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1
Joy Nagar ,villages - Kultoli , Gav Tola . South 24 pargana ,west Bengal . India
Joy Nagar ,villages - Kultoli , Gav Tola . South 24 pargana ,west Bengal . India
::2012/04/08::
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2
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana, Remembranza
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana, Remembranza
::2013/05/05::
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3
Daughter found after 22 years in South 24 Parganas
Daughter found after 22 years in South 24 Parganas
::2012/09/17::
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4
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana Sabadell Tango
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana Sabadell Tango
::2012/10/08::
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5
Crazy in Love (gamas, cardoso, pargana)
Crazy in Love (gamas, cardoso, pargana)
::2012/10/21::
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6
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana
::2011/09/29::
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7
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 2
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 2
::2011/04/08::
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8
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana
::2011/05/26::
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9
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana "Milongueando en el ´40"
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana "Milongueando en el ´40"
::2011/11/03::
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10
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana "Corazón no le hagas caso"
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana "Corazón no le hagas caso"
::2012/04/30::
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11
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana en Milonga del Angel
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana en Milonga del Angel
::2013/12/01::
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12
Mulnibasi Fraternity Programme organised by MAJHI PARGANA GAONTA 2014
Mulnibasi Fraternity Programme organised by MAJHI PARGANA GAONTA 2014
::2014/02/26::
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13
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana bailan para "Ricomincio da te" 1
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana bailan para "Ricomincio da te" 1
::2013/04/23::
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14
TMP worker killed at a party office at Ghola, North 24 pargana.
TMP worker killed at a party office at Ghola, North 24 pargana.
::2013/10/17::
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15
NORTH 24 PARGANA ZALA CONFERENCE .mp4
NORTH 24 PARGANA ZALA CONFERENCE .mp4
::2012/08/13::
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16
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 7
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 7
::2011/04/09::
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17
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana, Milonga Criolla
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana, Milonga Criolla
::2014/04/03::
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18
N.24 Pargana gold update
N.24 Pargana gold update
::2014/03/13::
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19
Left rally coming from N 24 Pargana to attain Brigade meeting
Left rally coming from N 24 Pargana to attain Brigade meeting
::2014/02/09::
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20
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-6.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-6.mp4
::2010/12/30::
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21
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana bailan para "Ricomincio da te" 2
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana bailan para "Ricomincio da te" 2
::2013/04/24::
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22
Diana Morris y Martín Pargana en Luz de Gas
Diana Morris y Martín Pargana en Luz de Gas
::2009/08/02::
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23
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-2.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-2.mp4
::2010/12/30::
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24
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 3
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 3
::2011/04/08::
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25
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 4
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 4
::2011/04/08::
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26
Tango - Diana Morris y Martín Pargana en el programa Redes de TVE
Tango - Diana Morris y Martín Pargana en el programa Redes de TVE
::2009/08/04::
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27
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 4
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 4
::2011/04/10::
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28
Bangal ke 24 Pargana Jile Me Fela Tanav
Bangal ke 24 Pargana Jile Me Fela Tanav
::2013/02/19::
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29
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 06
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 06
::2012/09/13::
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30
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-1.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-1.mp4
::2010/12/30::
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31
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-3.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-3.mp4
::2010/12/30::
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32
TANGO DESIGN  Andrea Ballestrero  y  Martin Pargana 5115
TANGO DESIGN Andrea Ballestrero y Martin Pargana 5115
::2012/11/17::
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33
Diana Morris y Martín Pargana en Málaga
Diana Morris y Martín Pargana en Málaga
::2009/08/03::
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34
Diana Morris y Martín Pargana con el Trío Argentino de Tango
Diana Morris y Martín Pargana con el Trío Argentino de Tango
::2009/08/02::
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35
"O MADHU"- by LOKESH GIRI [Live at Joynagar ,(S)24 Pargana, (W.B) India ]15th November 2013.
"O MADHU"- by LOKESH GIRI [Live at Joynagar ,(S)24 Pargana, (W.B) India ]15th November 2013.
::2013/11/28::
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36
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-8.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-8.mp4
::2010/12/30::
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37
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 05
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 05
::2012/09/13::
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38
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 02
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 02
::2012/09/13::
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39
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 08
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 08
::2012/09/13::
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40
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 2
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 2
::2011/04/10::
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41
Black Foot Disease-1 (India, West Bengal, North 24 Parganas).mp4
Black Foot Disease-1 (India, West Bengal, North 24 Parganas).mp4
::2011/10/31::
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42
Anamar - Não é Pecado | Video by Giorgio Kaleph Pargana
Anamar - Não é Pecado | Video by Giorgio Kaleph Pargana
::2012/08/19::
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43
Granate Acùstico. C.Pargana
Granate Acùstico. C.Pargana
::2013/03/02::
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44
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-4.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-4.mp4
::2010/12/30::
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45
Balanço do Festival do Crato com Dr Luis Pargana
Balanço do Festival do Crato com Dr Luis Pargana
::2013/10/21::
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46
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 1
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 1
::2011/04/10::
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47
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 6
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 6
::2011/04/09::
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48
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 03
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 03
::2012/09/13::
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49
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 01
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 01
::2012/09/13::
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50
"Making of" entrevista SIC - Luís Pargana
"Making of" entrevista SIC - Luís Pargana
::2013/09/10::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A pargana (Hindi: परगना, parganā) is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms.

Parganas were introduced by the Delhi Sultanate, and the word is of Persian origin. As a revenue unit, a pargana consists of several mouzas, which are the smallest revenue units, consisting of one or more villages and the surrounding countryside. Larger subdivisions of parganas were called tarafs (quarters, districts).

Under the reign of Sher Shah Suri, administration of parganas was strengthened by the addition of other officers, including a shiqdar (police chief), an amin or munsif (an arbitrator who assessed and collected revenue) and a karkun (record keeper).

Mughal era[edit]

In the 16th century the Mughal emperor Akbar organised the empire into subahs, which were further subdivided into sarkars, roughly the equivalent of districts, which were themselves organised into parganas. In the Mughal system, parganas served as the local administrative units of a sarkar. Individual parganas observed common customs regarding land rights and responsibilities, which were known as the pargana dastur, and each pargana had its own customs regarding rent, fees, wages, and weights and measures, known as the pargana nirikh.

British Raj[edit]

As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, but, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favour of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, and abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh. British administration consisted of districts, which were divided into tehsils or taluks. Parganas remained important as a geographical term, persisting in land surveys, village identification, court decrees, etc.

Post independence[edit]

The pargana system persisted in several princely states, including Tonk and Gwalior. Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.

References[edit]

  • Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, et al. (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 12. 1908-1931; Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Markovits, Claude (ed.) (2004). A History of Modern India: 1480-1950. Anthem Press, London.

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