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Rise of The Beast - Pergamon and The Seat of Satan
Rise of The Beast - Pergamon and The Seat of Satan
Published: 2015/03/04
Channel: Yeshua Ben Yosef
Plunder: The Pergamon Altar (1995)
Plunder: The Pergamon Altar (1995)
Published: 2015/02/07
Channel: Terry McScann
Pergamon
Pergamon
Published: 2014/12/30
Channel: 2ndClemens
Jonathan Cahn: What happened to the Pergamon Throne of Satan (part 1 of 5)?
Jonathan Cahn: What happened to the Pergamon Throne of Satan (part 1 of 5)?
Published: 2015/03/29
Channel: Connie Oelbaum
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon
Great Altar of Zeus and Athena at Pergamon
Published: 2012/04/02
Channel: Smarthistory. art, history, conversation.
Tangerine Dream - 1980 Pergamon aka Quichotte
Tangerine Dream - 1980 Pergamon aka Quichotte
Published: 2014/09/06
Channel: Eddie Essence
The Altar of Zeus - The Throne of Satan himself - Pergamon Museum Berlin - by Gorilla199
The Altar of Zeus - The Throne of Satan himself - Pergamon Museum Berlin - by Gorilla199
Published: 2013/11/03
Channel: gorilla199
Pergamon Final Thoughts
Pergamon Final Thoughts
Published: 2013/07/22
Channel: rahdo
BERLIN, the fascinating historical exhibits of the PERGAMON Museum, GERMANY
BERLIN, the fascinating historical exhibits of the PERGAMON Museum, GERMANY
Published: 2013/08/20
Channel: Vic Stefanu - World Travels and Adventures
The history of Pergamon where Satan
The history of Pergamon where Satan's throne is - FULL
Published: 2017/05/07
Channel: Ancient Histories
Total War Rome 2 : Black Sea Colonies : Pergamon 1
Total War Rome 2 : Black Sea Colonies : Pergamon 1
Published: 2014/11/18
Channel: HeirofCarthage
PERGAMON SEAT OF SATAN AND WW2
PERGAMON SEAT OF SATAN AND WW2
Published: 2015/10/10
Channel: "LAST DAYS PROPHECIES UNSEALED"
Pergamon | Journey Thru History
Pergamon | Journey Thru History
Published: 2014/12/23
Channel: Journey Thru History
Obama
Obama's Throne Of Satan (Pergamon Altar)
Published: 2012/08/02
Channel: Patriot Fire
Akropolis von Pergamon
Akropolis von Pergamon
Published: 2010/12/26
Channel: 2ndClemens
Krallar Ordular Kervanlar - Pergamon Bergama - TRT Okul
Krallar Ordular Kervanlar - Pergamon Bergama - TRT Okul
Published: 2015/03/27
Channel: TRT Okul
The Pergamon Museum in Berlin
The Pergamon Museum in Berlin
Published: 2013/02/05
Channel: Married2Travel
Jonathan Cahn: The Mystery of the Pergamon Throne of Satan Continues (part 4 of 5)
Jonathan Cahn: The Mystery of the Pergamon Throne of Satan Continues (part 4 of 5)
Published: 2015/11/08
Channel: Connie Oelbaum
Jonathan Cahn #Part 55 August 2017 - The Mystery of the Pergamon Throne of Satan [Update 2017]
Jonathan Cahn #Part 55 August 2017 - The Mystery of the Pergamon Throne of Satan [Update 2017]
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: The Harbinger
BlackIsBeautiful - Pergamon (200 Records)
BlackIsBeautiful - Pergamon (200 Records)
Published: 2011/08/14
Channel: 200 Records
A visit to the Pergamon museum in Berlin
A visit to the Pergamon museum in Berlin
Published: 2015/07/30
Channel: Kurt Liljekvist
A Walk Around The Pergamon Museum, Berlin
A Walk Around The Pergamon Museum, Berlin
Published: 2015/03/10
Channel: Michael Jiroch
Rabbi Jonathan Cahn: The Mystery of Pergamon
Rabbi Jonathan Cahn: The Mystery of Pergamon
Published: 2015/03/27
Channel: The Jim Bakker Show
Bergama / Pergamon - Turkey
Bergama / Pergamon - Turkey
Published: 2011/01/21
Channel: Eric Ross
Pergamon Gameplay Runthrough
Pergamon Gameplay Runthrough
Published: 2013/07/22
Channel: rahdo
Rabbi Jonathan Cahn: The Mystery of Pergamon Part 2
Rabbi Jonathan Cahn: The Mystery of Pergamon Part 2
Published: 2015/07/07
Channel: The Jim Bakker Show
Heir
Heir's Faction Focus : Pergamon : Total War Rome 2
Published: 2014/11/23
Channel: HeirofCarthage
Pergamon Museum - Berlin, 2014
Pergamon Museum - Berlin, 2014
Published: 2014/08/07
Channel: 1957People
21 maj 12:20 Finalmatch 2 Herrar  Team Clan - Team Pergamon
