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Prehistoric Beasts - Purussaurus - Gigantic Caiman - Documentary
Prehistoric Beasts - Purussaurus - Gigantic Caiman - Documentary
Published: 2016/06/05
Channel: MadWizard38
Sarcosuchus Vs Purussaurus
Sarcosuchus Vs Purussaurus
Published: 2016/07/10
Channel: Godzillasaurus productions
Zoo Tycoon 2: Purussaurus Exhibit Speed Build
Zoo Tycoon 2: Purussaurus Exhibit Speed Build
Published: 2016/03/05
Channel: NickNackGaming
Ark Survival - SARCO vs PURUSSAURUS [Ep.46]
Ark Survival - SARCO vs PURUSSAURUS [Ep.46]
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Chubby
Historia del purussaurus
Historia del purussaurus
Published: 2015/11/18
Channel: DILAIK
Tribute to Purussaurus
Tribute to Purussaurus
Published: 2008/12/29
Channel: Rapator2
The Biggest Crocodile Of The Planet
The Biggest Crocodile Of The Planet
Published: 2014/06/21
Channel: Jose Pecina - Astronomía
ARK: Ragnarok #11 - Purussaurus zähmen & der Ceratosaurus Vergrößerungs-Bug 😂! | LP Ark Deutsch
ARK: Ragnarok #11 - Purussaurus zähmen & der Ceratosaurus Vergrößerungs-Bug 😂! | LP Ark Deutsch
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Tilorious
purussaurus vs great white shark
purussaurus vs great white shark
Published: 2015/07/06
Channel: Sauroniops production
GRFC - purussaurus brasilensis vs cretoxyrhina mantelli
GRFC - purussaurus brasilensis vs cretoxyrhina mantelli
Published: 2015/04/11
Channel: Giganotosaurus rex pictures
Prehistoric caiman
Prehistoric caiman's bite 'twice as strong' as T-Rex's
Published: 2015/02/26
Channel: KaFaDoKyA NEWS
ARK Additional Creatures Mod - Purussaurus
ARK Additional Creatures Mod - Purussaurus
Published: 2017/04/18
Channel: Scanova the Carnotaurus
Dinosaurs Still Living Today - 3 More Prehistoric Creatures Still Living With Man
Dinosaurs Still Living Today - 3 More Prehistoric Creatures Still Living With Man
Published: 2016/11/06
Channel: Conspiracy Files
Loài cá sấu mạnh nhất trong lịch sử: Sarcosuchus vs Deinosuchus vs Purussaurus || Bạn Có Biết?
Loài cá sấu mạnh nhất trong lịch sử: Sarcosuchus vs Deinosuchus vs Purussaurus || Bạn Có Biết?
Published: 2017/07/12
Channel: Bạn có biết?
Ark Survival Evolved - PREHISTORIC CROC CAN PICK UP A TREX - (Ark Modded Gameplay)
Ark Survival Evolved - PREHISTORIC CROC CAN PICK UP A TREX - (Ark Modded Gameplay)
Published: 2017/04/18
Channel: everynightxRIOT
Los 10 cocodrilos prehistoricos más terroríficos
Los 10 cocodrilos prehistoricos más terroríficos
Published: 2016/08/04
Channel: Criadero Kimbi
purussaurus
purussaurus
Published: 2016/08/03
Channel: puma de los andes
10 Terrifying PreHistoric Monsters
10 Terrifying PreHistoric Monsters
Published: 2015/12/16
Channel: Alltime10s
Deinosuchus vs Sarcosuchus
Deinosuchus vs Sarcosuchus
Published: 2010/03/18
Channel: animalwarz
PCP Show and Test : Sarcosuchus & Purussaurus
PCP Show and Test : Sarcosuchus & Purussaurus
Published: 2012/03/20
Channel: carlos del toro
Sát thủ "cả gan" ăn thịt cả khủng long bạo chúa T-rex
Sát thủ "cả gan" ăn thịt cả khủng long bạo chúa T-rex
Published: 2017/02/18
Channel: News TV
Archaeologist: Prehistoric Life Puzzle | Eftsei Gaming
Archaeologist: Prehistoric Life Puzzle | Eftsei Gaming
Published: 2017/04/14
Channel: Eftsei Gaming
Sarcosuchus vs Deinosuchus vs Purussaurus my thoughts
Sarcosuchus vs Deinosuchus vs Purussaurus my thoughts
Published: 2017/06/15
Channel: ThomastheYutyrannus King
Dinosaurs to Organize Book Purussaurus sounds Effects
Dinosaurs to Organize Book Purussaurus sounds Effects
Published: 2017/02/05
Channel: Mae Parkinson
Razanandrongobe sakalavae is the oldest and largest  type of crocodilian
Razanandrongobe sakalavae is the oldest and largest type of crocodilian
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: Azeem Khan
