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south 24 pargana news
south 24 pargana news
Published: 2016/04/29
Channel: 24 ghanta
Sea Bath, South 24 Parganas ,West Bengal, India
Sea Bath, South 24 Parganas ,West Bengal, India
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: dbiswas
Santal Pargana Sona Dissom ....Stage Performance
Santal Pargana Sona Dissom ....Stage Performance
Published: 2017/03/12
Channel: JOHAR Santal Paraganas
#AIMIM_BENGAL  Marwarikal, Naihati 24 pargana Bengal me halat bahut krarab hai. bomb goli chal raha
#AIMIM_BENGAL Marwarikal, Naihati 24 pargana Bengal me halat bahut krarab hai. bomb goli chal raha
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: Aimim Kolkatta
lathi charge north 24 pargana habra vote  HD 1080p
lathi charge north 24 pargana habra vote HD 1080p
Published: 2015/09/29
Channel: Tubai Das
floods in india - floods in south 24 parganas map of west bengal
floods in india - floods in south 24 parganas map of west bengal
Published: 2016/09/20
Channel: Happy Sunrise
Mamata Banerjee slams West Bengal governor for insulting her
Mamata Banerjee slams West Bengal governor for insulting her
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Zee News
Baduria in North 24 parganas
Baduria in North 24 parganas
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: newswelle live
Hijla Mela 2017 Dumka, (Santal Pargana)3  hongkong.
Hijla Mela 2017 Dumka, (Santal Pargana)3 hongkong.
Published: 2017/02/18
Channel: Rajmohan Baskey
Sea Bathing Video of Bakkhali Sea,Namkhana, South 24 pargana,West Bengal
Sea Bathing Video of Bakkhali Sea,Namkhana, South 24 pargana,West Bengal
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: dbiswas
Hindu - Muslim riots in Hajinagar, Naihati, 24 pargana, west Bengal.
Hindu - Muslim riots in Hajinagar, Naihati, 24 pargana, west Bengal.
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Manprit Singh
Hijla Mela 2017 (Santal Pargana)1
Hijla Mela 2017 (Santal Pargana)1
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: Rajmohan Baskey
06 08 2017 Uttar24 pargana, kacharapara WB satsang 5am
06 08 2017 Uttar24 pargana, kacharapara WB satsang 5am
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: zamana badalega
6 Santal Pargana - Jhumur Dance - Sal Tale Bela
6 Santal Pargana - Jhumur Dance - Sal Tale Bela
Published: 2013/05/23
Channel: Sourav Chanda
Destroyed Pakistan.. From:North 24 pargana,Habra,Banipur
Destroyed Pakistan.. From:North 24 pargana,Habra,Banipur
Published: 2016/09/21
Channel: John Nandi
Short Film Festival Indoor Stadium Santal Pargana Dumka
Short Film Festival Indoor Stadium Santal Pargana Dumka
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: DKHembrom
Facebook Post Create Riot Like Situation At Baduria North 24 Pargana
Facebook Post Create Riot Like Situation At Baduria North 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Kolkatatoday
Claudia Pargana / Sara Franco - Sarau 2016
Claudia Pargana / Sara Franco - Sarau 2016
Published: 2016/07/10
Channel: Fernando Pargana
s24 pargana rape attempt
s24 pargana rape attempt
Published: 2013/07/01
Channel: ABP ANANDA
Top 10 Crime | Protest in south 24 Pargana after businessman killed in the area
Top 10 Crime | Protest in south 24 Pargana after businessman killed in the area
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: Zee News
Exclusive video from beginning of Hindu Muslim Riots in Basirhat 24 Pargana Bengal | Basirhat Riots
Exclusive video from beginning of Hindu Muslim Riots in Basirhat 24 Pargana Bengal | Basirhat Riots
Published: 2017/07/08
Channel: Andolan News Network
Public Forum : 24 Pargana Charged (05/07/2017)
Public Forum : 24 Pargana Charged (05/07/2017)
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Lok Sabha TV
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-3.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-3.mp4
Published: 2010/12/30
Channel: Bharat Swabhiman
Two communities fought over a facebook post in 24 Pargana, West Bengal
Two communities fought over a facebook post in 24 Pargana, West Bengal
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: APN NEWS
West Bengal New 24 pargana danga hinduo par hamla
West Bengal New 24 pargana danga hinduo par hamla
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Viral India
24 pargana people in trouble as house burnt
24 pargana people in trouble as house burnt
Published: 2016/06/09
Channel: 24 ghanta
Battleground Bhangore in South 24 pargana District at West Bengal.
Battleground Bhangore in South 24 pargana District at West Bengal.
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: newswelle live
SOUTH 24 PARGANA COURT
SOUTH 24 PARGANA COURT
Published: 2016/08/24
Channel: poulami das
Decoding North 24-Pargana
Decoding North 24-Pargana
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: Go News 24x7 India
GARDEN REACH WARD NO.1 MAI MAHESHTALA SOUTH 24 PARGANA ME MANDIR ME BEEF RAKKHA GAYA
GARDEN REACH WARD NO.1 MAI MAHESHTALA SOUTH 24 PARGANA ME MANDIR ME BEEF RAKKHA GAYA
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: Jp Gupta
West Bengal North 24 Pargana
West Bengal North 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: Joy 7699
Jai Shri Ram Jai Shri my hearty Uttar 24 Pargana Haji Nagar
Jai Shri Ram Jai Shri my hearty Uttar 24 Pargana Haji Nagar
Published: 2017/04/09
Channel: Rahul Sharma
South 24 Pargana villagers tensed with salt water spoiling the crops
South 24 Pargana villagers tensed with salt water spoiling the crops
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: 24 ghanta
TMC Leader Calls Garden Reach of 24 Pargana in Bengal as
TMC Leader Calls Garden Reach of 24 Pargana in Bengal as 'Mini-Pakistan'
Published: 2016/04/30
Channel: IndiaTV
shapath nirmal uttar 24 pargana
shapath nirmal uttar 24 pargana
Published: 2016/08/17
Channel: Nirmal Chakraborty
hajinagar 24 pargana ka pulis mhila ko goli mara
hajinagar 24 pargana ka pulis mhila ko goli mara
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: Bharti Ramesh
Tiago Pargana plays Gigue BWV Bach 995
Tiago Pargana plays Gigue BWV Bach 995
Published: 2010/09/14
Channel: Icebeam1stRacer
24 pargana kagdip
24 pargana kagdip
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: Swapan Khatua
Joy Nagar ,villages - Kultoli , Gav Tola . South 24 pargana ,west Bengal . India
Joy Nagar ,villages - Kultoli , Gav Tola . South 24 pargana ,west Bengal . India
Published: 2012/04/08
Channel: panchamlike
Santhal Pargana can develop only if it gets free of JMM: BJP
Santhal Pargana can develop only if it gets free of JMM: BJP
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Pradesh18 English
Fire breaks out at chemical factory in 24 Pargana
Fire breaks out at chemical factory in 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: ABP NEWS
Voilation of Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act, 1949 by Jharkhand govenment
Voilation of Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act, 1949 by Jharkhand govenment
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: VideoVolunteers
South 24 Pargana witnesses death of another Mathurapur district resident
South 24 Pargana witnesses death of another Mathurapur district resident
Published: 2016/08/02
Channel: 24 ghanta
Martín Pargana y Andrea Ballestero, Gallo Ciego.
Martín Pargana y Andrea Ballestero, Gallo Ciego.
Published: 2017/05/27
Channel: Martin Andrea
24 pargana(west bengel).police support rss.vhp.bjp.ye hai rss ka asli chehra
24 pargana(west bengel).police support rss.vhp.bjp.ye hai rss ka asli chehra
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: md shadab
SP of North 24 Pargana on arrest of Shyamal Karmakar main accused of Bamangachi case
SP of North 24 Pargana on arrest of Shyamal Karmakar main accused of Bamangachi case
Published: 2014/07/09
Channel: ABP ANANDA
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part I (Hindi)
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part I (Hindi)
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: Tivra Academy
Midh Pargana
Midh Pargana
Published: 2012/01/06
Channel: SHAUKET GONDAL RUKKAN
Ritabrata bandopadhyay Speech at Veria North 24 Pargana
Ritabrata bandopadhyay Speech at Veria North 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: SHRAMIK PAN
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-5.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-5.mp4
Published: 2010/12/30
Channel: Bharat Swabhiman
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A pargana (Hindi: परगना, parganā), or parganah, also spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj,[1] is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms.