21 maj 12:20 Finalmatch 2 Herrar Team Clan - Team Pergamon
Published: 2017/05/21
Channel: Swebowl
Farfisa Pergamon
Farfisa Pergamon
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: Claudio Capponi
Pergamon and its Maritime Satellite Elaia
Pergamon and its Maritime Satellite Elaia
Published: 2012/02/16
Channel: Penn Museum
Jonathan Cahn   Seat of Satan, Pergamon, The Altar of Zeus The connection to current events
Jonathan Cahn Seat of Satan, Pergamon, The Altar of Zeus The connection to current events
Published: 2015/11/29
Channel: Rabbi Jonathan Cahn
The Mystery of Pergamon I.
The Mystery of Pergamon I.
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: Jonathan Cahn - Hope of the World
Revelation 2: 12-13...Altar Of Zeus (Satan/Pergamon) & The Antichrist
Revelation 2: 12-13...Altar Of Zeus (Satan/Pergamon) & The Antichrist
Published: 2014/09/03
Channel: ufoimtc
Gigantomachy-Great Altar of Pergamon
Gigantomachy-Great Altar of Pergamon
Published: 2009/01/19
Channel: AndrePaulDurand
Pergamon Extended Gameplay
Pergamon Extended Gameplay
Published: 2013/07/22
Channel: rahdo
Paolo Magri in esibizione con organo Farfisa Pergamon
Paolo Magri in esibizione con organo Farfisa Pergamon
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: Vieniviaconme
Divinity: Original Sin - Staff of Pergamon - Evelyn
Divinity: Original Sin - Staff of Pergamon - Evelyn's Diary - QUEST GUIDES/WALKTHROUGHS
Published: 2014/07/06
Channel: GamesGlitches Gaming
Total War Rome II: Pergamon - Grand Campaign #01
Total War Rome II: Pergamon - Grand Campaign #01
Published: 2015/01/29
Channel: Nozi87
Adam Andersson/Team Pergamon 300
Adam Andersson/Team Pergamon 300
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: Bulltofta BK 2
PERGAMON MUSEUM BERLIN 2011
PERGAMON MUSEUM BERLIN 2011
Published: 2011/07/05
Channel: harad05
The history of  Pergamon where Satan
The history of Pergamon where Satan's throne is - Part 1 of 2
Published: 2017/05/07
Channel: Ancient Histories
Total War: Rome 2 - Pergamon #001 - Vereinigt die Stadtstaaten [Deutsch] | Rome II Gameplay
Total War: Rome 2 - Pergamon #001 - Vereinigt die Stadtstaaten [Deutsch] | Rome II Gameplay
Published: 2014/11/28
Channel: DrProof - Imperator der Spielkultur
Pergamon Ride Cymbal Compilation (Part 1)
Pergamon Ride Cymbal Compilation (Part 1)
Published: 2017/06/17
Channel: Drum Clinic Test Drive
PERGAMON-Panorama von Yadegar Asisi
PERGAMON-Panorama von Yadegar Asisi
Published: 2011/09/22
Channel: asisi
Voodoo Wings - PERGAMON
Voodoo Wings - PERGAMON
Published: 2015/09/02
Channel: Voodoo Wings
Pergamon Cymbals-Orient Series
Pergamon Cymbals-Orient Series
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: Drum Clinic Test Drive
Ark Şükrü tül / Büyük sunak / Pergamon
Ark Şükrü tül / Büyük sunak / Pergamon
Published: 2014/12/09
Channel: Tevfık Karaarslan
Team Pergamon - FH Engelholm (Elitseriesammandrag)
Team Pergamon - FH Engelholm (Elitseriesammandrag)
Published: 2017/04/30
Channel: Bulltofta BK
Unesco Turkey 360 - Pergamon
Unesco Turkey 360 - Pergamon
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: TURİNG KÜLTÜR SANAT
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Pergamon
τὸ Πέργαμον (in Ancient Greek)
Pergamon - 01.jpg
The reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon
Pergamon is located in Turkey
Pergamon
Shown within Turkey
Alternate name Pergamum
Location Bergama, İzmir Province, Turkey
Region Aeolis
Coordinates 39°07′57″N 27°11′03″E / 39.13250°N 27.18417°E / 39.13250; 27.18417Coordinates: 39°07′57″N 27°11′03″E / 39.13250°N 27.18417°E / 39.13250; 27.18417
Type Settlement
Area 90 ha (220 acres)
History
Cultures Greek, Roman
Associated with Epigonus, Sosus of Pergamon, Aelius Nicon, Galen
Site notes
Condition Ruined
Ownership Public
Public access Yes
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official name Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape
Criteria Cultural: (i), (ii), (iii), (iv), (vi) Edit this on Wikidata
Reference 1457
Inscription 2014 (38th Session)

