Inilah Klewang, Raja Geng Motor Pekanbaru

Channel: riaupostv   |   2013/05/13
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Inilah Klewang, Raja Geng Motor Pekanbaru
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Pekanbaru
Bandar Raya Pekanbaru (Malay)
ڤكنبارو (Jawi)
City
From top, left to right:Riau Main Stadium, Skyline of Pekanbaru, Zapin Dance Monument, Flyover Sudirman-Tuanku Tambusai, Riau Bank Tower, An-Nur Great Mosque Pekanbaru, Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport.
From top, left to right:Riau Main Stadium, Skyline of Pekanbaru, Zapin Dance Monument, Flyover Sudirman-Tuanku Tambusai, Riau Bank Tower, An-Nur Great Mosque Pekanbaru, Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport.
Coat of arms of Pekanbaru
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Kota Bertuah (Indonesian): "The City of Good Fortune"
Motto: Bersih, Tertib, Usaha Bersama, Aman, dan Harmonis (Clean, Orderly, Labor, Peace and Harmony)
Location of Pekanbaru in Indonesia
Location of Pekanbaru in Indonesia
Pekanbaru is located in Indonesia
Pekanbaru
Pekanbaru
Location of Pekanbaru in Indonesia
Coordinates: 0°32′0″N 101°27′0″E / 0.53333°N 101.45000°E / 0.53333; 101.45000Coordinates: 0°32′0″N 101°27′0″E / 0.53333°N 101.45000°E / 0.53333; 101.45000
Country  Indonesia
Province Riau
Founded 22 June 1784
Government
 • Mayor H. Firdaus, ST, MT
Area
 • Total 632.26 km2 (244.12 sq mi)
Population (2013)
 • Total 950,571 [1]
 • Density 1,503/km2 (3,890/sq mi)
Time zone WIB (UTC+7)
Postal code 28131
Area code(s) +62 761
Website www.pekanbaru.go.id

Pekanbaru (Jawi: ڤكنبارو) is the capital of Riau, a province in Indonesia on the island of Sumatra. It has an area of 632.26 km² with a population of 950,571,[1] making it Sumatra's third largest municipality, after Medan and Palembang.

It is located by the Siak River, which drains to the Strait of Malacca that makes Pekanbaru has direct access to the busy strait and was long known as a trading port (the city name is derived from the Indonesian words of 'new market' or 'new town', "pekan" meaning 'market' or 'town', and "baru" meaning 'new'). The city is divided into 12 subdistricts (kecamatan). This city is served by the Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport and Sungai Duku Port that is located by the Siak River. A settlement has existed on the site since the 17th century. In the late 19th century, the city was developed to serve the coffee and coal industries, and the Dutch built roads to help ship goods to Singapore and Malacca.

History[edit]

Sultanate of Siak[edit]

While Sultan Abdul Djalil Alamuddin Syah moved the capital of the Kingdom of Siak from Mempurato Senapelan (which is now Pekanbaru) in 1605, this township used to be the settlement only for some people, especially the sultanate's family. However due to the development in trade sector and more people decided to settle in this township, thus the sultan wanted to make Senapelan become the center and specialized area in trade sector for the Kingdom of Siak. But the sultan's goal was not completely achieved, which thereafter he decided to move the capital once again, to Siak Sri Indrapura.

Dutch East Indies Company[edit]

In 1749, under the terms of a peace treaty between the Sultan of Johor and the Dutch East India Company (VOC) Siak was put under Dutch administration. The Sultan moved residence to a palace in Senapelan built in 1760.

Sultan Syarif Kasim II of Siak and his wife, 1910-1920. The last Sultan of Siak who ceded his kingdom to the Republic of Indonesia.

At Senapelan Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah Alamudin unsuccessfully tried to organize a major regional fair. In the early 1780s his son Sultan Muhammad Ali managed to establish the grand fair. Due to the important commercial value for Sumatra region and Malacca Strait for general, the settlement itself was renamed Pekanbaru by the local council of tribal elders (consist of Datuk Pesisir, Datuk Limapuluh, Datuk Tanah Datar and Datuk Kampar) on 23 June 1784. Thus, every June 23 is celebrated as the founding day of Pekanbaru city.