Parganas were introduced by the Delhi Sultanate, and the word is of Persian origin. As a revenue unit, a pargana consists of several mouzas, which are the smallest revenue units, consisting of one or more villages and the surrounding countryside. Subdivisions of parganas were called Mouzas (area, settlements).

Under the reign of Sher Shah Suri, administration of parganas was strengthened by the addition of other officers, including a shiqdar (police chief), an amin or munsif (an arbitrator who assessed and collected revenue) and a karkun (record keeper).

Mughal era[edit]

In the 16th century the Mughal emperor Akbar organised the empire into subahs (roughly equivalent of state or province), which were further subdivided into sarkars, (roughly the equivalent of district), which were themselves organised into parganas (roughly equivalent of district subdivision such as tehsil). In the Mughal system, parganas served as the local administrative units of a sarkar. Individual parganas observed common customs regarding land rights and responsibilities, which were known as the pargana dastur, and each pargana had its own customs regarding rent, fees, wages, and weights and measures, known as the pargana nirikh.[2]

British Raj[edit]

As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, but, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favour of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, and abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh. British administration consisted of districts, which were divided into tehsils or taluks. Parganas remained important as a geographical term, persisting in land surveys, village identification, court decrees, etc.

Post independence[edit]

The pargana system persisted in several princely states, including Tonk and Gwalior. Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "A Catalogue of Manuscript and Printed Reports, Field Books, Memoirs, Maps ..." Vol. iv, "Containing the treaties, etc., relating to the states within the Bombay presidency"
  2. ^ Sirajul Islam (2012), "Pargana", in Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal, Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.), Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 

References[edit]

  • Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, et al. (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 12. 1908-1931; Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Markovits, Claude (ed.) (2004). A History of Modern India: 1480-1950. Anthem Press, London.

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