1
Exclusive News : 400 fanatics attack Hindus in 24 Pargana district, West Bengal !
Exclusive News : 400 fanatics attack Hindus in 24 Pargana district, West Bengal !
DATE: 2015/04/23::
2
CBI raids several chitfund office in North 24 Pargana
CBI raids several chitfund office in North 24 Pargana
DATE: 2015/01/17::
3
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana, Jamás retornarás
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana, Jamás retornarás
DATE: 2014/04/03::
4
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana, Remembranza
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana, Remembranza
DATE: 2013/05/05::
5
MAJHI PARGANA MAHAL MIDUN GUJURGADIA WEST BENGAL RE JAN 2013 4
MAJHI PARGANA MAHAL MIDUN GUJURGADIA WEST BENGAL RE JAN 2013 4
DATE: 2014/07/23::
6
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana en Milonga del Angel
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana en Milonga del Angel
DATE: 2013/12/01::
7
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana Sabadell Tango
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana Sabadell Tango
DATE: 2012/10/08::
8
Joy Nagar ,villages - Kultoli , Gav Tola . South 24 pargana ,west Bengal . India
Joy Nagar ,villages - Kultoli , Gav Tola . South 24 pargana ,west Bengal . India
DATE: 2012/04/08::
9
Left rally coming from N 24 Pargana to attain Brigade meeting
Left rally coming from N 24 Pargana to attain Brigade meeting
DATE: 2014/02/09::
10
NORTH 24 PARGANA ZALA CONFERENCE .mp4
NORTH 24 PARGANA ZALA CONFERENCE .mp4
DATE: 2012/08/13::
11
Major Anti Hindu riots broke in 24 Pargana of West Bangal - Sudarshan News TV
Major Anti Hindu riots broke in 24 Pargana of West Bangal - Sudarshan News TV
DATE: 2013/02/20::
12
Fernanda Pargana no Prós e Contras
Fernanda Pargana no Prós e Contras
DATE: 2014/11/20::
13
TMP worker killed at a party office at Ghola, North 24 pargana.
TMP worker killed at a party office at Ghola, North 24 pargana.
DATE: 2013/10/17::
14
SP of North 24 Pargana on arrest of Shyamal Karmakar main accused of Bamangachi case
SP of North 24 Pargana on arrest of Shyamal Karmakar main accused of Bamangachi case
DATE: 2014/07/09::
15
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana, Milonga Criolla
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana, Milonga Criolla
DATE: 2014/04/03::
16
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana "Corazón no le hagas caso"
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana "Corazón no le hagas caso"
DATE: 2012/04/30::
17
Kadu Parga na boate Enjoy Club
Kadu Parga na boate Enjoy Club
DATE: 2012/04/26::
18
6 Santal Pargana - Jhumur Dance - Sal Tale Bela
6 Santal Pargana - Jhumur Dance - Sal Tale Bela
DATE: 2013/05/23::
19
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 4
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 4
DATE: 2011/04/10::
20
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 1
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 1
DATE: 2011/04/08::
21
N.24 Pargana gold update
N.24 Pargana gold update
DATE: 2014/03/13::
22
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-7.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-7.mp4
DATE: 2010/12/30::
23
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana
DATE: 2011/05/26::
24
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 2
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 2
DATE: 2011/04/10::
25
Crazy in Love (gamas, cardoso, pargana)
Crazy in Love (gamas, cardoso, pargana)
DATE: 2012/10/20::
26
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 4
Muslims in minority dominated South 24 Pargana 4
DATE: 2011/04/08::
27
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana "Milongueando en el ´40"
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana "Milongueando en el ´40"
DATE: 2011/11/03::
28
Tango - Diana Morris y Martín Pargana en el programa Redes de TVE
Tango - Diana Morris y Martín Pargana en el programa Redes de TVE
DATE: 2009/08/04::
29
Syngenta Seeds create loss for farmers from Nila,S24 Pargana, West Bengal Sept
Syngenta Seeds create loss for farmers from Nila,S24 Pargana, West Bengal Sept'14
DATE: 2014/09/14::
30
Santhal Pargana can develop only if it gets free of JMM: BJP
Santhal Pargana can develop only if it gets free of JMM: BJP
DATE: 2014/11/19::
31
Luis Pargana
Luis Pargana
DATE: 2013/09/08::
32
Diana Morris y Martín Pargana en La Pantera Rosa (Barcelona)
Diana Morris y Martín Pargana en La Pantera Rosa (Barcelona)
DATE: 2009/08/02::
33
TANGO DESIGN  Andrea Ballestrero  y  Martin Pargana 5115
TANGO DESIGN Andrea Ballestrero y Martin Pargana 5115
DATE: 2012/11/17::
34
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 3
Muslims in Matia Buruj, South 24 Pargana 3
DATE: 2011/04/10::
35
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana
DATE: 2011/09/29::
36
BJP will emerge victorious in all seats of Santhal Pargana: Shahnawaz Hussain
BJP will emerge victorious in all seats of Santhal Pargana: Shahnawaz Hussain
DATE: 2014/12/11::
37
s24 pargana rape attempt
s24 pargana rape attempt
DATE: 2013/07/01::
38
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana bailan para "Ricomincio da te" 1
Andrea Ballestero y Martín Pargana bailan para "Ricomincio da te" 1
DATE: 2013/04/23::
39
Again clash flare up in North 24 Pargana College
Again clash flare up in North 24 Pargana College
DATE: 2012/07/06::
40
Sara Pargana - Juvenil - Corda (Rope) - SAD - GCP 2012
Sara Pargana - Juvenil - Corda (Rope) - SAD - GCP 2012
DATE: 2012/01/20::
41
Hindu Samhati Program Palta Village, PS: Jibontala, South 24 Pargana, Dist: WB, On 12.01.15
Hindu Samhati Program Palta Village, PS: Jibontala, South 24 Pargana, Dist: WB, On 12.01.15
DATE: 2015/01/13::
42
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-6.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-6.mp4
DATE: 2010/12/30::
43
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-5.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-5.mp4
DATE: 2010/12/30::
44
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-3.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-3.mp4
DATE: 2010/12/30::
45
Midh Pargana
Midh Pargana
DATE: 2012/01/06::
46
Midh Pargana
Midh Pargana
DATE: 2012/01/06::
47
Balanço do Festival do Crato com Dr Luis Pargana
Balanço do Festival do Crato com Dr Luis Pargana
DATE: 2013/10/21::
48
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-1.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-1.mp4
DATE: 2010/12/30::
49
Folklores Santal Parganas - 24 Stories
Folklores Santal Parganas - 24 Stories
DATE: 2013/06/19::
50
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-2.mp4
29-12-2010-WB-NORTH 24 PARGANA-2.mp4
DATE: 2010/12/30::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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A pargana (Hindi: परगना, parganā), also spelt 'pergunnah' during the time of the British Raj,[1] is a former administrative unit of the Indian subcontinent, used primarily, but not exclusively, by the Muslim kingdoms.

