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Why Are Peanut Allergies Becoming So Common?
Why Are Peanut Allergies Becoming So Common?
Published: 2014/10/03
Channel: Seeker
The Truth About Peanut Allergies
The Truth About Peanut Allergies
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Reactions
People With Peanut Allergies Try Peanuts
People With Peanut Allergies Try Peanuts
Published: 2016/03/07
Channel: Mason Hankins
Living with a PEANUT ALLERGY | Caroline and Olivia
Living with a PEANUT ALLERGY | Caroline and Olivia
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: Squared
The Facts about Peanut Allergies Might Surprise You
The Facts about Peanut Allergies Might Surprise You
Published: 2016/06/06
Channel: Healthcare Triage
Heartbreaking Story of This Morning Producer Left With Brain Damage Due to Nut Allergy
Heartbreaking Story of This Morning Producer Left With Brain Damage Due to Nut Allergy
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: This Morning
Bubble
Bubble's Peanut Allergy
Published: 2015/09/15
Channel: Snowdodger1 Comedy
Meet the Robinsons - peanut allergy
Meet the Robinsons - peanut allergy
Published: 2015/06/25
Channel: Kerrie Thatcher
Boy Survives Delayed Reaction To Peanut Allergy
Boy Survives Delayed Reaction To Peanut Allergy
Published: 2012/01/30
Channel: KETV NewsWatch 7
This New Pill Could Cure Peanut Allergies
This New Pill Could Cure Peanut Allergies
Published: 2017/09/26
Channel: Seeker
George Lopez - peanut allergies and speaking english
George Lopez - peanut allergies and speaking english
Published: 2017/08/06
Channel: Vma vmavmavma44
STORYTIME: Living Life with SEVERE Food Allergies: Peanut Allergy, Gluten Free & Epi-pens | Blog
STORYTIME: Living Life with SEVERE Food Allergies: Peanut Allergy, Gluten Free & Epi-pens | Blog
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Life With DaraLovesCoupons
The Peanut Reaction
The Peanut Reaction
Published: 2008/06/26
Channel: Andrew Borsk
Why Peanut Allergy Is On The Rise (..and how to prevent it)
Why Peanut Allergy Is On The Rise (..and how to prevent it)
Published: 2016/04/13
Channel: Dr. Dan
How To Live With A SEVERE Nut Allergy (Epi-Pen Demonstration INCLUDED)
How To Live With A SEVERE Nut Allergy (Epi-Pen Demonstration INCLUDED)
Published: 2016/08/29
Channel: Sarah-Jane Basham
United Airlines Peanut Allergy
United Airlines Peanut Allergy
Published: 2013/08/08
Channel: Dan Brian
CHILD PEANUT ALLERGY | EMILY NORRIS
CHILD PEANUT ALLERGY | EMILY NORRIS
Published: 2015/07/04
Channel: Emily Norris
Nut Allergies are the WORST
Nut Allergies are the WORST
Published: 2016/02/15
Channel: Colecperrine
Peanut Allergies Are Not Funny
Peanut Allergies Are Not Funny
Published: 2013/04/26
Channel: kmpstudios
Louis CK - Nut Allergy
Louis CK - Nut Allergy
Published: 2013/06/14
Channel: MA924618
Emergency - Anaphylactic Shock in a Child (Peanut Allergy)
Emergency - Anaphylactic Shock in a Child (Peanut Allergy)
Published: 2015/02/03
Channel: HNEkidshealth
Peanut Allergy Cure?
Peanut Allergy Cure?
Published: 2015/01/28
Channel: SourceFed
Sarah Jessica Parker Shares about Her Son’s Life-Threatening Allergy
Sarah Jessica Parker Shares about Her Son’s Life-Threatening Allergy
Published: 2016/05/12
Channel: The Doctors
A Possible Cure For Peanut Allergies Beginning In Pittsburgh
A Possible Cure For Peanut Allergies Beginning In Pittsburgh
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: CBS Pittsburgh
16-year-old dies after allergic reaction to peanuts
16-year-old dies after allergic reaction to peanuts
Published: 2014/11/29
Channel: TODAY’S TMJ4
Family kicked off Allegiant flight due to son
Family kicked off Allegiant flight due to son's peanut allergy