Dutch East Indies[edit]

Following the collapse of the Dutch East Indies Company (VOC), all company ownership of Pekanbaru was transferred to the Dutch crown. During the colonial Dutch East Indies era in the 19th and early 20th century the city remained important, especially as a major trading point: Siak river navigation conditions provide a stable relationship with shipping from the Malacca Strait. Additionally the city became a major center of the coffee industry and coal industry. The urban influence of the sultans gradually became more and more nominal, especially after the capital of the Sultanate moved to Sri Indrapura in 1830. Actual management functions were carried out by representatives of the Dutch colonial administration, i.e., by the post of assistant-resident and controller.

Second World War[edit]

During the Second World War from February 1942 to August 1945 the city was occupied by the armed forces of Japan. In an effort to strengthen the military and logistical infrastructure in this part of Sumatra, the Japanese launched the construction of a 220 km long railway, connecting Pekanbaru to the coast of Malacca Straits.

The Pekanbaru Railway was constructed under harsh conditions by forced labour. 6,500 Dutch, mostly Indo-Europeans, and British prisoners of war and over 100,000 Indonesian, mostly Javanese, forced workers called Romusha were put to work by the Japanese army. By the time the work was completed in August 1945 almost a third of the European POWs and over half of the Indonesian coolies had died. The railway was never fully utilised. Today it remains unused and in an advanced state of decay.[2]

Politics[edit]

Since 1946, Pekanbaru has been governed by at least 15 mayors. The first mayor to rule this city was Datuk Wan Abdul Rahman who was elected on 17 May 1946. Currently, this city is governed by H. Firdaus S.T., M.T (appointed for the period of 2012-2017).

Reputation[edit]

The Chinese New Year celebration in Pekanbaru

Pekanbaru is one of the cleanest big cities in Indonesia.[3] In 2011, Pekanbaru received the "Adipura" ('cleanest city') award in the category of large city for the seventh consecutive time.[4] The city is notable for its wide main streets and large median road

However, Pekanbaru regularly suffers from haze problems due to forest fires, particularly in the dry season, since there is very little rain to put the fires out. Normally, the fires can be traced due to people simply burning their waste and due to the needs of oil palms plantations that make people have no choice but to burn all the trees and fields and most of the fires are intentionally started by some people but often unintentionally grow dangerous as well as developing more complicated problems, not only to surrounding the Riau Province regions but also towards countries like Malaysia and Singapore.

Demographics[edit]

Ethnicities[edit]

Pekanbaru is the third most populous city on Sumatra Island, after Medan and Palembang with a population of 950,571 recorded in September 2013.[1] The city is highly urbanized, drawing many of its people from the neighbouring province of West Sumatra. Since many centuries ago, Pekanbaru has one of the Minangkabau rantau (migration) area. After World War II, Minangkabau migration to Pekanbaru surged, nearly doubling between the years 1943 and 1961. Many Minang in Pekanbaru had been there for generations and considered themselves as Malays.[5] In addition to Minangkabau, the largest of city's population, the Riau Malays natives are the second, forming 26% of population. Javanese, Batak, and Tionghoa are the other main ethnic groups inhabiting Pekanbaru.

Religions[edit]

The pluralism surrounding the city can be reflected by the variety of religions and freedom of belief among the people in Pekanbaru. Islam is the majority religion in this city, followed by Christianity (Protestantism and Catholic) as well as Buddhism and small percentage of Hinduism and Confucianism. Each religion in this city is represented by the present of the worship place, such as The Great Mosque of An-Nur (Mesjid Agung An-nur) and Mesjid Raya Pekanbaru for Muslim community, Gereja Santa Maria A Fatima Pekanbaru and HKBP Church or Gereja Huria Kristen Batak Protestan Pekanbaru for Catholic and Protestant community as well as Vihara Dharma Loka and Vihara Sasana Loka for Buddhist and Confucius community and Pura Agung Jagatnatha for Hindu community in Pekanbaru.

