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Teaching Perspective Taking
Teaching Perspective Taking
Published: 2013/11/05
Channel: Autism Live
Can You See It May Way?: Perspective Taking Activity
Can You See It May Way?: Perspective Taking Activity
Published: 2014/08/01
Channel: The Speech Bubble SLP
Tutorial: 3 Types of Perspective Taking
Tutorial: 3 Types of Perspective Taking
Published: 2007/11/10
Channel: Cabrera Research Lab
Perspective Taking Visual
Perspective Taking Visual
Published: 2016/06/23
Channel: The Watson Institute Pittsburgh
Superheroes Social Skills - Perspective Taking (Short Takes 3)
Superheroes Social Skills - Perspective Taking (Short Takes 3)
Published: 2011/03/01
Channel: pacificnwpublish
Perspective Taking
Perspective Taking
Published: 2016/12/07
Channel: Aaron Meyer
How to Magically Connect with Anyone | Brian Miller | TEDxManchesterHighSchool
How to Magically Connect with Anyone | Brian Miller | TEDxManchesterHighSchool
Published: 2015/06/17
Channel: TEDx Talks
Perspective Taking & "State Vs. Calibration" For Attracting Women
Perspective Taking & "State Vs. Calibration" For Attracting Women
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: The Dating Wizard
Piaget - Egocentrism and Perspective Taking (Preoperational and Concrete Operational Stages)
Piaget - Egocentrism and Perspective Taking (Preoperational and Concrete Operational Stages)
Published: 2013/01/21
Channel: adamism9
AQA Cognition and Development Lesson 5 Perspective Taking and Selman
AQA Cognition and Development Lesson 5 Perspective Taking and Selman
Published: 2016/11/22
Channel: Mr Valdiny
Perspective taking (Theory of Mind)
Perspective taking (Theory of Mind)
Published: 2011/03/30
Channel: LJonYT
Perspective-taking is two-sided
Perspective-taking is two-sided
Published: 2017/07/27
Channel: Brett Heasman
Three types of Perspective Taking with ThinkBlocks
Three types of Perspective Taking with ThinkBlocks
Published: 2008/08/07
Channel: Cabrera Research Lab
Can You Teach Perspective Taking?
Can You Teach Perspective Taking?
Published: 2014/04/04
Channel: Autism Live
Teaching Perspective Taking
Teaching Perspective Taking
Published: 2011/11/27
Channel: PeerBuddies
Perspective Taking is an Art!
Perspective Taking is an Art!
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: Emotion Dynamics
Perspective Taking - Cognition Skills
Perspective Taking - Cognition Skills
Published: 2012/04/20
Channel: Autism Live
Episode 4 - Paul Guinther, Phd. - Perspective Taking
Episode 4 - Paul Guinther, Phd. - Perspective Taking
Published: 2017/03/27
Channel: dosgatosmuertos
Perspective-taking
Perspective-taking
Published: 2011/04/01
Channel: sammyatu
Perspective Taking with R Chi
Perspective Taking with R Chi
Published: 2010/09/23
Channel: Jeremiah Weatherley
Perspective taking 5
Perspective taking 5
Published: 2013/08/01
Channel: Orla Moran
Selman Theory of Perspective Taking
Selman Theory of Perspective Taking
Published: 2014/12/10
Channel: Tim Coop
Perspective taking
Perspective taking
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: Sjm336
Perspective Taking - Piaget
Perspective Taking - Piaget
Published: 2009/08/10
Channel: alromason
Perspective Taking
Perspective Taking
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: MSU Extension
lesson 4part1c perspective taking
lesson 4part1c perspective taking
Published: 2017/07/17
Channel: Heather Dunphy
Experiences Build Empathy | Mallory Van Waarde | TEDxCosmoPark
Experiences Build Empathy | Mallory Van Waarde | TEDxCosmoPark
Published: 2016/05/25
Channel: TEDx Talks
Perspective-taking -Happy
Perspective-taking -Happy
Published: 2013/08/01
Channel: Orla Moran
Perspective Taking
Perspective Taking
Published: 2016/10/17
Channel: Wendi Zimmer
The Idiosyncratic INFP: Meta-Cognition & Perspective Taking
The Idiosyncratic INFP: Meta-Cognition & Perspective Taking
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: Joey Iacobucci
5 Steps to Teaching Perspective-Taking to Children with Social Language Delays
5 Steps to Teaching Perspective-Taking to Children with Social Language Delays
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: Carrie Clark
Teaching Perspective Taking and Executive Function Skills to Children with Autism
Teaching Perspective Taking and Executive Function Skills to Children with Autism
Published: 2016/04/15
Channel: Skills for Autism
Take a Walk in Someone Else
Take a Walk in Someone Else's Shoes: Kindness & Perspective Taking w/ Richard Mouw
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: The Table | Biola CCT
Teaching Perspective Taking Workshop
Teaching Perspective Taking Workshop
Published: 2013/10/21
Channel: Autism Live
Color Me HopeFULL: Perspective Taking in Action
Color Me HopeFULL: Perspective Taking in Action
Published: 2014/10/13
Channel: TDS Social/ PLC Social
9-year-old Emotional Perspective Taking activity
9-year-old Emotional Perspective Taking activity
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: Liz Fryer
"From a Student
"From a Student's Perspective; Taking Back What We Created,"
Published: 2014/04/13
Channel: Norman Kurland
Perspective Taking, Problem Solving
Perspective Taking, Problem Solving
Published: 2014/04/05
Channel: Jeanne Peterson
Visual Perspective Taking and ASD
Visual Perspective Taking and ASD
Published: 2016/11/01
Channel: Craig Thorburn
Social Skill Builder Perspective Taking App
Social Skill Builder Perspective Taking App
Published: 2017/06/16
Channel: socialskillbuilder
Dr. Adel Najdowski: Perspective Taking
Dr. Adel Najdowski: Perspective Taking
Published: 2015/06/12
Channel: Autism Live
Perspective taking in human-robot interaction
Perspective taking in human-robot interaction
Published: 2010/01/21
Channel: marinrobots
Taking New Perspectives - Brooke Ingersoll
Taking New Perspectives - Brooke Ingersoll
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: MSU Alumni Association and Friends
Advanced Perspective taking features
Advanced Perspective taking features
Published: 2017/06/27
Channel: Cabrera Research Lab
Autism Jargon: Perspective Taking
Autism Jargon: Perspective Taking
Published: 2015/01/15
Channel: Autism Live
Empathy and Perspective Taking: A Second Grader
Empathy and Perspective Taking: A Second Grader's View
Published: 2017/01/31
Channel: Lisa Harrison Piane
817 Lab: Empathy & Perspective Taking
817 Lab: Empathy & Perspective Taking
Published: 2015/02/05
Channel: Suzanne Reinhardt
Perspective Taking
Perspective Taking
Published: 2013/09/06
Channel: Darlene Smith
Perspective Taking
Perspective Taking
Published: 2014/05/05
Channel: Rochelle Brez
Teaching Perspective-Taking and Executive Function Skills to Children with Autism
Teaching Perspective-Taking and Executive Function Skills to Children with Autism
Published: 2013/02/26
Channel: CARDcompanies
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Perspective-taking is the act of perceiving a situation or understanding a concept from an alternative point-of-view, such as that of another individual.

