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Santal Pargana Sona Dissom ....Stage Performance
Santal Pargana Sona Dissom ....Stage Performance
Published: 2017/03/12
Channel: JOHAR Santal Paraganas
Sea Bath, South 24 Parganas ,West Bengal, India
Sea Bath, South 24 Parganas ,West Bengal, India
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: dbiswas
Sea Bathing Video of Bakkhali Sea,Namkhana, South 24 pargana,West Bengal
Sea Bathing Video of Bakkhali Sea,Namkhana, South 24 pargana,West Bengal
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: dbiswas
south 24 pargana news
south 24 pargana news
Published: 2016/04/29
Channel: 24 ghanta
Lathi Charge North 24 Pargana Habra vote  HD 1080p
Lathi Charge North 24 Pargana Habra vote HD 1080p
Published: 2015/09/29
Channel: Tubai Das
floods in india - floods in south 24 parganas map of west bengal
floods in india - floods in south 24 parganas map of west bengal
Published: 2016/09/20
Channel: Happy Sunrise
#AIMIM_BENGAL  Marwarikal, Naihati 24 pargana Bengal me halat bahut krarab hai. bomb goli chal raha
#AIMIM_BENGAL Marwarikal, Naihati 24 pargana Bengal me halat bahut krarab hai. bomb goli chal raha
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: Aimim Kolkatta
Decoding North 24-Pargana
Decoding North 24-Pargana
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: Go News 24x7 India
Disom Pargana Nityananda Hembram | Speech ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱡᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱢᱟ.ᱡᱷᱤ ᱯᱟᱨᱜᱟᱱᱟ ᱢᱚᱦᱚᱞ
Disom Pargana Nityananda Hembram | Speech ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱡᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱢᱟ.ᱡᱷᱤ ᱯᱟᱨᱜᱟᱱᱟ ᱢᱚᱦᱚᱞ
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: AVEN TARAS
Hinjla Mela 2017 Dumka, (Santal Pargana)3  hongkong.
Hinjla Mela 2017 Dumka, (Santal Pargana)3 hongkong.
Published: 2017/02/18
Channel: Rajmohan Baskey
Destroyed Pakistan.. From:North 24 pargana,Habra,Banipur
Destroyed Pakistan.. From:North 24 pargana,Habra,Banipur
Published: 2016/09/21
Channel: John Nandi
24 pargana kagdip
24 pargana kagdip
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: Swapan Khatua
Santal pargana ho sona disom..(beautiful dance) by SJG(Santal Jumid Gaonta),Madhupur.
Santal pargana ho sona disom..(beautiful dance) by SJG(Santal Jumid Gaonta),Madhupur.
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: Shabnam Kisku
Pargana danwar me daru pine ke wajah se hua 5 logo ki maut
Pargana danwar me daru pine ke wajah se hua 5 logo ki maut
Published: 2017/10/28
Channel: SHIVAM TIGER
Martin Martinez Pargana et Lory Perez
Martin Martinez Pargana et Lory Perez
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: Lory Perez
Santhal Pargana dance video
Santhal Pargana dance video
Published: 2017/10/03
Channel: shekhar marandi
Top 10 Crime | Protest in south 24 Pargana after businessman killed in the area
Top 10 Crime | Protest in south 24 Pargana after businessman killed in the area
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: Zee News
Fire breaks out at chemical factory in 24 Pargana
Fire breaks out at chemical factory in 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: ABP NEWS
s24 pargana rape attempt
s24 pargana rape attempt
Published: 2013/07/01
Channel: ABP ANANDA
Hindu - Muslim riots in Hajinagar, Naihati, 24 pargana, west Bengal.
Hindu - Muslim riots in Hajinagar, Naihati, 24 pargana, west Bengal.
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Manprit Singh
SP of North 24 Pargana on arrest of Shyamal Karmakar main accused of Bamangachi case
SP of North 24 Pargana on arrest of Shyamal Karmakar main accused of Bamangachi case
Published: 2014/07/09
Channel: ABP ANANDA
West Bengal North 24 Pargana
West Bengal North 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: Joy 7699
Public Forum : 24 Pargana Charged (05/07/2017)
Public Forum : 24 Pargana Charged (05/07/2017)
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Lok Sabha TV
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part I (Hindi)
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part I (Hindi)
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: Tivra Academy
Facebook Post Create Riot Like Situation At Baduria North 24 Pargana
Facebook Post Create Riot Like Situation At Baduria North 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Kolkatatoday
Battleground Bhangore in South 24 pargana District at West Bengal.
Battleground Bhangore in South 24 pargana District at West Bengal.
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: newswelle live
Two communities fought over a facebook post in 24 Pargana, West Bengal
Two communities fought over a facebook post in 24 Pargana, West Bengal
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: APN NEWS
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-3.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-3.mp4
Published: 2010/12/30
Channel: Bharat Swabhiman
Jai mata di jagran at pargana
Jai mata di jagran at pargana
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: Lakhan Pal
24 pargana village masacare
24 pargana village masacare
Published: 2016/06/09
Channel: 24 ghanta
SHAIKH HEDAYATUL ISLAM ( NORTH 24 PARGANA )
SHAIKH HEDAYATUL ISLAM ( NORTH 24 PARGANA )
Published: 2017/11/26
Channel: mukul alam
Santhal Pargana can develop only if it gets free of JMM: BJP
Santhal Pargana can develop only if it gets free of JMM: BJP
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Pradesh18 English
Comrade Jitendra Chaudhury  on the Santhal Pargana Tenancy and Chota Nagpur Tenancy Act-1908
Comrade Jitendra Chaudhury on the Santhal Pargana Tenancy and Chota Nagpur Tenancy Act-1908
Published: 2017/03/24
Channel: CPI Marxist
6 Santal Pargana - Jhumur Dance - Sal Tale Bela
6 Santal Pargana - Jhumur Dance - Sal Tale Bela
Published: 2013/05/23
Channel: Sourav Chanda
Visit to Kamarpole [South 24 Parganas, West Bengal]
Visit to Kamarpole [South 24 Parganas, West Bengal]
Published: 2015/06/10
Channel: Avik Saha in Community
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 05
NORTH 24 PARGANA DIST CONF 05
Published: 2012/09/13
Channel: ARUP KAKA
Santali social speech,Mr.Rabinath Mandi-Majhi Pargana Mahal,Khayerpahari,Bankura,WB.
Santali social speech,Mr.Rabinath Mandi-Majhi Pargana Mahal,Khayerpahari,Bankura,WB.
Published: 2017/02/21
Channel: BAHA TV
Midh Pargana
Midh Pargana
Published: 2012/01/06
Channel: SHAUKET GONDAL RUKKAN
24 pargana(west bengel).police support rss.vhp.bjp.ye hai rss ka asli chehra
24 pargana(west bengel).police support rss.vhp.bjp.ye hai rss ka asli chehra
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: md shadab
Santhal Pargana College Football Match Football Tournament PG Ground
Santhal Pargana College Football Match Football Tournament PG Ground
Published: 2017/08/31
Channel: DKHembrom
TMP worker killed at a party office at Ghola, North 24 pargana.
TMP worker killed at a party office at Ghola, North 24 pargana.
Published: 2013/10/17
Channel: ABP ANANDA
PMJDY North 24 Parganas
PMJDY North 24 Parganas
Published: 2016/05/30
Channel: Deepa Priya
shapath nirmal uttar 24 pargana
shapath nirmal uttar 24 pargana
Published: 2016/08/17
Channel: Nirmal Chakraborty
24 Karat demonstration followup report. 24 Pargana North. W. B
24 Karat demonstration followup report. 24 Pargana North. W. B
Published: 2017/12/02
Channel: Hpm India
Ganga Sagar, 24 Pargana
Ganga Sagar, 24 Pargana
Published: 2016/06/26
Channel: Anand Kumar Mishra
CBI raids several chitfund office in North 24 Pargana
CBI raids several chitfund office in North 24 Pargana
Published: 2015/01/17
Channel: ABP ANANDA
Hinjla Mela 2017 (Santal Pargana)1
Hinjla Mela 2017 (Santal Pargana)1
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: Rajmohan Baskey
uttar 24 pargana district conference sohid soron
uttar 24 pargana district conference sohid soron
Published: 2012/08/05
Channel: arijit chakroborty
South 24 Pargana villagers tensed with salt water spoiling the crops
South 24 Pargana villagers tensed with salt water spoiling the crops
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: 24 ghanta
South 24 pargana ministers meeting CM at her home
South 24 pargana ministers meeting CM at her home
Published: 2016/02/06
Channel: Kolkatatoday
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A pargana (Hindi: परगना, parganā), or parganah, also spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj,[1] is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms.