Languages[edit]

Bahasa Indonesia is the official language that is spoken by the citizens of Pekanbaru. For informal use, Pekanbaru people generally use Minangkabau language in their economic and daily activities, especially in the market area. In addition the Malay languages and Javanese which are widely spoken because of the great population of both ethnicities in Pekanbaru. Hokkien is mainly spoken by Tionghoa as most of the Chinese Indonesian in Pekanbaru belong to the Hokkien people. In fact, many Chinese Indonesian in Pekanbaru come from other regions in Riau such as Selat Panjang, Bengkalis and Siak, alongside with the Chinese Indonesian who are originally from Pekanbaru itself. Moreover, many Chinese Indonesian especially from North Sumatra, particularly the Medan and West Sumatra regions have moved to Pekanbaru due to opportunities and rapid economical growth in the area since the 1990s and 2000s.

Ethnicities of Pekanbaru - 2000 Census[6]
ethnic group percent
Minangkabau
  
37.96%
Malays
  
26.10%
Javanese
  
15.70%
Batak
  
11.06%
Chinese
  
2.50%
Religion in Pekanbaru - 2010 Census
religion percent
Islam
  
84.80%
Protestantism
  
9.60%
Buddhism
  
3.46%
Catholicism
  
1.25%

Subdistricts[edit]

The city is divided into 12 subdistricts.[7]

Subdistricts Capital
Bukit Raya Simpang Tiga
Lima Puluh Rinties
Marpoyan Damai Tangkerang Tengah
Payung Sekaki Labuh Baru Timur
Pekanbaru Kota Tanah Tinggi
Sail Cinta Raja
Senapelan Padang Bulan
Sukajadi Sukajadi
Rumbai Sri Meranti
Rumbai Pesisir Lembah Damai
Tampan Sudomulyo Timur
Tenayan Raya Kulim

Climate[edit]

Pekanbaru has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification.[8] As with many cities with a tropical rainforest climate, Pekanbaru features relatively constant temperatures throughout the course of the year, with average high temperatures around 31 degrees Celsius and average lows of around 23 degrees Celsius. The city has no dry season month but does feature wetter and drier months. Its driest month (July) sees on average about 40% of the precipitation as its wettest month (November). Pekanbaru on average sees roughly 2600 mm of rain per year.

Climate data for Pekanbaru
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
31
(87)
31
(88)
31
(88)
32
(89)
32
(89)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(88)
31
(87)
30
(86)
31
(88)
Average low °C (°F) 23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(74)
24
(75)
23
(74)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(73)
23
(74)
23
(74)
23
(73)
23
(74)
Precipitation mm (inches) 180
(7.09)
210
(8.27)
220
(8.66)
250
(9.84)
200
(7.87)
160
(6.3)
120
(4.72)
170
(6.69)
210
(8.27)
240
(9.45)
300
(11.81)
270
(10.63)
2,580
(101.57)
Source: http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=90169&refer=&units=metric

Economy[edit]

The Panorama of Pekanbaru

After oil was discovered in the region in the 1930s, Pekanbaru's economy has depended heavily on oil revenues which have made it the city with the highest per capita income in Indonesia.[citation needed] Most of Indonesia's petroleum is produced in Riau, and much of Pekanbaru's economy is based on the petroleum industry. The international oil companies, prominently Chevron from US, as well as other Indonesian companies, have established their offices in the region. The city is connected by road to an oil refining and exporting port in Dumai. Many facilities and infrastructures, including airport, stadiums, housing areas, schools and several bridges that cross the Siak River in Pekanbaru as well as the roads in Rumbai area and the road to Dumai were partially and fully financed by oil companies in the area.

Pekanbaru is really close with some of the home of mega-company, such as PT Riau Andalan Pulp Paper, PT. Indah Kiat, PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia, and PT Perkebunan Nusantara V and some wood-sawmill, CPOs, and rubber-processing company and interestingly Pekanbaru is often said as one of the city with the highest money and banking rotation in Indonesia.

