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Persian Farsi Alphabet (Introdutcion, Names&Sounds)
Persian Farsi Alphabet (Introdutcion, Names&Sounds)
Published: 2014/04/20
Channel: Persian Online Academy
Persian Grammar: Pronouncing and Writing the Persian Alphabet
Persian Grammar: Pronouncing and Writing the Persian Alphabet
Published: 2014/07/14
Channel: FCLangMedia
01 Persian Alphabet for Preschoolers P3
01 Persian Alphabet for Preschoolers P3
Published: 2014/01/02
Channel: Mohammadreza Rahimzadeh
Persian Alphabet - Lesson 1 | Alphabet Chart
Persian Alphabet - Lesson 1 | Alphabet Chart
Published: 2015/08/27
Channel: Talk Like a Persian
PERSIAN ALPHABET
PERSIAN ALPHABET
Published: 2010/03/04
Channel: Nader Bagha
How to Pronounce the Persian Alphabet
How to Pronounce the Persian Alphabet
Published: 2015/08/23
Channel: Seena Ghaznavi
01 Persian Alphabet for Preschoolers P2
01 Persian Alphabet for Preschoolers P2
Published: 2014/01/02
Channel: Mohammadreza Rahimzadeh
Persian Alphabet Song ترانه الفبای فارسی
Persian Alphabet Song ترانه الفبای فارسی
Published: 2016/11/14
Channel: Persian Online Academy
Learn to Speak Persian / Farsi Fast: for Beginners: Persian Alphabet- Part 1
Learn to Speak Persian / Farsi Fast: for Beginners: Persian Alphabet- Part 1
Published: 2014/04/04
Channel: Farsi Tutor Reza Nazari
Practicing the Farsi (Persian) Alphabet
Practicing the Farsi (Persian) Alphabet
Published: 2014/08/20
Channel: Backpacking Diplomacy
Persian Alphabet Part 1 Names
Persian Alphabet Part 1 Names
Published: 2016/03/01
Channel: Persian4All
Persian Alphabet Song
Persian Alphabet Song
Published: 2011/02/02
Channel: Cameron Sarfarazi
سرودِ الفبایِ فارسی - (Persian Alphabet Song (unsynched - collector
سرودِ الفبایِ فارسی - (Persian Alphabet Song (unsynched - collector's edition
Published: 2014/11/01
Channel: Learning Persian - فارسی آموزی - לומדים פרסית
01 Persian Alphabet for Preschoolers P1
01 Persian Alphabet for Preschoolers P1
Published: 2014/01/02
Channel: Mohammadreza Rahimzadeh
Persian/Farsi Alphabet ( Alefbe ) Homeschooling Slideshow. JAMRAN.FAM VLOGS!
Persian/Farsi Alphabet ( Alefbe ) Homeschooling Slideshow. JAMRAN.FAM VLOGS!
Published: 2014/10/05
Channel: Crochet-By-Q
How to write Farsi / Persian / Arabic Alphabet Letters in 2 minutes
How to write Farsi / Persian / Arabic Alphabet Letters in 2 minutes
Published: 2009/11/05
Channel: farsilearn
Persian alphabet writing Part 1
Persian alphabet writing Part 1
Published: 2016/03/07
Channel: Persian4All
Persian Alphabet (الفبا )
Persian Alphabet (الفبا )
Published: 2011/11/12
Channel: Nader Bagha
Persian-Farsi Alphabet Song - alef ba
Persian-Farsi Alphabet Song - alef ba
Published: 2015/07/17
Channel: acb3953
The alphabet in Afghanistan
The alphabet in Afghanistan's lingua franca Farsi
Published: 2015/11/22
Channel: livelifetothefull
Learn to Speak Persian / Farsi Fast: for Beginners: Persian Alphabet- Part 2
Learn to Speak Persian / Farsi Fast: for Beginners: Persian Alphabet- Part 2
Published: 2014/04/04
Channel: Farsi Tutor Reza Nazari
Binaural ASMR Persian Alphabet - Persian Whispers Episode 14
Binaural ASMR Persian Alphabet - Persian Whispers Episode 14
Published: 2015/02/28
Channel: Persian Whispers
Persian Alphabet, Lesson 1 using memory game یادگیری حروف الفبای فارسی
Persian Alphabet, Lesson 1 using memory game یادگیری حروف الفبای فارسی
Published: 2009/05/01
Channel: goodcyrus
Persian Farsi Alphabet (names only)
Persian Farsi Alphabet (names only)
Published: 2014/05/27
Channel: Persian Online Academy
A lesson how to read and write Persian.mp4
A lesson how to read and write Persian.mp4
Published: 2012/04/08
Channel: Five Elders
Persian Alphabet Lesson 2 Sounds Part 1
Persian Alphabet Lesson 2 Sounds Part 1
Published: 2016/03/06
Channel: Persian4All
Persian Alphabet - Teaching Farsi language to children