Definition[edit]

Perspective-taking is the process by which an individual views a situation from another's point-of-view.[1] Perspective-taking can occur visually[2] in that one changes their physical location to see things as someone else does. Perspective-taking can also occur cognitively in that one mentally simulates the point-of-view of another’s cognitive state. For instance, one can visualize the viewpoint of a taller individual (physical state) or reflect upon another's point-of-view on a particular concept (cognitive state). In other words, perspective-taking is the process of temporarily suspending[3][4] one’s own point-of-view in an attempt to view a situation as someone else might. Several strategies used for taking another’s perspective have been identified, included imagining oneself in the other’s place, using one’s own similar past experience to understand another’s situation, and applying general knowledge (e.g., stereotypes) about how people are likely to react in particular situations.[5][6][7] This process does not necessitate any form of affinity, compassion, or emotional identification with the other. Therefore, as an other-oriented activity, perspective-taking can be used to gain an understanding of a given physical state and/or situation after which a determination of appropriate action can be selected (e.g., empathy).[8] Perspective-taking ability appears to be greater in adults than children, because adults are more able to correct and adopt the perspective of another person.[9]

Perspective-taking vs. empathy[edit]

It is important to understand that perspective-taking is exclusively the process of taking an alternate point-of-view. For example, one can perspective-take a fellow individual’s thoughts and feelings. However, the perspective-taking process does not necessarily lead to feelings of empathy. Rather, that determination may be made after the perspective-taking process has concluded. To demonstrate this point, Davis[10] cites 18th century Scottish philosopher Adam Smith and 19th century British anthropologist and sociologist Herbert Spencer. Both Smith and Spencer wrote about perspective-taking as a "cognitive, intellectual reaction" and empathy as a "visceral, emotional reaction" (p. 113). Because this differentiation is commonly overlooked, perspective-taking is frequently conflated with empathy. For this reason, the use of perspective-taking and empathy as synonyms is decidedly prevalent within the scientific literature.[1] The differentiation between empathy and perspective taking has been substantiated by studies on the perception of characters in computer animation. Although a computer-modeled human character may elicit feelings of eeriness known as the uncanny valley phenomenon, this negative emotional response suppresses the perceiver's empathy for the character but has no significant effect on level 1 visual perspective taking.[11]

Push for term specificity[edit]

As research has explicated the perspective-taking and empathic processes, there has been a push to differentiate between these activities. For instance, Farrant, Devine, Maybery, and Fletcher[12] set forth a definition of empathy that includes the perspective-taking process; however, it is referred to as cognitive empathy. Similarly, Ashton and Fuehrer[13] use the term ‘affective perspective-taking’ to describe the empathy construct. Even though researchers are striving to differentiate between these processes, conflation of these terms remains common in the scientific literature.