Published: 2016/05/08
Channel: KTNV Channel 13 Las Vegas
Meet the Robinsons - Mr. Harrington
Meet the Robinsons - Mr. Harrington's Peanut Allergy
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: John HH Ford
Peanut Allergy - Short Film
Peanut Allergy - Short Film
Published: 2016/04/22
Channel: Jacob Delashaw
peanut allergy symptoms | peanut butter allergy | nut allergies
peanut allergy symptoms | peanut butter allergy | nut allergies
Published: 2014/03/12
Channel: Lira Louncer
Peanut Allergies
Peanut Allergies
Published: 2012/12/03
Channel: TeachEthnobotany
Peanut Allergy Help for Kids & Adults - Dr. Michael Wexler
Peanut Allergy Help for Kids & Adults - Dr. Michael Wexler
Published: 2015/12/17
Channel: Advancements In Allergy: Wexler Michael R MD
Man Pretends He
Man Pretends He's Having Peanut Allergy Reaction In Elaborate Hospital Proposal
Published: 2017/10/06
Channel: Inside Edition
Introducing peanut-containing foods to prevent peanut allergy
Introducing peanut-containing foods to prevent peanut allergy
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: allergists
Peanut Allergies in School
Peanut Allergies in School
Published: 2011/04/06
Channel: SilverHollow100
Cracking the peanut allergy - TechKnow
Cracking the peanut allergy - TechKnow
Published: 2016/11/20
Channel: Al Jazeera English
New recommendations to prevent peanut allergies in kids
New recommendations to prevent peanut allergies in kids
Published: 2017/01/06
Channel: CBS Evening News
PEANUTS ALLERGY PRANK ON BOYFRIEND!!! COUPLE
PEANUTS ALLERGY PRANK ON BOYFRIEND!!! COUPLE'S PRANK WAR!!!
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: Sasha and Nathan
Peanut Allergy-Friendly Sunflower Seed Butter
Peanut Allergy-Friendly Sunflower Seed Butter
Published: 2017/04/28
Channel: Tasty
Can you outgrow a peanut allergy?
Can you outgrow a peanut allergy?
Published: 2015/03/18
Channel: Fox News
Toddler Allergy Appointment (Peanut Allergy)
Toddler Allergy Appointment (Peanut Allergy)
Published: 2013/12/02
Channel: ThePJmommy
Nut Allergies in Japan (I Was Hospitalized!) - 日本でナッツアレルギー
Nut Allergies in Japan (I Was Hospitalized!) - 日本でナッツアレルギー
Published: 2015/04/09
Channel: Lyz Kelly
Student, 7, dies from peanut allergy
Student, 7, dies from peanut allergy
Published: 2012/01/05
Channel: WAVY TV 10
Helping sufferers overcome peanut allergies
Helping sufferers overcome peanut allergies
Published: 2016/04/04
Channel: Fox News
Why is My Throat Itchy? Peanut Allergies Explained for children - Ask Dr.Smarty
Why is My Throat Itchy? Peanut Allergies Explained for children - Ask Dr.Smarty
Published: 2015/11/02
Channel: DrSmarty
Travelling with a peanut allergy
Travelling with a peanut allergy
Published: 2015/04/20
Channel: Allergy UK
Annoying Orange - Allergic to Peanuts
Annoying Orange - Allergic to Peanuts
Published: 2016/08/12
Channel: Annoying Orange
OIT peanut allergy
OIT peanut allergy
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: katie brendel
Peanut Allergy Prevention Focus of New Guidelines
Peanut Allergy Prevention Focus of New Guidelines
Published: 2017/01/06
Channel: Wall Street Journal
Immune-Based Therapy May Cure Kids Of Peanut Allergy, Training Reaction Through Probiotics | TIME
Immune-Based Therapy May Cure Kids Of Peanut Allergy, Training Reaction Through Probiotics | TIME
Published: 2017/08/17
Channel: TIME
Treatment works to reverse peanut allergy
Treatment works to reverse peanut allergy
Published: 2012/01/26
Channel: WAVY TV 10
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Peanut allergy
Nut warning 1.jpg
A peanut allergy warning
Classification and external resources
Specialty emergency medicine
ICD-10 T78.4
ICD-9-CM 995.61, V15.01
DiseasesDB 29154
MeSH D021183