South America Dinos stick pack(read descr.)
South America Dinos stick pack(read descr.)
Published: 2014/08/13
Channel: Giganotosaurus rex pictures
Upcoming Additional Creatures1
Upcoming Additional Creatures1
Published: 2017/04/15
Channel: Shadlos
Purussaurus
Purussaurus
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: Wilbert Lim
purussaurus brasilensis vs carcharodon megalodon
purussaurus brasilensis vs carcharodon megalodon
Published: 2015/04/20
Channel: gojifan2001
JACARÉ GIGANTE ENCONTRADO NO BRASIL O MAIOR DE TODOS
JACARÉ GIGANTE ENCONTRADO NO BRASIL O MAIOR DE TODOS
Published: 2015/02/27
Channel: Jhonatas Skriven
5 Mega Krokodile Aus Der Urzeit – Die Größten Krokodile Aller Zeiten
5 Mega Krokodile Aus Der Urzeit – Die Größten Krokodile Aller Zeiten
Published: 2016/09/15
Channel: NIZE
Crocodiles and Alligators at Audubon Zoo
Crocodiles and Alligators at Audubon Zoo
Published: 2008/08/14
Channel: Keith Bryant
Caiman sighting in Tortuguero, Costa Rica
Caiman sighting in Tortuguero, Costa Rica
Published: 2013/03/03
Channel: Tater Zoid
Aldo y Purussaurus II
Aldo y Purussaurus II
Published: 2012/11/24
Channel: Caroteno Cord
@playlizt.pe - Actitud Modulada - Purussaurus
@playlizt.pe - Actitud Modulada - Purussaurus
Published: 2017/05/29
Channel: playlizt.pe
10 niesamowitych prehistorycznych bestii [TOPOWA DYCHA]
10 niesamowitych prehistorycznych bestii [TOPOWA DYCHA]
Published: 2016/07/22
Channel: Topowa Dycha
Top 10 most Deadliest Prehistoric Animals
Top 10 most Deadliest Prehistoric Animals
Published: 2013/07/10
Channel: EpicWarriors2
12 Animales gigantes extintos
12 Animales gigantes extintos
Published: 2014/12/23
Channel: Hydra Records
Megalodon vs Deinosuchus
Megalodon vs Deinosuchus
Published: 2010/01/04
Channel: animalwarz
PURUSSAURUS NEGRO 4X4 JEEP
PURUSSAURUS NEGRO 4X4 JEEP
Published: 2010/05/25
Channel: Ba Pontes
25 Subscribers! :D
25 Subscribers! :D
Published: 2015/07/05
Channel: T-RexSpinoMaster2015 Studios
GRFC - sarcosuchus imperator vs onchopristis numidus(read descr.)
GRFC - sarcosuchus imperator vs onchopristis numidus(read descr.)
Published: 2015/03/28
Channel: Giganotosaurus rex pictures
El Cocodrilo Más Grande Del Planeta
El Cocodrilo Más Grande Del Planeta
Published: 2014/08/11
Channel: Jose Pecina - Astronomía
Las 5 mordeduras más fuertes de la prehistoria.
Las 5 mordeduras más fuertes de la prehistoria.
Published: 2016/08/20
Channel: TopMan
Aldo y el Purussaurus III
Aldo y el Purussaurus III
Published: 2012/11/25
Channel: Caroteno Cord
Tribute to Prehistoric Crocodiles
Tribute to Prehistoric Crocodiles
Published: 2009/06/26
Channel: Rapator2
Aldo y el Purussaurus I
Aldo y el Purussaurus I
Published: 2012/11/25
Channel: Caroteno Cord
PDW Deinosuchus vs Sarcosuchus
PDW Deinosuchus vs Sarcosuchus
Published: 2017/06/20
Channel: SPINO REX
Đoạn đường tử thần Cá Sấu thường xuyên rình rập ăn thịt người qua đường
Đoạn đường tử thần Cá Sấu thường xuyên rình rập ăn thịt người qua đường
Published: 2017/04/26
Channel: Động Vật Quanh Ta
Phát hiện Cá Sấu chết phơi trym ở cái Ao gần nhà
Phát hiện Cá Sấu chết phơi trym ở cái Ao gần nhà
Published: 2017/08/19
Channel: Động Vật Quanh Ta
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Parussaurus)
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Purussaurus
Temporal range: Early-Late Miocene (Colhuehuapian-Montehermosan)
20.4–5.3 Ma
Purussaurus skull.PNG
Skull restoration of P. brasiliensis
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Crocodilia
Family: Alligatoridae
Subfamily: Caimaninae
Genus: Purussaurus
Rodrigues, 1892
Species
  • Purussaurus brasiliensis (type species) Barbosa-Rodrigues, 1892
  • Purussaurus neivensis Mook, 1941
  • Purussaurus mirandai Aguilera et al., 2006
Synonyms
  • Dinosuchus neivensis Langston, 1965