As Pekanbaru is prominently known as a major gateway of Indonesia from Singapore and Malaysia, the city has become a favorite stop before travelers go further inland regions in Sumatra Island such as Padang and Jambi. The Pasar Pusat (Central Market) is a food-trip destination and is considered a household-goods trove. Pasar Bawah and Pasar Tengah, located near to the port and Siak Riverbank are particularly the places for selling Chinese goods, including ceramics and carpets.

In the other hand, there are many developments of shopping malls and shopping centers surrounding Pekanbaru area such as Plaza Senapelan, Plaza Citra, Plaza Sukaramai, Mal Pekanbaru, Mal SKA, Mal Ciputra Seraya, Lotte Mart, Metropolitan Trade Center, The Central, Ramayana and Giant Grocery Store. Additionally, there are a lot of housing areas have been developed since 2000's surrounding the city, particularly in Panam area whereby the housing project along the road has been tremendously established and now becoming one of the most populous area in Pekanbaru even though it is located not that close to the down town.

Favorably, there are several landmarks that have been built in this city, for example The Great Mosque of An-nur, Mesjid Raya Pekanbaru, Pasar Bawah or Tourist Market, Riau Bank Tower, Riau Government Office Tower, Zapin Dance Monument and many to come.

Transportation[edit]

TransMetro Pekanbaru Bus

There are several transportation mode in Pekanbaru such as taxi, bus, oplet (share taxi), bajaj (auto rickshaw), ojek (motorcycle taxi) and Trans Metro Pekanbaru (bus rapid transit). However due to the rapidly increasing numbers of motorized vehicles, the traffic congestion in some area in this city such as Jalan Sudirman, Jalan Riau and Jalan HR. Subrantas that mainly connect some populous sub-districts in the city cannot be avoided anymore particularly during weekend and holidays period. These problems surely initializes the government of Pekanbaru to come out with plans and breakthrough to cope the matters, especially within 10 to 15 years ahead.

Land[edit]

For land transport, Pekanbaru is connected to Padang, Medan, Jambi, Palembang, and other cities or regions in Riau Province and Sumatra Island by the existence of Bandar Raya Payung Sekaki Terminal Bus (Terminal AKAP). The terminal was officially open for public in 2007, replacing Pekanbaru's former "Mayang Terurai Terminal Bus" due to heavy congestion. However, practically the Bandar Raya Payung Sekaki Bus Terminal is not fully utilized by several prominent Bus Companies such as Pelangi, Makmur, Riau Mandiri and Sidomulyo as well as other bus operators because of the location which is deemed by some parties to be not as strategic as Mayang Terurai Terminal Bus. These matters surely make some bus companies have no choice but to drop off the passengers not in the designated zone. This non-formal drop-off zone is usually called by local people as terminal bayangan.

Rivers[edit]

Sungai Duku Port (Pelabuhan Sungai Duku) is located by the Siak River, connecting Pekanbaru with some regions in Riau Province and Riau Islands such as Siak, Tanjung Buton, Selatpanjang, Bengkalis and Batam. In the past, this port served direct ferry to Malacca in Malaysia which approximately takes 6-8 hours per trip, but unfortunately in the present the service was not continued anymore as several ferry companies decided to move their operations to Tanjung Buton.

Air[edit]

Sultan Syarif Kasim II International Airport serves flights in Pekanbaru from/and to several cities in Indonesia such as Batam, Medan, Tanjung Pinang, Bandung, Jakarta, Dumai, Yogyakarta, etc. and international flights to Malaysia (Johor Bahru, Kuala Lumpur, Malacca) and Singapore. Several prominent domestic airlines serve the route from/and to Pekanbaru such as Garuda Indonesia, Lion Air, Batik Air, Tigerair Mandala, Indonesia Air Asia, Sriwijaya Air and Sky Aviation. The international flights are presently served by AirAsia, Firefly, SilkAir and Tigerair Mandala.