Peanut allergy is a type of food allergy to peanuts. It is different from nut allergies. Physical symptoms of allergic reaction can include itchiness, urticaria, swelling, eczema, sneezing, asthma, abdominal pain, drop in blood pressure, diarrhea, and cardiac arrest.[1] Anaphylaxis may occur.[1]

It is due to a type I hypersensitivity reaction of the immune system in susceptible individuals.[2] The allergy is recognized "as one of the most severe food allergies due to its prevalence, persistency, and potential severity of allergic reaction."[1]

Prevention may be partly achieved through early introduction of peanuts to the diets of pregnant women and babies.[3][4] The principal treatment for anaphylaxis is epinephrine as an injection.[2]

In the United States, peanut allergy is present in 0.6% of the population.[5] It is a common cause of food-related fatal and near-fatal allergic reactions.[6]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Symptoms of peanut allergy are related to the action of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and other anaphylatoxins which act to release histamine and other mediator substances from mast cells (degranulation). In addition to other effects, histamine induces vasodilation of arterioles and constriction of bronchioles in the lungs, also known as bronchospasm. At least 11 peanut allergens have been described.[7]

Symptoms can include mild itchiness, urticaria, angioedema, facial swelling, rhinitis, vomiting, diarrhea, acute abdominal pain, exacerbation of atopic eczema, asthma, and cardiac arrest.[1] Anaphylaxis may occur.[1][8]

Cause[edit]

The cause of peanut allergy is unclear. The condition is associated with several specific proteins categorized according to four common food allergy superfamilies: Cupin (Ara h 1), Prolamin (Ara h 2, 6, 7, 9), Profilim (Ara h 5), and Bet v-1-related proteins (Ara h 8).[9] These proteins detect peanut allergens and mediate an immune response via release of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody as part of the allergic reaction.[9]

Peanut allergies are uncommon in children of undeveloped countries[10] where peanut products have been used to relieve malnutrition.[11] The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the relatively low incidence of childhood peanut allergies in undeveloped countries is a result of exposure to diverse food sources early in life, increasing immune capability, whereas food selection by children in developed countries is more limited, reducing immune capability.[10][12]

A possibility of cross-reaction to soy was dismissed by an analysis finding no linkage to consumption of soy protein, and indicated that appearance of any linkage is likely due to preference to using soy milk among families with known milk allergies.[13]

Timing of exposure[edit]

When infants consume peanut proteins while 4 to 11 months old, the risk of developing peanut allergy before the age of 5 years decreases by 11-25%, specifically in children with higher allergy risk via their parents with peanut allergy.[14] From these results, the American Academy of Pediatrics rescinded their recommendation to delay exposure to peanuts in children, also stating there is no reason to avoid peanuts during pregnancy or breastfeeding.[15][16]

Diet during pregnancy[edit]

There is conflicting evidence on whether maternal diet during pregnancy has any effect on development of allergies due to a lack of good studies.[17] A 2010 systematic review of clinical research indicated that there is insufficient evidence for whether maternal peanut exposure, or early consumption of peanuts by children, affects sensitivity for peanut allergy.[18]

Routes of exposure[edit]

Peanuts

While the most obvious route for an allergic exposure is unintentional ingestion, some reactions are possible through external exposure. Peanut allergies are much more common in infants who had oozing and crusted skin rashes as infants.[19] Sensitive children may react via ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact to peanut allergens which have persistence in the environment, possibly lasting over months.[20]

Airborne particles in a farm- or factory-scale shelling or crushing environment, or from cooking, can produce respiratory effects in exposed allergic individuals.[21] Empirical testing has discredited some reports of this type and shown some to be exaggerated. Residue on surfaces has been known to cause minor skin rashes, though not anaphylaxis. In The Peanut Allergy Answer Book, Harvard pediatrician Michael Young characterized this secondary contact risk to allergic individuals as rare and limited to minor symptoms.[21] Some reactions have been noted to be psychogenic in nature, the result of conditioning, and belief rather than a true chemical reaction. Blinded, placebo-controlled studies were unable to produce any reactions using the odor of peanut butter or its mere proximity.[21]