Pergamon /ˈpɜːrɡəmən/ or /ˈpɜːrɡəmɒn/ or Pergamum /ˈpɜːrɡəməm/ (Ancient Greek: τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος) was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis. It is located 26 kilometres (16 mi) from the modern coastline of the Aegean Sea on a promontory on the north side of the river Caicus (modern-day Bakırçay) and northwest of the modern city of Bergama.

Many remains of its impressive monuments can still be seen and especially the outstanding masterpiece of the Pergamon Altar.[1]

It became the capital of the Kingdom of Pergamon during the Hellenistic period under the Attalid dynasty in 281–133 BC.

Pergamon is cited in the Book of Revelation as one of the seven churches of Asia.

History[edit]

Antiquity[edit]

Xenophon provides the earliest surviving documentary mention of Pergamon.[2] Captured by Xenophon in 399 BC and immediately recaptured by the Persians, it was severely punished in 362 BC after a revolt. It did not become important until Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed and it became the capital of the new kingdom of Pergamon which Philetaerus founded in 281 BC, beginning the Attalid dynasty. In 261 BC he bequeathed his possessions to his nephew Eumenes I (263–241 BC), who increased them greatly, leaving as heir his cousin Attalus I (241–197 BC).[3]

The Kingdom of Pergamon (colored olive), shown at its greatest extent in 188 BC

The Attalids became some of the most loyal supporters of Rome in the Hellenistic world. Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars, and again under Eumenes II (197–158 BC), against Perseus of Macedon, during the Third Macedonian War. For their support against the Seleucids, the Attalids were rewarded with all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor.

As a consequence of its rise to power, the city expanded greatly. Until 188 BC, it had not grown significantly since its founding by Philetaerus, and covered c. 21 hectares (52 acres). After this year, a massive new city wall was constructed, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) long and enclosing an area of approximately 90 hectares (220 acres).[4]

The Attalids ruled with intelligence and generosity. Many documents survive showing how the Attalids supported the growth of towns by sending in skilled artisans and by remitting taxes. They allowed the Greek cities in their domains to maintain nominal independence. They sent gifts to Greek cultural sites like Delphi, Delos, and Athens. They defeated the invading Celts. They remodeled the Acropolis of Pergamon after the Acropolis in Athens. When Attalus III (138–133 BC) died without an heir in 133 BC, he bequeathed the whole of Pergamon to Rome in order to prevent a civil war.

Roman[edit]

Not everyone in Pergamon accepted Rome's rule. Aristonicus, who claimed to be Attalus' brother as well as the son of Eumenes II, an earlier king, led a revolt among the lower classes with the help of Blossius, a famous Stoic philosopher. Aristonicus took the regal name Eumenes III. For a period he enjoyed success, defeating and killing the Roman consul P. Licinius Crassus and his army. However, his revolt was put down in 129 BC by the consul M. Perperna, and Aristonicus was executed in Rome. After this, Pergamon was divided by Perperna's successor, M'. Aquillius, among Rome, Pontus, and Cappadocia.

Pergamon was briefly the capital of the Roman province of Asia, before the capital was transferred to Ephesus.

After a slow decline, the city was favoured by several imperial initiatives under Hadrian (117 - 138). It was granted the title of metropolis and as a result of this an ambitious building programme was carried out: massive temples, a stadium, a theatre, a huge forum and an amphitheatre were constructed. In addition, at the city limits the shrine to Asclepius (the god of healing) was expanded into a lavish spa. This sanctuary grew in fame and was considered one of the most famous therapeutic and healing centers of the Roman world. Galen, after Hippocrates the most famous physician of antiquity, was born at Pergamon and received his early training at the Asclepeion.