Persian Alphabet - Teaching Farsi language to children
Published: 2015/03/07
Channel: Tom Ara
Persian Alphabet for Central Asians. Unit 1
Persian Alphabet for Central Asians. Unit 1
Published: 2011/06/05
Channel: drgooglemail
Persian Alphabet and Vowels
Persian Alphabet and Vowels
Published: 2011/05/23
Channel: IwantLearnFarsi
Farsi Alphabets with Contest and all letters in one- Final Set
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Published: 2012/07/28
Channel: Embrace&Celebrate
Persian Alphabet - Lesson 2 | Letters Alef- Se
Persian Alphabet - Lesson 2 | Letters Alef- Se
Published: 2015/08/27
Channel: Talk Like a Persian
"Persian Alphabet Song" at Chicago Persian School
"Persian Alphabet Song" at Chicago Persian School
Published: 2016/03/07
Channel: Chicago Persian School
For Kids: Learn The Persian Alphabet!
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Published: 2015/05/21
Channel: charlotte3491
Alefba Persian alphabet book
Alefba Persian alphabet book
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: Atee zolghadr
Read and Write Persian Language in 7 Days: Day 1: Most Common Persian Letters
Read and Write Persian Language in 7 Days: Day 1: Most Common Persian Letters
Published: 2016/10/22
Channel: Farsi Tutor Reza Nazari
Persian Alphabet - Lesson 8 | Letters Nun- Ye
Persian Alphabet - Lesson 8 | Letters Nun- Ye
Published: 2015/09/17
Channel: Talk Like a Persian
Persian Alphabet - Lesson 3 |  Seven  Non-Connecting Letters
Persian Alphabet - Lesson 3 | Seven Non-Connecting Letters
Published: 2015/08/31
Channel: Talk Like a Persian
Persian Alphabets and Vowels
Persian Alphabets and Vowels
Published: 2012/09/06
Channel: Farsi speak
Persian Farsi Alphabet (ghaaf gheyn kh ق غ خ )
Persian Farsi Alphabet (ghaaf gheyn kh ق غ خ )
Published: 2014/05/27
Channel: Persian Online Academy
P-Alphabet: Introduction to Persian Alphabet (Now available on the AppStore)
P-Alphabet: Introduction to Persian Alphabet (Now available on the AppStore)
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: Niloufar Shafiei
Alpha Ring Game by PLEI Games ad- Persian Alphabet Song
Alpha Ring Game by PLEI Games ad- Persian Alphabet Song
Published: 2008/10/22
Channel: Leyla Shams
Persian Alphabet- Lesson 6 |  Lettters
Persian Alphabet- Lesson 6 | Lettters 'Ain - Qâf
Published: 2015/09/09
Channel: Talk Like a Persian
Persian (Dari) ABC for Kids
Persian (Dari) ABC for Kids
Published: 2015/09/06
Channel: Maah Studios
Persian Alphabet- Lesson 4 | Letters  Jim - Khe
Persian Alphabet- Lesson 4 | Letters Jim - Khe
Published: 2015/08/31
Channel: Talk Like a Persian
Persian Alphabet Song
Persian Alphabet Song
Published: 2007/02/26
Channel: Hamid Pajouhandeh
Persian, Farsi Words 3 | Persian, Farsi Alphabet آموزش کلمات فارسی ۳ | آموزش الفبای فارسی
Persian, Farsi Words 3 | Persian, Farsi Alphabet آموزش کلمات فارسی ۳ | آموزش الفبای فارسی
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: Tootee TV Persian
Persian alphabet writing Part 2
Persian alphabet writing Part 2
Published: 2016/03/07
Channel: Persian4All
Persian Farsi alphabet lesson 2 - "a" as in bad یادگیری حروف الفبای فارسی
Persian Farsi alphabet lesson 2 - "a" as in bad یادگیری حروف الفبای فارسی
Published: 2009/08/30
Channel: goodcyrus
Learn to Speak Persian / Farsi Fast: for Beginners: Persian Alphabet- Part 3
Learn to Speak Persian / Farsi Fast: for Beginners: Persian Alphabet- Part 3
Published: 2014/04/04
Channel: Farsi Tutor Reza Nazari
Learn to Speak Persian / Farsi Fast: for Beginners: Persian Alphabet- Part 4
Learn to Speak Persian / Farsi Fast: for Beginners: Persian Alphabet- Part 4
Published: 2014/04/04
Channel: Farsi Tutor Reza Nazari
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The Persian alphabet (Persian: الفبای فارسی‎‎ alefbā-ye fārsi), or Perso-Arabic alphabet, is a writing system used for the Persian language.