Parganas were introduced by the Delhi Sultanate, and the word is of Persian origin. As a revenue unit, a pargana consists of several mouzas, which are the smallest revenue units, consisting of one or more villages and the surrounding countryside. Subdivisions of parganas were called Mouzas (area, settlements).

Under the reign of Sher Shah Suri, administration of parganas was strengthened by the addition of other officers, including a shiqdar (police chief), an amin or munsif (an arbitrator who assessed and collected revenue) and a karkun (record keeper).

Mughal era[edit]

In the 16th century the Mughal emperor Akbar organised the empire into subahs (roughly equivalent of state or province), which were further subdivided into sarkars, (roughly the equivalent of district), which were themselves organised into parganas (roughly equivalent of district subdivision such as tehsil). In the Mughal system, parganas served as the local administrative units of a sarkar. Individual parganas observed common customs regarding land rights and responsibilities, which were known as the pargana dastur, and each pargana had its own customs regarding rent, fees, wages, and weights and measures, known as the pargana nirikh.[2]

British Raj[edit]

As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, but, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favour of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, and abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh. British administration consisted of districts, which were divided into tehsils or taluks. Parganas remained important as a geographical term, persisting in land surveys, village identification, court decrees, etc.

Post independence[edit]

The pargana system persisted in several princely states, including Tonk and Gwalior. Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "A Catalogue of Manuscript and Printed Reports, Field Books, Memoirs, Maps ..." Vol. iv, "Containing the treaties, etc., relating to the states within the Bombay presidency"
  2. ^ Sirajul Islam (2012), "Pargana", in Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal, Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.), Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 

References[edit]

  • Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, et al. (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 12. 1908-1931; Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Markovits, Claude (ed.) (2004). A History of Modern India: 1480-1950. Anthem Press, London.

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