Pergamon reached the height of its greatness under Roman Imperial rule and was home to about 200,000 inhabitants. The city was an early seat of Christianity and was granted a bishopric by the 2nd century.

The city suffered badly during the third century and was badly damaged by an earthquake in 262 and was sacked by the Goths shortly after.

The Library of Pergamon was renowned, and second only to the Library of Alexandria, although not approaching Alexandria in scholarship.

Middle Ages[edit]

Anatolia was invaded by the Persian Sassanid Empire in c.620 and after the Persians were driven out by Byzantine forces, Pergamon was rebuilt on a much smaller scale by Emperor Constans II.

Not long after, Pergamon was sacked by the armies of Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik on their way to the siege of Constantinople in 717.

With the defeat of the Byzantine army at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Seljuk Turks were effectively in control of all of Anatolia, but they withdrew to central and eastern Anatolia to consolidate their gains as the Sultanate of Rum and Pergamon returned to Byzantine control. The decline of the Sultanate of Rum in the late 12th century saw the rise of the Anatolian beyliks and with the continuing weakness in the Byzantine Empire, and the expansion of the beyliks, Pergamon was absorbed into the baylik of Karasids/Karası by 1336. Competition among the bayliks resulted in the takeover of the baylik of Karasids/Karası by the Ottoman Emirate - the forerunner of the Ottoman Empire - in 1357.

The Ottoman Sultan Murad III had two large alabaster urns transported from the ruins of Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave in the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.[5]

Main sights[edit]

Upper Acropolis[edit]

Theatre of Pergamon
The Great Altar of Pergamon, on display in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, Germany
Reconstructed view of the Pergamon Acropolis, Friedrich Thierch, 1882
View of Acropolis from Sanctuary of Asclepion

The Great Altar of Pergamon is in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin. The base of this altar remains on the upper part of the Acropolis. A smaller frieze on a wall inside the Altar of Pergamon depicted the life of Telephus, son of Heracles and legendary founder of Pergamon.[6]

Other notable structures still in existence on the upper part of the Acropolis include:

  • The Hellenistic Theater with a seating capacity of 10,000. This had the steepest seating of any known theater in the ancient world.[7]
  • The Sanctuary of Trajan (also known as the Trajaneum)
  • The Sanctuary of Athena
  • The Library of Pergamum
  • The Royal palaces
  • The Heroön – a shrine where the kings of Pergamon, particularly Attalus I and Eumenes II, were worshipped.[8]
  • The Temple of Dionysus
  • The Upper Agora
  • The Roman baths complex
  • Diodorus Pasporos heroon
  • Arsenals

Pergamon's library on the Acropolis (the ancient Library of Pergamum) was the second best in the ancient Greek civilization.[9] Pergamon was also a flourishing center for the production of parchment (the word itself, a corruption of pergamenos, meaning "from Pergamon"), which had been used in Asia minor long before the rise of the city. The story about the Pergamene invention of parchment because of Alexandria's papyrus monopoly is a mere legend.[10] The library at Pergamom was believed to contain 200,000 volumes, which Mark Antony later gave to Cleopatra as a wedding present.[11]

The site is today easily accessible by the Bergama Acropolis Gondola from the base station in northeastern Bergama.

Lower Acropolis[edit]

The lower part of the Acropolis has the following structures:

  • the Upper Gymnasium
  • the Middle Gymnasium
  • the Lower Gymnasium
  • the Temple of Demeter
  • the Sanctuary of Hera
  • the House of Attalus
  • the Lower Agora and
  • the Gate of Eumenes

At the foot of the Acropolis[edit]

Sanctuary of Asclepius[edit]

The Roman theatre
Temple of Telesphorus

three kilometres (1.9 miles) south of the Acropolis at (39° 7′ 9″ N, 27° 9′ 56″ E), down in the valley, there was the Sanctuary of Asclepius (also known as the Asclepium), the god of healing. The Asclepium was approached along an 820-meter colonnaded sacred way. In this place people with health problems could bathe in the water of the sacred spring, and in the patients' dreams Asclepius would appear in a vision to tell them how to cure their illness. Archeology has found lots of gifts and dedications that people would make afterwards, such as small terracotta body parts, no doubt representing what had been healed. Galen, the most famous doctor in the ancient Roman Empire and personal physician of Emperor Marcus Aurelius, worked in the Asclepium for many years.[12] Notable extant structures in the Asclepium include:

  • the Roman theater
  • the North Stoa
  • the South Stoa
  • the Temple of Asclepius
  • a circular treatment center (sometimes known as the Temple of Telesphorus)
  • a healing spring
  • an underground passageway
  • a library
  • the Via Tecta (or the Sacred Way, which is a colonnaded street leading to the sanctuary) and
  • a propylon

Reconstruction of ancient Pergamon.

