana villagers tensed with salt water spoiling the crops
South 24 Pargana villagers tensed with salt water spoiling the crops
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: 24 ghanta
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana Sabadell Tango
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana Sabadell Tango
Published: 2012/10/08
Channel: Claudio Crecciente
Fire breaks out at chemical factory in 24 Pargana
Fire breaks out at chemical factory in 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: ABP NEWS
Hasnabad, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal
Hasnabad, North 24 Parganas, West Bengal
Published: 2016/11/28
Channel: Priyankar Dasgupta
South 24 Pargana water barricades brakes down due to heavy water flow
South 24 Pargana water barricades brakes down due to heavy water flow
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: 24 ghanta
Santhal Pargana can develop only if it gets free of JMM: BJP
Santhal Pargana can develop only if it gets free of JMM: BJP
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Pradesh18 English
Majhi Pargana baba ko,chet chalak kana atu dishom re??
Majhi Pargana baba ko,chet chalak kana atu dishom re??
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: BAHA TV
Hijla Mela 2017 (Santal Pargana)1
Hijla Mela 2017 (Santal Pargana)1
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: Rajmohan Baskey
South 24 Pargana witnesses death of another Mathurapur district resident
South 24 Pargana witnesses death of another Mathurapur district resident
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: 24 ghanta
Dakkhin 24 Pargana District Exit Poll For 2016 West Bengal Assembly Election
Dakkhin 24 Pargana District Exit Poll For 2016 West Bengal Assembly Election
Published: 2016/05/16
Channel: Political Bengal
Bangal ke 24 Pargana Jile Me Fela Tanav
Bangal ke 24 Pargana Jile Me Fela Tanav
Published: 2017/06/18
Channel: Sudarshan News
Again clash flare up in North 24 Pargana College
Again clash flare up in North 24 Pargana College
Published: 2012/07/06
Channel: ABP ANANDA
GARDEN REACH WARD NO.1 MAI MAHESHTALA SOUTH 24 PARGANA ME MANDIR ME BEEF RAKKHA GAYA
GARDEN REACH WARD NO.1 MAI MAHESHTALA SOUTH 24 PARGANA ME MANDIR ME BEEF RAKKHA GAYA
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: Jp Gupta
Santal Pargana Tenancy Act 1949 संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम Part I Hindi
Santal Pargana Tenancy Act 1949 संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम Part I Hindi
Published: 2016/12/08
Channel: Sibdas Baskey
AÇÃO 1: comentários de Fernanda Pargana (TVI24)
AÇÃO 1: comentários de Fernanda Pargana (TVI24)
Published: 2015/05/14
Channel: BCSD Portugal
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 3
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 3
Published: 2011/04/10
Channel: twocirclesTV
Majhi Pargana Mahal 2016 onda Annual Conference-Part-4
Majhi Pargana Mahal 2016 onda Annual Conference-Part-4
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: STUDIO HARAMBA
Anti-land Acquisition Protest Turns Violent In West Bengal’s South 24 Parganas Village, Two Dead
Anti-land Acquisition Protest Turns Violent In West Bengal’s South 24 Parganas Village, Two Dead
Published: 2017/01/18
Channel: Aaj Tak
plastic egg found in north24 pargana
plastic egg found in north24 pargana
Published: 2017/04/02
Channel: Bangla Hunt
Jagaddal...purwasa...ka barh. 24 pargana(N)
Jagaddal...purwasa...ka barh. 24 pargana(N)
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: Mohammed imran
hindu muslim riots in kolkata north 24 parganas naihati
hindu muslim riots in kolkata north 24 parganas naihati
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: indian first
CBI raids several chitfund office in North 24 Pargana
CBI raids several chitfund office in North 24 Pargana
Published: 2015/01/17
Channel: ABP ANANDA
Fernanda Pargana no Prós e Contras
Fernanda Pargana no Prós e Contras
Published: 2014/11/20
Channel: BCSD Portugal
Majhi Pargana Midun Gujurgadia Enej seren
Majhi Pargana Midun Gujurgadia Enej seren
Published: 2014/07/23
Channel: Aampakumar Hembrom
24 pargana people in trouble as house burnt
24 pargana people in trouble as house burnt
Published: 2016/06/09
Channel: 24 ghanta
SOUTH 24 PARGANA COURT
SOUTH 24 PARGANA COURT
Published: 2016/08/24
Channel: poulami das
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 7
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 7
Published: 2011/04/09
Channel: twocirclesTV
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A pargana (Hindi: परगना, parganā), or parganah, also spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj,[1] is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms.

Parganas were introduced by the Delhi Sultanate, and the word is of Persian origin. As a revenue unit, a pargana consists of several mouzas, which are the smallest revenue units, consisting of one or more villages and the surrounding countryside. Subdivisions of parganas were called Mouzas (area, settlements).

Under the reign of Sher Shah Suri, administration of parganas was strengthened by the addition of other officers, including a shiqdar (police chief), an amin or munsif (an arbitrator who assessed and collected revenue) and a karkun (record keeper).

Mughal era[edit]

In the 16th century the Mughal emperor Akbar organised the empire into subahs, which were further subdivided into sarkars, roughly the equivalent of districts, which were themselves organised into parganas. In the Mughal system, parganas served as the local administrative units of a sarkar. Individual parganas observed common customs regarding land rights and responsibilities, which were known as the pargana dastur, and each pargana had its own customs regarding rent, fees, wages, and weights and measures, known as the pargana nirikh.[2]

British Raj[edit]

As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, but, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favour of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, and abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh. British administration consisted of districts, which were divided into tehsils or taluks. Parganas remained important as a geographical term, persisting in land surveys, village identification, court decrees, etc.

Post independence[edit]

The pargana system persisted in several princely states, including Tonk and Gwalior. Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "A Catalogue of Manuscript and Printed Reports, Field Books, Memoirs, Maps ..." Vol. iv, "Containing the treaties, etc., relating to the states within the Bombay presidency"
  2. ^ Sirajul Islam (2012), "Pargana", in Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal, Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.), Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 

References[edit]

  • Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, et al. (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 12. 1908-1931; Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Markovits, Claude (ed.) (2004). A History of Modern India: 1480-1950. Anthem Press, London.

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