Benefits/applications of perspective-taking[edit]

The benefits and applications of perspective-taking show themselves in a wide variety of situations. Several studies indicate that perspective-taking has a positive impact on social interactions and relations.

  • Brings awareness to issues between disparate groups[14]
    • Consideration of the perspective of an out-group member increases identification with those individuals, which increases the likelihood of dominant group members to perceive a behavior/situation as discriminatory.
  • Facilitates in-group/out-group exchanges[15]
    • Perspective-taking reduces stereotype bias of out-group members and decreases in-group bias.
  • Increases individuals’ willingness to interact with out-group participants[16]
    • Perspective-taking is a precursor to intergroup contact as distance in seating is significantly decreased between in-group and out-group members.
  • Provides an advantage in negotiations[1]
    • Perspective-taking allows negotiators to view the dynamic from the opposing side's point-of-view, which allows for the anticipation of opponents’ preferences and decisions.
    • In sales negotiations, both perspective-taking and empathy by buyers leads to greater satisfaction of sellers; however, perspective-taking buyers achieve better deals than empathizing buyers.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Galinsky, A., Maddux, W., Gilin, D., & White, J. (2008). Why it pays to get inside the head of your opponent. Psychological Science, 19(4), 378-384. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02096.x
  2. ^ Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1967). The child's conception of space. Routledge: London.
  3. ^ Epley, N., & Caruso, E. M. (2008). Perspective-taking: Misstepping into others' shoes. In K. D. Markman, W. M. Klein, & J. A. Suhr (Eds.), Handbook of imagination and mental simulation (pp. 297-311). New York: Psychology Press.
  4. ^ Moore, D.A. (2005). Myopic biases in strategic social prediction: Why deadlines put everyone under more pressure than everyone else. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(5), 668-679. doi: 10.1177/0146167204271569
  5. ^ Gerace, A.; Day, A.; Casey, S.; Mohr, P. (2013). "An exploratory investigation of the process of perspective taking in interpersonal situations". Journal of Relationships Research. 4: e6, 1–12. doi:10.1017/jrr.2013.6. 
  6. ^ Gerace, A.; Day, A.; Casey, S.; Mohr, P. (2015). "Perspective taking and empathy: Does having similar past experience to another person make it easier to take their perspective?". Journal of Relationships Research. 6: e10, 1–14. doi:10.1017/jrr.2015.6. 
  7. ^ Gerace, A.; Day, A.; Casey, S.; Mohr, P. (2017). "'I think, you think': Understanding the importance of self-reflection to the taking of another person's perspective". Journal of Relationships Research. 8: e9, 1–19. doi:10.1017/jrr.2017.8. 
  8. ^ Batson, C. D., Early, S., & Salvarani, G. (1997). Perspective taking: Imagining how another feels versus imagining how you would feel. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 751-758. doi: 10.1177/0146167297237008
  9. ^ Epley, Nicholas; Morewedge, Carey K; Keysar, Boaz (2004-11-01). "Perspective taking in children and adults: Equivalent egocentrism but differential correction". Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 40 (6): 760–768. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2004.02.002. 
  10. ^ Davis, M. H., (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113-126.
  11. ^ MacDorman, K. F.; Srinivas, P.; Patel, H. (2013). "The uncanny valley does not interfere with level 1 visual perspective taking". Computers in Human Behavior. 29 (4): 1671–1685. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.051. 
  12. ^ Farrant, B. M., Devine, T. A., Maybery, M. T., & Fletcher, J. F, (2012). Empathy, perspective taking, and prosocial behavior: The important of parenting practices. Infant and Child Development, 21, 175-188.
  13. ^ Ashton, W. A. & Fuehrer A., (1993). Effects of gender and gender role identification of participant and type of social support. Sex Roles, 28, 461-476.
  14. ^ Todd, A. R., Bodenhausen, G. V., & Galinsky, A. D. (2012). Perspective-taking combats the denial of group discrimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 48, 738-745. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2011.12.011
  15. ^ Galinsky, A. D., & Moskowitz, G. B. (2000). Perspective-taking: Decreasing stereotype expression, stereotype accessibility, and in-group favoritism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78, 708-724. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.78.4.708
  16. ^ Wang, C. S., Tai, K., Ku, G., & Galinsky, A. D. (2014). Perspective-taking increases willingness to engage in intergroup contact. PloS one, 9(1), e85681. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085681

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