Serapis Temple[edit]

Pergamon's other notable structure is the great temple of the Egyptian gods Isis and/or Serapis, known today as the "Red Basilica" (or Kızıl Avlu in Turkish), about one kilometre (0.62 miles) south of the Acropolis at (39 7' 19" N, 27 11' 1" E). It consists of a main building and two round towers within an enormous temenos or sacred area. The temple towers flanking the main building had courtyards with pools used for ablutions at each end, flanked by stoas on three sides. According to tradition, in the year 92 Saint Antipas, the first bishop of Pergamum ordained by John the Apostle, was a victim of an early clash between Serapis worshipers and Christians. An angry mob is said to have burned Saint Antipas alive inside a Brazen Bull incense burner, which represented the bull god Apis.[13] The Christian community in Pergamum was one of the Seven Churches to which the Book of Revelation was addressed. The forecourt of the Temple of Isis/Sarapis is still supported by the 193-metre-wide (633-foot) Pergamon Bridge, the largest bridge substruction of antiquity.[14]

Panoramic view of Pergamon and the modern city of Bergama.

Inscriptions[edit]

Greek inscriptions discovered at Pergamon include the rules of the town clerks,[15] the so-called Astynomoi inscription, which has added to understanding of Greek municipal laws and regulations, including how roads were kept in repair, regulations regarding the public and private water supply and lavatories.

Notable people[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Pergamon Altar, P. v Zaubern, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, 1991
  2. ^ Xenophon, Anabasis 7.8.8; Hellenica 3.1.6.
  3. ^  One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Pergamus". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. 
  4. ^ Errington, R. Malcolm (2008). A History of the Hellenistic World: 323–30 BC. Blackwell History of the Ancient World. 13. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 9781444359596. 
  5. ^ E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936 - Page 526
  6. ^ Tucker, pp. 28–29.
  7. ^ [1] accessed September 24, 2007
  8. ^ Bergama (Pergamum)-Akhisar (Thyatira) accessed September 24, 2007
  9. ^ after that of Alexandria (Royal Library of Alexandria)
  10. ^ Green, Peter. Alexander to Actium. The historical evolution of the Hellenistic age, p. 168.
  11. ^ Kekeç 1989, p. 40.
  12. ^ Tucker, p. 36.
  13. ^ Tucker, p. 34.
  14. ^ Grewe & Özis 1994, pp. 350, 352
  15. ^ Klaffenbach, G. (1954). "Die Astynomeninschrift von Pergamon". Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften. Abhandlungen. Klasse für Sprachen, Literatur und Kunst. 6. 

References[edit]

  • Grewe, Klaus; Özis, Ünal (1994). "Die antiken Flußüberbauungen von Pergamon und Nysa (Türkei)". Antike Welt (in German). 25 (4): 348–352. 
  • Hansen, Esther V. (1971). The Attalids of Pergamon. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press; London: Cornell University Press Ltd. ISBN 0-8014-0615-3.
  • Kekeç, Tevhit. (1989). Pergamon. Istanbul, Turkey: Hitit Color. ISBN 9789757487012.
  • Kosmetatou, Elizabeth (2003) "The Attalids of Pergamon," in Andrew Erskine, ed., A Companion to the Hellenistic World. Oxford: Blackwell: pp. 159–174. ISBN 1-4051-3278-7.
  • McEvedy, Colin (2012). Cities of the Classical World. Penguin Global
  • Nagy, Gregory (1998). "The Library of Pergamon as a Classical Model," in Helmut Koester, ed., Pergamon: Citadel of the Gods. Harrisburg PA: Trinity Press International: 185-232.
  • Nagy, Gregory (2007). "The Idea of the Library as a Classical Model for European Culture," http://chs.harvard.edu/publications.sec/online_print_books.ssp/. Center for Hellenic Studies
  • Tucker, Jack (2012). Innocents Return Abroad: Exploring Ancient Sites in Western Turkey. ISBN 9781478343585. 
  • Xenophon. Xenophon in Seven Volumes, Carleton L. Brownson. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA; William Heinemann, Ltd., London. vol. 1 (1918), vol. 2 (1921), vol. 3 (1922).

External links[edit]

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