The Persian script shares many features with other systems based on the Arabic script. It is an abjad, meaning vowels are underrepresented in writing. The writing direction is exclusively right-to-left. The script is cursive, meaning most letters in a word connect to each other; when typed, the computer automatically joins adjacent letterforms. However, some Persian compounds do not join, and Persian adds four letters to the basic set for a total of 32 characters.

The replacement of the Pahlavi scripts with the Persian alphabet to write the Persian language was done by the Tahirid dynasty in 9th-century Greater Khorasan.[1][2]

Letters[edit]

Example showing the Nastaʿlīq calligraphic style's proportion rules.

Below are the 32 letters of the modern Persian alphabet. Since the script is cursive, the appearance of a letter changes depending on its position: isolated, initial (joined on the left), medial (joined on both sides) and final (joined on the right) of a word.

The names of the letter are mostly the ones used in Arabic except for the Persian pronunciation. The only ambiguous name is he, which is used for both and ه. For clarification, they are often called ḥe-ye jimi (literally "jim-like ḥe" after jim, the name for the letter ج that uses the same base form) and he-ye do-češm (literally "two-eyed he", after the contextual middle letterform ), respectively.

# Name Name in Persian script DIN 31635 IPA Contextual forms
Final Medial Initial Isolated
0 hamza[3] همزه ʾ [ʔ] ـئ ـأ ـؤ ـئـ ئـ ء أ
1 ʾalef الف ā [ɒ] آ / ا
2 be بِ b [b] ـب ـﺒ ب
3 pe پِ p [p] ـپ ـﭙ پ
4 te تِ t [t] ـت ـﺘ ت
5 s̱e ثِ [s] ـث ـﺜ ث
6 jim جیم j [d͡ʒ] ـﺠ ج
7 che چِ č [t͡ʃ] ـﭽ چ
8 ḥe(-ye jimi) حِ [h] ـﺤ ح
9 khe خِ x [x] ـﺨ خ
10 dāl دال d [d] ـد د
11 ẕāl ذال [z] ـذ ذ
12 re رِ r [ɾ] ـر ر
13 ze زِ z [z] ـز ز
14 že ژِ ž [ʒ] ـژ ژ
15 sin سین s [s] ـس ـﺴ س
16 šin شین š [ʃ] ـش ـﺸ ش
17 ṣād صاد [s] ـص ـﺼ ص
18 z̤ād ضاد [z] ـض ـﻀ ﺿ ض
19 ṭā, ṭoy (in Dari) طی, طا [t] ـط ـﻄـ ط
20 ẓā, ẓoy (in Dari) ظی, ظا [z] ـظ ـﻈـ ظ
21 ʿeyn عین ʿ [ʔ] ع
22 ġeyn غین ġ [ɣ] غ
23 fe فِ f [f] ـف ـﻔ ف
24 qāf قاف q [ɢ] ـق ـﻘ ق
25 kāf کاف k [k] ـک ـﻜ ک
26 gāf گاف g [ɡ] ـگ ـﮕ گ
27 lām لام l [l] ـل ـﻠ ل
28 mim میم m [m] ـم ـﻤ م
29 nun نون n [n] ـن ـﻨ ن
30 vāv واو v / ū / ow / (w / aw / ō in Dari) [v] / [uː] / [o] / [ow] / ([w] / [aw] / [oː] in Dari) ـو و
31 he(-ye do-češm) هِ h [h] ه
32 ye یِ y / ī / á / (ay / ē in Dari) [j] / [i] / [ɒː] / ([aj] / [eː] in Dari) ـﯿ ی
Letters that do not link to a following letter

Seven letters (و, ژ, , , , , ) do not connect to a following letter, unlike the rest of the letters of the alphabet. The seven letters have the same form in isolated and initial position and a second form in medial and final position. For example, when the letter ا "alef" is at the beginning of a word such as اینجا "injā" (here), the same form is used as in an isolated "alef". In the case of امروز "emruz" (today), the letter "re" takes the final form and the letter و "vāv" takes the isolated form, but they are in the middle of the word, and also has its isolated form, but it occurs at the end of the word.

Diacritics[edit]

Persian script has adopted a subset of Arabic diacritics: zabar /æ/ (fatḥah in Arabic), zir /e/ (kasrah in Arabic), and pesh /o/ or /o/ (ḍammah in Arabic, pronounced zamme in Western Persian), sukūn, tanwīn nasb /æn/ and shadda (gemination). Other Arabic diacritics may be seen in Arabic loanwords.

