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Sea Bath, South 24 Parganas ,West Bengal, India
Sea Bath, South 24 Parganas ,West Bengal, India
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: dbiswas
south 24 pargana news
south 24 pargana news
Published: 2016/04/29
Channel: 24 ghanta
#AIMIM_BENGAL  Marwarikal, Naihati 24 pargana Bengal me halat bahut krarab hai. bomb goli chal raha
#AIMIM_BENGAL Marwarikal, Naihati 24 pargana Bengal me halat bahut krarab hai. bomb goli chal raha
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: Aimim Kolkatta
lathi charge north 24 pargana habra vote  HD 1080p
lathi charge north 24 pargana habra vote HD 1080p
Published: 2015/09/29
Channel: Tubai Das
Visit to Kamarpole [South 24 Parganas, West Bengal]
Visit to Kamarpole [South 24 Parganas, West Bengal]
Published: 2015/06/10
Channel: Avik Saha in Community
Voilation of Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act, 1949 by Jharkhand govenment
Voilation of Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act, 1949 by Jharkhand govenment
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: VideoVolunteers
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part I (Hindi)
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part I (Hindi)
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: Tivra Academy
Sea Bathing Video of Bakkhali Sea,Namkhana, South 24 pargana,West Bengal
Sea Bathing Video of Bakkhali Sea,Namkhana, South 24 pargana,West Bengal
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: dbiswas
Santal Pargana Sona Dissom ....Stage Performance
Santal Pargana Sona Dissom ....Stage Performance
Published: 2017/03/12
Channel: JOHAR Santal Paraganas
Exclusive video from beginning of Hindu Muslim Riots in Basirhat 24 Pargana Bengal | Basirhat Riots
Exclusive video from beginning of Hindu Muslim Riots in Basirhat 24 Pargana Bengal | Basirhat Riots
Published: 2017/07/08
Channel: Andolan News Network
West Bengal North 24 Pargana
West Bengal North 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: Joy 7699
Claudia Pargana / Sara Franco - Sarau 2016
Claudia Pargana / Sara Franco - Sarau 2016
Published: 2016/07/10
Channel: Fernando Pargana
Baduria in North 24 parganas
Baduria in North 24 parganas
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: newswelle live
West Bengal: BJP releases videos claiming these are provoking violence in 24 Pargana
West Bengal: BJP releases videos claiming these are provoking violence in 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/07/06
Channel: IndiaTV
Jai Shri Ram Jai Shri my hearty Uttar 24 Pargana Haji Nagar
Jai Shri Ram Jai Shri my hearty Uttar 24 Pargana Haji Nagar
Published: 2017/04/09
Channel: Rahul Sharma
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part II (Hindi)
JPSC/JSSC Santhal Pargana Tenancy Act(संथाल परगना काश्तकारी अधिनियम) 1949- Part II (Hindi)
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: Tivra Academy
hindu muslim riots in kolkata north 24 parganas naihati
hindu muslim riots in kolkata north 24 parganas naihati
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: indian first
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 3
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 3
Published: 2011/04/10
Channel: twocirclesTV
Top 10 Crime | Protest in south 24 Pargana after businessman killed in the area
Top 10 Crime | Protest in south 24 Pargana after businessman killed in the area
Published: 2016/09/13
Channel: Zee News
South 24 Pargana villagers tensed with salt water spoiling the crops
South 24 Pargana villagers tensed with salt water spoiling the crops
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: 24 ghanta
Hindu - Muslim riots in Hajinagar, Naihati, 24 pargana, west Bengal.
Hindu - Muslim riots in Hajinagar, Naihati, 24 pargana, west Bengal.
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Manprit Singh
West Bengal : North 24 Paraganas still tense after communal clashes; BSF deployed
West Bengal : North 24 Paraganas still tense after communal clashes; BSF deployed
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Zee News
Mamata Banerjee slams West Bengal governor for insulting her
Mamata Banerjee slams West Bengal governor for insulting her
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Zee News
Destroyed Pakistan.. From:North 24 pargana,Habra,Banipur
Destroyed Pakistan.. From:North 24 pargana,Habra,Banipur
Published: 2016/09/21
Channel: John Nandi
South 24 Pargana water barricades brakes down due to heavy water flow
South 24 Pargana water barricades brakes down due to heavy water flow
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: 24 ghanta
Decoding North 24-Pargana
Decoding North 24-Pargana
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: Go News Test
24 pargana kagdip
24 pargana kagdip
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: Swapan Khatua
Public Forum : 24 Pargana Charged (05/07/2017)
Public Forum : 24 Pargana Charged (05/07/2017)
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Lok Sabha TV
Facebook Post Create Riot Like Situation At Baduria North 24 Pargana
Facebook Post Create Riot Like Situation At Baduria North 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Kolkatatoday
Battleground Bhangore in South 24 pargana District at West Bengal.
Battleground Bhangore in South 24 pargana District at West Bengal.
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: newswelle live
Hijla Mela 2017 Dumka, (Santal Pargana)3  hongkong.
Hijla Mela 2017 Dumka, (Santal Pargana)3 hongkong.
Published: 2017/02/18
Channel: Rajmohan Baskey
Two communities fought over a facebook post in 24 Pargana, West Bengal
Two communities fought over a facebook post in 24 Pargana, West Bengal
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: APN NEWS
SP of North 24 Pargana on arrest of Shyamal Karmakar main accused of Bamangachi case
SP of North 24 Pargana on arrest of Shyamal Karmakar main accused of Bamangachi case
Published: 2014/07/09
Channel: ABP ANANDA
Otyacher by Baruipur Police SOUTH 24-PARGANA West Bengal
Otyacher by Baruipur Police SOUTH 24-PARGANA West Bengal
Published: 2017/02/14
Channel: Pchandra pramanick
24 pargana people in trouble as house burnt
24 pargana people in trouble as house burnt
Published: 2016/06/09
Channel: 24 ghanta
Kolkata output 24 Pargana khana ban gaila Tu Pyar Badha Bangla
Kolkata output 24 Pargana khana ban gaila Tu Pyar Badha Bangla
Published: 2017/01/03
Channel: Arman Mondol
Fire breaks out at chemical factory in 24 Pargana
Fire breaks out at chemical factory in 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: ABP NEWS
Hijla Mela 2017 (Santal Pargana)1
Hijla Mela 2017 (Santal Pargana)1
Published: 2017/02/17
Channel: Rajmohan Baskey
SOUTH 24 PARGANA COURT
SOUTH 24 PARGANA COURT
Published: 2016/08/24
Channel: poulami das
Disom Pargana Nityananda Hembram | Speech ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱡᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱢᱟ.ᱡᱷᱤ ᱯᱟᱨᱜᱟᱱᱟ ᱢᱚᱦᱚᱞ
Disom Pargana Nityananda Hembram | Speech ᱵᱷᱟᱨᱚᱛ ᱡᱟᱠᱟᱛ ᱢᱟ.ᱡᱷᱤ ᱯᱟᱨᱜᱟᱱᱟ ᱢᱚᱦᱚᱞ
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: AVEN TARAS
Hindu Muslim danga Badariya West Bangal 24 Pargana
Hindu Muslim danga Badariya West Bangal 24 Pargana
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Sony Max live TV IPL 2017
CM Mamata issues warning to South 24 Parganas DM over 100 days work
CM Mamata issues warning to South 24 Parganas DM over 100 days work
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: ABP ANANDA
GARDEN REACH WARD NO.1 MAI MAHESHTALA SOUTH 24 PARGANA ME MANDIR ME BEEF RAKKHA GAYA
GARDEN REACH WARD NO.1 MAI MAHESHTALA SOUTH 24 PARGANA ME MANDIR ME BEEF RAKKHA GAYA
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: Jp Gupta
Major Anti Hindu riots broke in 24 Pargana of West Bangal - Sudarshan News TV
Major Anti Hindu riots broke in 24 Pargana of West Bangal - Sudarshan News TV
Published: 2013/02/20
Channel: SudarshanTVChannel
FB post triggers communal clashes in West Bengal, forces rushed to North 24 parganas
FB post triggers communal clashes in West Bengal, forces rushed to North 24 parganas
Published: 2017/07/06
Channel: IndiaTV
TCM Leader Called Garden Reach of 24 Pargana as
TCM Leader Called Garden Reach of 24 Pargana as 'Mini-Pakistan'
Published: 2016/04/30
Channel: IndiaTV
Bakkhali Beach, 24 Pargana, West Bengal, Part - 2, 10 a.m
Bakkhali Beach, 24 Pargana, West Bengal, Part - 2, 10 a.m
Published: 2017/01/01
Channel: AKSH MUSIC
Uttar 24 Pargana District Exit Poll For 2016 West Bengal Assembly Election
Uttar 24 Pargana District Exit Poll For 2016 West Bengal Assembly Election
Published: 2016/05/16
Channel: Political Bengal
Santhal Pargana can develop only if it gets free of JMM: BJP
Santhal Pargana can develop only if it gets free of JMM: BJP
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Pradesh18 English
Santal Pargana Sona Dissom    |   Santali Traditional Dance  #2
Santal Pargana Sona Dissom | Santali Traditional Dance #2
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: JOHAR Santal Paraganas
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A pargana (Hindi: परगना, parganā), or parganah, also spelt pergunnah during the time of the Sultanate period, Mughal times and British Raj,[1] is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms.