Parganas were introduced by the Delhi Sultanate, and the word is of Persian origin. As a revenue unit, a pargana consists of several mouzas, which are the smallest revenue units, consisting of one or more villages and the surrounding countryside. Larger subdivisions of parganas were called tarafs (quarters, districts).

Under the reign of Sher Shah Suri, administration of parganas was strengthened by the addition of other officers, including a shiqdar (police chief), an amin or munsif (an arbitrator who assessed and collected revenue) and a karkun (record keeper).

Mughal era[edit]

In the 16th century the Mughal emperor Akbar organised the empire into subahs, which were further subdivided into sarkars, roughly the equivalent of districts, which were themselves organised into parganas. In the Mughal system, parganas served as the local administrative units of a sarkar. Individual parganas observed common customs regarding land rights and responsibilities, which were known as the pargana dastur, and each pargana had its own customs regarding rent, fees, wages, and weights and measures, known as the pargana nirikh.

British Raj[edit]

As the British expanded into former Mughal provinces, starting with Bengal, they at first retained the pargana administration, but, under the Governorship of Charles Cornwallis, enacted the Permanent Settlement of 1793, which abolished the pargana system in favour of the zamindari system, in which zamindars were made the absolute owners of rural lands, and abolished the pargana dastur and pargana nirikh. British administration consisted of districts, which were divided into tehsils or taluks. Parganas remained important as a geographical term, persisting in land surveys, village identification, court decrees, etc.

Post independence[edit]

The pargana system persisted in several princely states, including Tonk and Gwalior. Parganas disappeared almost completely after the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, although the term lives on in place names, like the districts of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas in India's West Bengal state.

References[edit]

  • Hunter, William Wilson, Sir, et al. (1908). Imperial Gazetteer of India, Volume 12. 1908-1931; Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  • Markovits, Claude (ed.) (2004). A History of Modern India: 1480-1950. Anthem Press, London.
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