Diagnosis[edit]

Diagnosis of food allergies, including peanut allergy, begins with a medical history and physical examination.[2][22] National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases guidelines recommend that parent and patient reports of food allergy be confirmed by a doctor because "multiple studies demonstrate 50% to 90% of presumed food allergies are not allergies."[22]

Skin prick testing[edit]

Skin prick tests can be used to confirm specific food allergies.[1][2][22] Skin prick tests are designed to identify specific IgE bound to cutaneous mast cells.[1] During the test, a glycerinated allergen extract drop is placed on the patient's skin.[2] The patient's skin is then pricked through the drop.[2] This procedure is repeated with two controls: a histamine drop designed to elicit an allergic response, and a saline drop designed to elicit no allergic response.[2] The wheal that develops from the glycerinated extract drop is compared against the saline control.[2] A positive allergic test is one in which the extract wheal is 3mm larger than the saline wheal.[2] A positive skin prick test is about 50% accurate, so a positive skin prick test alone is not diagnostic of food allergies.[1][2][22]

Oral food challenge[edit]

The "gold standard" of diagnostic tests is a double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge.[2][22] At least two weeks prior to an oral food challenge, the person is placed on an elimination diet where the suspected allergen is avoided.[23] During the oral food challenge, they are administered a full age-appropriate serving of a suspected allergen in escalating size increments.[23] They are continuously monitored for allergic reaction during the test, and the challenge is stopped and treatment administered at the first objective sign of allergic reaction.[23]

Oral food challenges pose risks.[24] In a study of 584 oral food challenges administered to 382 patients, 48% (253) of challenges resulted in allergic reactions.[24] 28% (72) of these challenges resulted in "severe" reactions, which were defined by the study as a patient having: lower respiratory symptoms; cardiovascular symptoms; or any four other, more minor, symptoms.[24] Double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenges are also time consuming and require close medical supervision.[2] Because of these drawbacks to the double-blind placebo-controlled oral food challenge, open food challenges are the most commonly used form of food challenge.[23] Open food challenges are those in which a patient is fed an age-appropriate serving of a suspected food allergen in its natural form.[23] The observation of objective symptoms resulting from ingestion of the food, such as vomiting or wheezing, is considered diagnostic of food allergy if the symptoms correlate with findings from the patient’s medical history and laboratory testing such as the skin prick test.[22]

Prevention[edit]

Peanut allergy may be preventable by feeding babies who are at high risk foods that contain peanuts when they are as young as four to six months of age.[4]

Treatment[edit]

Currently there is no cure for allergic reactions to peanuts other than strict avoidance of peanuts and peanut-containing foods. Extra care needed for food consumed at or purchased from restaurants.[2] The principal treatment for anaphylaxis is epinephrine as an injection.[2]

Prognosis[edit]

Peanut allergies tend to resolve in childhood less often than allergies to soy, milk, egg, and wheat.[25] Accordingly, re-evaluation of peanut allergy is recommended on a yearly basis for young children with favorable previous test results, and every few years or longer for older children and adults.[25]

Epidemiology[edit]

The percentage of people with peanut allergies is 0.6% in the United States.[5] In a 2008 study, self-reported incidence of peanut allergy was estimated to affect 1.4% of the population of the United States, triple the 0.4-0.6% rate found in a 1997 study.[26] In England, an estimated 4,000 people are newly diagnosed with peanut allergy every year; 25,700 having been diagnosed with peanut allergy at some point in their lives.[27]

Peanut allergy is one of the most dangerous food allergies, and one of the least likely to be outgrown.[26] In Western countries, the incidence of peanut allergy is between 1-3%.[14] There has been a sudden increase in number of cases in the early 21st century.[14]