Purussaurus is an extinct genus of giant caiman that lived in South America during the Miocene epoch, from the Colhuehuapian to the Montehermosan in the SALMA classification. It is known from skull material found in the Brazilian and Peruvian Amazon, Colombian Villavieja Formation, Panamanian Culebra Formation and the Urumaco and Socorro Formations of northern Venezuela.

Description[edit]

Scale diagram showing the size of P. brasiliensis (red)

The estimated skull length for one large individual of the type species P. brasiliensis is 1,400 millimetres (55 in).[1] Paleontologists estimate that P. brasiliensis reached around 10.3 metres (34 ft) in length, weighing about 5.16 metric tons (5.69 short tons).[2] Another estimate gives a larger size of 12.5 metres (41 ft) in length and 8.4 metric tons (9.3 short tons) in weight, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kilograms (90 lb).[3] Bite force has been estimated to be around 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force).[3] The large size and estimated strength of this animal appears to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it an apex predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates with no real competition from sympatric, smaller, carnivores. Researchers have proposed that the large size of Purussaurus, though offering many advantages, may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts.[3]

Purussaurus is one of the largest known crocodyliformes ever to have existed. Three other extinct crocodyliformes, Sarcosuchus, Deinosuchus, and Rhamphosuchus had similar body sizes. Sarcosuchus and Deinosuchus had similar proportions, but both were geologically much older, dating from the Early and Late Cretaceous, respectively. Rhamphosuchus lived around the same time as Purussaurus, but was slightly smaller, had a more gharial-like snout and lived in India. During the summer of 2005, a Franco-Peruvian expedition (the Fitzcarrald expedition) found new fossils of Purussaurus in the Peruvian Amazon (600 km from Lima).[citation needed]

Analysis of a biomechanical model of the skull of Purussaurus indicated that it was capable of performing the "death roll" maneuver used by extant crocodilians to subdue and dismember their prey.[4]

Paleoecology[edit]

Restoration of Purussaurus brasiliensis

Brazilian P. brasiliensis is associated with sharks, rays, freshwater teleosts, lungfish, turtles including Stupendemys, crocodilians including Charactosuchus, Gryposuchus, and Mourasuchus, Anhinga birds, and mammals including sloths, bats, rodents, the primate Stirtonia, and river dolphins. River, floodplain, and lake environments were present.[5] Marine and freshwater fish, turtles, crocodilians, and terrestrial and aquatic mammals are associated with Venezuelan P. mirandai. Its environment is described as tropical and coastal. The earlier Colombian P. neivensis lived alongside a massive variety of fauna, including astrapotheres like Granastrapotherium and Xenastrapotherium, the early species of Mourasuchus and Gryposuchus, and the terrestrial crocodyliform Langstonia. This fauna dates from 13 million years ago, in the Laventan stage of the Late Miocene.[1]

Distribution[edit]

Fossils of Purussaurus have been found in:[6]

Miocene

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Aguilera, Orangel A.; Riff, Douglas; Bocquentin‐Villanueva, Jean (2006). "A new giant Purussaurus (Crocodyliformes, Alligatoridae) from the Upper Miocene Urumaco Formation, Venezuela". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 4 (3): 221–232. ISSN 1477-2019. doi:10.1017/S147720190600188X. 
  2. ^ Jorge Moreno-Bernal (2007). "Size and Palaeoecology of Giant Miocene South American Crocodiles (Archosauria: Crocodylia)". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 27 (3 [suppl.]): A120. doi:10.1080/02724634.2007.10010458. 
  3. ^ a b c Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas (2015). "Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis". PLOS ONE. 10 (2): e0117944. ISSN 1932-6203. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117944. 
  4. ^ Blanco, R. E.; Jones, W. W.; Villamil, J. N. (2014-04-16). "The 'death roll' of giant fossil crocodyliforms (Crocodylomorpha: Neosuchia): Allometric and skull strength analysis". Historical Biology. 27: 1. doi:10.1080/08912963.2014.893300. 
  5. ^ Bocqentin, J.; Melo, J. (2006). "Stupendemys souzai sp. nov. (Pleurodira, Podocnemididae) from the Miocene–Pliocene of the Solimões Formation, Brazil" (PDF). Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia. 9 (2): 187–192. 
  6. ^ Purussaurus at Fossilworks.org

Further reading[edit]

  • Rodrigues, J.B. (1892). ""Les reptiles fossils de la Vallée de L'Amazone". Vellosia". Contribuições do Museu Botânico do Amazonas. 2: 41–60. 
  • Langston, W (1965). "Fossil crocodilians from Colombia and the Cenozoic history of the Crocodilia in South America". University of California Publications in Geological Sciences. 52: 1–169. 

External links[edit]

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