Other characters[edit]

The following are not actual letters but different orthographical shapes for letters, a ligature in the case of the lām alef. As to hamze, it has only one graphic since it is never tied to a preceding or following letter. However, it is sometimes 'seated' on a vāv, ye or alef, and in that case, the seat behaves like an ordinary vāv, ye or alef respectively. Technically, hamze is not a letter but a diacritic.

Name Transliteration IPA Final Medial Initial Stand-alone
alef madde ā [ɒ]
he ye -eye or -eyeh [eje] ۀ
lām alef [lɒ]

Although at first glance, they may seem similar, there are many differences in the way the different languages use the alphabets. For example, similar words are written differently in Persian and Arabic, as they are used differently.

Novel letters[edit]

The Persian alphabet adds four letters to the Arabic alphabet: /p/, /ɡ/, /t͡ʃ/ (ch in chair), /ʒ/ (s in measure).

Sound Shape Unicode name
/p/ پ peh
/t͡ʃ/ (ch) چ tcheh
/ʒ/ (zh) ژ jeh
/ɡ/ گ gaf

Differences from Arabic alphabet[edit]

Many Arabic letters represent sounds not present in Persian; they are typically used only in loanwords and native Persian sounds replace them. For example, ذ, ض and ظ are all pronounced just like historical ze ز z.

Vowel notation is simple,but its history is complicated. Classical Arabic has a vowel length distinction; in writing, long vowels are normally written ambiguously by letters known as matres lectionis; short ones are normally not written (although certain diacritics are added to indicate them in special circumstances, notably in the Quran). Middle Persian also had vowel length and noted ā with alif ا, ē and ī with yāʾ ی, and ō and ū with wāw و. Short vowels (a, e, i, o and u) were normally not written.

The length distinction of Middle Persian no longer exists in modern Persian. The results of its collapse vary between Western Persian, Dari, and Tajiki, with eight- or six-vowel inventories. However, the alphabet retains the original spellings of most words. Thus, فارسي Fārsī "Persian" is pronounced in the Tehrani dialect fɒrsi and شير shēr "lion" and شیر shīr "milk" is ʃir, but in Dari, the same words appear as Persian pronunciation: [fɒrsi] but ʃer "lion", ʃir "milk".

The following is a list of differences between the writing system:

  1. A hamze (ء) is not written above or below an alef (ا) as it is in Arabic.
  2. The Arabic letter tāʾ marbūṭah (ة), unless used in a direct Arabic quotation, is usually changed to a te (ت) or he ه, in accordance with its actual pronunciation. Tāʾ marbūṭa, used in feminine nouns in Arabic, is a combined form of hāʾ, with the dots marking tāʾ and represents a [t] that is dropped in word-final position. Since Persian does not have grammatical gender, tāʾ marbūṭa is not necessary and is kept only to maintain fidelity in Arabic loanwords and quotations.
  3. Two dots are removed in the final ye (ی). Arabic differentiates the final yāʾ with the two dots and the alif maqsūra, except in Egyptian, Sudanese and Maghrebi Arabic usage, which is written like a final yāʾ without the two dots. Because Persian drops the two dots in the final ye, the alif maqsura cannot be differentiated from the normal final ye. For example, the name Mūsá "Moses" is written موسی. In the final letter in Mūsá, Persian does not differentiate between ye and the Arabic alif maqsūra.
  4. The letters pe (پ), che (چ), že (ژ), and gāf (گ) are added because Arabic, lacking the phonemes, has no letters for them.
  5. Wāw (و) is used as vâv for [v] because Arabic has no [v], and Standard Iranian Persian has [w] only within the diphthong [ow].
  6. In the Arabic alphabet, hāʾ () comes before wāw (و), but in the Persian alphabet, he () comes after vâv (و).
  7. It is more standard to write the nunation in this order in Persian: ـً (fatḥa tanwīn or fatḥatān) then ا (alef). In Persian, the order is reversed: ا, then ـً. Thus, Arabic ـًا becomes ـاً in Persian: عصًا ʿaṣan becomes عصاً ʾasan. Writing ـاً in Arabic is also very common.

Word boundaries[edit]

Typically, words are separated from each other by a space. Certain morphemes (such as the plural ending '-hâ'), however, are written without a space. On a computer, they are separated from the word using the zero-width non-joiner.

See also[edit]

Alphabets derived from Perso-Arabic

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ira M. Lapidus (2012). Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 256–. ISBN 978-0-521-51441-5. 
  2. ^ Ira M. Lapidus (2002). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 127–. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3. 
  3. ^ "??" (PDF). Persianacademy.ir. Retrieved 2015-09-05. 

External links[edit]

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