It is one of the most common causes of food-related deaths.[6] A meta-analysis found that death due to overall food-induced anaphylaxis was 1.8 per million person-years in people having food allergies, with peanut as the most common allergen.[20] However, there are opinions that the measures taken in response to the threat may be an over-reaction out of proportion to the level of danger. Media sensationalism has been blamed for anxiety outweighing reality.[28]

Frequency among adults and children is similar—around 1%—but one study showed self-reports of peanut allergy are on the rise in children in the United States.[29] The number of young children self-reporting the allergy doubled between 1997 and 2002.[30] Studies have found that self-reported rates of food allergies is higher than clinically-observed rates of food allergies.[2] The rates in self-reported incidence of the allergy, previously thought to be rare, may not be correlated with medical data confirming the self-reported incidence.[31][32]

Society and culture[edit]

The high severity of peanut allergy reactions, as well as the increasing prevalence of peanut allergy in the Western world have led to widespread public attention. However, the perceived prevalence of food allergies in the public view is substantially higher than the actual prevalence of food allergies.[33]

Because food allergy awareness has increased there are impacts on the quality of life for children, their parents and their immediate caregivers.[34][35][36][37] In the United States, the Food Allergen Labeling and Consumer Protection Act of 2004 causes people to be reminded of allergy problems every time they handle a food package, and restaurants have added allergen warnings to menus. The Culinary Institute of America, a premier school for chef training, has courses in allergen-free cooking and a separate teaching kitchen.[38] School systems have protocols about what foods can be brought into the school. Despite all these precautions, people with serious allergies are aware that accidental exposure can still easily occur at other peoples' houses, at school or in restaurants.[39] Food fear has a significant impact on quality of life.[36][37] Finally, for children with allergies, their quality of life is also affected by actions of their peers. There is an increased occurrence of bullying, which can include threats or acts of deliberately being touched with foods they need to avoid, also having their allergen-free food deliberately contaminated.[40]

Research[edit]