In 2012, the new terminal was opened and fully operated, replacing the old terminal that had been used since the 1980s. The old terminal is planned to be demolished in order to build more spaces for apron and more aircraft capacity. Even though the new terminal has been fully used, the aerobridge that were established since then in order to support the infrastructure of the new airport terminal have never been utilized as the apron expansion has not been completed yet after two years since the opening of the new terminal to the public in 2012. Thus, the airport company PT Angkasa Pura II in the present facilitates the flight passengers with shuttle bus from/and to the terminal temporarily until the aerobridge can be entirely used whereby it is planned to be completed in 2014.

Pekanbaru's airport is also utilized separately as the airbase of the TNI-AU (Indonesian Air Force) and homebase of the 12th Squadron, a shelter to some Hawk Mk.109s and Mk.209s. The airbase is named after the former head of Indonesian Air Force, Roesmin Nurjadin and formally called as Pangkalan Udara Roesmin Nurjadin or Roesmin Nurjadin Airbase.

Sport[edit]

PSPS Pekanbaru

Football is the most popular sport in Indonesia. In Pekanbaru, PSPS Pekanbaru is the local club that has been competing in Indonesian Super League since the 2000s. Kaharudin Nasution Sport Center Rumbai Stadium is the home stadium for PSPS Pekanbaru.

In 2012, 2013 AFC U-22 Asian Cup qualification, 2012 Pekan Olahraga Nasional (Indonesian National Games) and 2012 Pekan Paralympic Nasional was held in Riau Province. Since then, many sport facilities have been built in Pekanbaru because this city was home for many sports venue during these multi-national events, such as the prominent Riau Main Stadium. Unfortunately, many sport facilities that have been developed before the 2012 Pekan Olahraga Nasional are not being managed and taken care properly, in example like Riau Main Stadium which is never utilized anymore after the event until today due to financial problem between the local government and the contractors of the stadium itself.

Several golf course can be found in Pekanbaru, such as Pekanbaru Golf Course Country Club at Kubang Kulim, Simpang Tiga Golf Course at AURI Complex, Rumbai Golf Course at IKSORA Rumbai Complex and Labersa Golf Course at Labersa Hotel and Convention Center.

Media[edit]

The TVRI Riau (state-owned) and Riau TV (private) are some of the popular local television stations in Pekanbaru. Several local newspapers are operating in Pekanbaru, such as Riau Pos, Haluan Riau, Tribun Pekanbaru, Pekanbaru Pos, Pekanbaru MX and Koran Riau.

Sister and Twin Town cities[edit]

Sister cities Country
Malacca City Malaysia Malaysia
Kota Bharu Malaysia Malaysia
Zamboanga City Philippines Philippines
Davao City Philippines Philippines
Phuket Thailand Thailand
Chongqing China China
Liuzhou China China
Quebec City Canada Canada
Suwon South Korea South Korea
Fukushima City Japan Japan
Daegu South Korea South Korea
San Jose, California United States United States
Utrecht Netherlands Netherlands
Atlanta United States United States
Da Nang Vietnam Vietnam
Batam Indonesia Indonesia
Bandung Indonesia Indonesia
Bandar Lampung Indonesia Indonesia
Jeddah Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia

Photo gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c antarariau.com – Dinas Kependudukan dan Catatan Sipil Pemerintah Kota Pekanbaru
  2. ^ Hovinga, Henk (2010). The Sumatra Railroad: Final Destination Pakan Baroe 1943-45. Leiden: KITLV Press. ISBN 9789067183284. 
  3. ^ (Indonesian) Presiden Berikan Penghargaan Kalpataru dan Piala Adipura
  4. ^ http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2011/06/07/pekanbaru-get-7th-adipura-award.html
  5. ^ Andaya, B.W; The Unity of Southeast Asia: Historical approaches and questions, in Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, Vol. 28, No. 1, 1997.
  6. ^ Indonesia's Population: Ethnicity and Religion in a Changing Political Landscape. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. 2003. ISBN 9812302123
  7. ^ http://www.wilayahindonesia.com/kabupaten-per-propinsi/kabupaten-di-riau/kota-pekanbaru/
  8. ^ Climate Summary for Pekanbaru

External links[edit]

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