Parganas were introduced by the Delhi Sultanate, and the word is of Persian origin. As a revenue unit, a pargana consists of several mouzas, which are the smallest revenue units, consisting of one or more villages and the surrounding countryside. Subdivisions of parganas were called Mouzas (area, settlements).

Under the reign of Sher Shah Suri, administration of parganas was strengthened by the addition of other officers, including a shiqdar (police chief), an amin or munsif (an arbitrator who assessed and collected revenue) and a karkun (record keeper).

Mughal era[edit]

In the 16th century the Mughal emperor Akbar organised the empire into subahs (roughly equivalent of state or province), which were further subdivided into sarkars, (roughly the equivalent of district), which were themselves organised into parganas (roughly equivalent of district subdivision such as tehsil). In the Mughal system, parganas served as the local administrative units of a sarkar. Individual parganas observed common customs regarding land rights and responsibilities, which were known as the pargana dastur, and each pargana had its own customs regarding rent, fees, wages, and weights and measures, known as the pargana nirikh.[2]

British Raj[edit]

As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, but, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favour of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, and abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh. British administration consisted of districts, which were divided into tehsils or taluks. Parganas remained important as a geographical term, persisting in land surveys, village identification, court decrees, etc.

Post independence[edit]

The pargana system persisted in several princely states, including Tonk and Gwalior. Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "A Catalogue of Manuscript and Printed Reports, Field Books, Memoirs, Maps ..." Vol. iv, "Containing the treaties, etc., relating to the states within the Bombay presidency"
  2. ^ Sirajul Islam (2012), "Pargana", in Sirajul Islam and Ahmed A. Jamal, Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.), Asiatic Society of Bangladesh 

References[edit]

  • Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, et al. (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 12. 1908-1931; Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Markovits, Claude (ed.) (2004). A History of Modern India: 1480-1950. Anthem Press, London.

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