Immunotherapy involves attempts to reduce or eliminate allergic sensitivity by repeated exposure. This active research concept involves swallowing small amounts of peanuts, holding a peanut product under the tongue - sublingual immunotherapy - skin patches or injections. None of these are considered ready for use in people outside of carefully conducted trials.[41] In those with mild peanut allergies, gradually eating more and more peanuts resulted in at least some short-term benefits. Due to the amount of evidence being small and the high rate of adverse effects, this is not currently recommended as treatment.[42] Sublingual immunotherapy involves putting gradually increasing doses of an allergy extract under a person's tongue.[41] The extract is then either spat or swallowed.[41] It is not currently recommended as treatment; however, it is being studied.[41] Epicutaneous immunotherapy involves giving the allergen through a patch.[41] Trials are ongoing.[41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Loza C, Brostoff J (1995). "Peanut allergy". Clin. Exp. Allergy. 25 (6): 493–502. PMID 7648456. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Al-Muhsen S, Clarke AE, Kagan RS (2003). "Peanut allergy: an overview". CMAJ. 168 (10): 1279–85. PMC 154188Freely accessible. PMID 12743075. 
  3. ^ Ierodiakonou, D; Garcia-Larsen, V; Logan, A; Groome, A; Cunha, S; Chivinge, J; Robinson, Z; Geoghegan, N; Jarrold, K; Reeves, T; Tagiyeva-Milne, N; Nurmatov, U; Trivella, M; Leonardi-Bee, J; Boyle, RJ (20 September 2016). "Timing of Allergenic Food Introduction to the Infant Diet and Risk of Allergic or Autoimmune Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA. 316 (11): 1181–1192. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.12623. PMID 27654604. 
  4. ^ a b Togias, Alkis; Cooper, Susan F.; et al. (January 2017). "Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: Report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases–sponsored expert panel". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 139 (1): 29–44. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.010. PMID 28065278. 
  5. ^ a b "Addendum Guidelines for the Prevention of Peanut Allergy in the United States: Summary for Parents and Caregivers" (PDF). National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 17 January 2017. NIH.gov QuickFacts. Retrieved 16 November 2017. 
  6. ^ a b "Allergy Facts and Figures". Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America. 2017. Retrieved 16 November 2017. 
  7. ^ "Current and Emerging Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Treat and Prevent Peanut Allergy". Medscape. 2012. p. 3. Retrieved March 6, 2016. 
  8. ^ "Food Allergies and Intolerances" (PDF). British Dietetic Association. May 2015. Retrieved 16 November 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Mueller, G. A; Maleki, S. J; Pedersen, L. C (2014). "The Molecular Basis of Peanut Allergy". Current Allergy and Asthma Reports. 14 (5): 429. doi:10.1007/s11882-014-0429-5. PMC 4785306Freely accessible. PMID 24633613. 
  10. ^ a b Fleischer, D. M (2017). "Life after LEAP: How to implement advice on introducing peanuts in early infancy". Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 53 (S1): 3–9. doi:10.1111/jpc.13491. PMID 28276109. 
  11. ^ Rice, Andrew (2 September 2010). "The Peanut Solution". New York Times Magazine. Retrieved 2 September 2010. 
  12. ^ Dina Fine Maron (23 February 2015). "How Can Peanut Allergies Be Prevented?". Scientific American. Retrieved 23 October 2017. 
  13. ^ Koplin, Jennifer; Dharmage, Shyamali C.; Gurrin, Lyle; Osborne, Nicholas; Tang, Mimi L.K.; Lowe, Adrian J.; Hosking, Cliff; Hill, David; Allen, Katrina J. (2008). "Soy consumption is not a risk factor for peanut sensitization". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 121 (6): 1455–9. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.03.017. PMID 18436294. 
  14. ^ a b c Fleischer, DM; Sicherer, S; Greenhawt, M; Campbell, D; Chan, E; Muraro, A; Halken, S; Katz, Y; Ebisawa, M; Eichenfield, L; Sampson, H; Lack, G; Du Toit, G; Roberts, G; Bahnson, H; Feeney, M; Hourihane, J; Spergel, J; Young, M; As'aad, A; Allen, K; Prescott, S; Kapur, S; Saito, H; Agache, I; Akdis, CA; Arshad, H; Beyer, K; Dubois, A; Eigenmann, P; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Grimshaw, K; Hoffman-Sommergruber, K; Host, A; Lau, S; O'Mahony, L; Mills, C; Papadopoulos, N; Venter, C; Agmon-Levin, N; Kessel, A; Antaya, R; Drolet, B; Rosenwasser, L (January 2016). "Consensus Communication on Early Peanut Introduction and Prevention of Peanut Allergy in High-Risk Infants". Pediatric dermatology. 33 (1): 103–6. doi:10.1111/pde.12685. PMID 26354148. 
  15. ^ Greer, F. R.; Sicherer, S. H.; Burks, A. W. (2008). "Effects of Early Nutritional Interventions on the Development of Atopic Disease in Infants and Children: The Role of Maternal Dietary Restriction, Breastfeeding, Timing of Introduction of Complementary Foods, and Hydrolyzed Formulas". Pediatrics. 121 (1): 183–91. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3022. PMID 18166574. 
  16. ^ Lack, G; Fox, D; Northstone, K; Golding, J; Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents Children Study Team (2003). "Factors associated with the development of peanut allergy in childhood". New England Journal of Medicine. 348 (11): 977–85. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa013536. PMID 12637607. 
  17. ^ Chan, ES; Cummings, C; Canadian Paediatric Society, Community Paediatrics Committee and Allergy, Section. (December 2013). "Dietary exposures and allergy prevention in high-risk infants: A joint statement with the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology". Paediatrics & child health. 18 (10): 545–54. PMID 24497783. 
  18. ^ Thompson RL, Miles LM, Lunn J, Devereux G, Dearman RJ, Strid J, Buttriss JL (2010). "Peanut sensitisation and allergy: influence of early life exposure to peanuts". British Journal of Nutrition. 103 (9): 1278–86. doi:10.1017/S000711450999376X. PMID 20100372. 
  19. ^ Foong RX, Brough H (2017). "The role of environmental exposure to peanut in the development of clinical allergy to peanut". Clin. Exp. Allergy. 47 (10): 1232–1238. doi:10.1111/cea.12992. PMID 28779526. 
  20. ^ a b Turnbull, J. L; Adams, H. N; Gorard, D. A (2015). "Review article: The diagnosis and management of food allergy and food intolerances". Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 41 (1): 3–25. doi:10.1111/apt.12984. PMID 25316115. 
  21. ^ a b c Young, Michael C. The Peanut Allergy Answer Book: 2nd Edition. Fair Winds Press. ISBN 1-59233-233-1. [page needed]
  22. ^ a b c d e f Boyce, Joshua A. (December 2010). "Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Food Allergy in the United States: Summary of the NIAID Sponsored Expert Panel Report". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 
  23. ^ a b c d e Kirsi M. Järvinen; Scott H. Sicherer (2012). "Diagnostic oral food challenges: Procedures and biomarkers". 383. Journal of Immunological Methods. pp. 30–38. 
  24. ^ a b c Tamara T. Perry, MD; Elizabeth C. Matsui, MD; Mary K. Conover-Walker, CRNP; Robert A. Wood, MD (November 2004). "Risk of oral food challenges". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 
  25. ^ a b Sampson, HA; Aceves, S; Bock, SA; James, J; Jones, S; Lang, D; Nadeau, K; Nowak-Wegrzyn, A; Oppenheimer, J; Perry, TT; Randolph, C; Sicherer, SH; Simon, RA; Vickery, BP; Wood, R; Joint Task Force on Practice, Parameters.; Bernstein, D; Blessing-Moore, J; Khan, D; Lang, D; Nicklas, R; Oppenheimer, J; Portnoy, J; Randolph, C; Schuller, D; Spector, S; Tilles, SA; Wallace, D; Practice Parameter, Workgroup.; Sampson, HA; Aceves, S; Bock, SA; James, J; Jones, S; Lang, D; Nadeau, K; Nowak-Wegrzyn, A; Oppenheimer, J; Perry, TT; Randolph, C; Sicherer, SH; Simon, RA; Vickery, BP; Wood, R (November 2014). "Food allergy: a practice parameter update-2014". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 134 (5): 1016–25.e43. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.05.013. PMID 25174862. 
  26. ^ a b "Peanut Allergies in Kids on the Rise". WebMD. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  27. ^ Kotz, Daniel; Simpson, Colin R.; Sheikh, Aziz (2011). "Incidence, prevalence, and trends of general practitioner–recorded diagnosis of peanut allergy in England, 2001 to 2005". Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 127 (3): 623–30.e1. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2010.11.021. PMID 21236479. 
  28. ^ Colver, A. (2006). "Are the dangers of childhood food allergy exaggerated?". BMJ. 333 (7566): 494–6. doi:10.1136/bmj.333.7566.494. PMC 1557974Freely accessible. PMID 16946341. 
  29. ^ Sicherer, SH; Muñoz-Furlong, A; Sampson, HA (December 2003). "Prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy in the United States determined by means of a random digit dial telephone survey: a 5-year follow-up study". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 112 (6): 1203–7. doi:10.1016/s0091-6749(03)02026-8. PMID 14657884.  open access publication – free to read
  30. ^ Burks, A Wesley (2008). "Peanut allergy". The Lancet. 371 (9623): 1538–46. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60659-5. PMID 18456104. 
  31. ^ Hotchkiss, Michael (2013-07-25). "Princeton researcher digs into the contested peanut-allergy epidemic". Princeton University. Retrieved 2014-01-09. 
  32. ^ Waggoner, Miranda (August 2013). "Parsing the peanut panic: The social life of a contested food allergy epidemic". Social Science & Medicine. 90: 49–55. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.04.031. 
  33. ^ Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Clarke, Ann E.; Kagan, Rhoda S. "Peanut Allergy: An Overview". CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal. Retrieved 19 November 2017. 
  34. ^ Ravid NL, Annunziato RA, Ambrose MA, Chuang K, Mullarkey C, Sicherer SH, Shemesh E, Cox AL (2015). "Mental health and quality-of-life concerns related to the burden of food allergy". Psychiatr. Clin. North Am. 38 (1): 77–89. doi:10.1016/j.psc.2014.11.004. PMID 25725570. 
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