Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
馃敶PERU VS COLOMBIA 2017 EN VIVO馃敶
馃敶PERU VS COLOMBIA 2017 EN VIVO馃敶
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: bybito_gamer PVP
Peru vs Nueva Zelanda: Gareca dio lista de convocados contra Nueva Zelanda
Peru vs Nueva Zelanda: Gareca dio lista de convocados contra Nueva Zelanda
Published: 2017/10/21
Channel: ANE 2K02
WE
WE'RE OFF TO SOUTH AMERICA - 3 Days in Lima Peru (w/ WhatTheChic)
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: Lost LeBlanc
PERU VS COLOMBIA 1-1 脷LTIMO 20 MINUTOS - DANIEL PEREDO | 2017
PERU VS COLOMBIA 1-1 脷LTIMO 20 MINUTOS - DANIEL PEREDO | 2017
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: ANE 2K02
鈿絇RENSA ARGENTINA El "Pollo" Vignolo habla del PERU VS COLOMBIA y aprueba no arriesgar el repechaje
鈿絇RENSA ARGENTINA El "Pollo" Vignolo habla del PERU VS COLOMBIA y aprueba no arriesgar el repechaje
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: VIRALPERU TV
隆隆EL GOL DE PAOLO GUERRERO!!! - PERU VS COLOMBIA 1 A 1 - ELIMINATORIAS RUSIA 2018
隆隆EL GOL DE PAOLO GUERRERO!!! - PERU VS COLOMBIA 1 A 1 - ELIMINATORIAS RUSIA 2018
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: MrJhonCN
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 Emotiva celebraci贸n de la Selecci贸n Peruana por conseguir el repechaje a Rusia
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 Emotiva celebraci贸n de la Selecci贸n Peruana por conseguir el repechaje a Rusia
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: ANE 2K02
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 RESUMEN GOLES HD [Goals-Highlights] Eliminatorias Rusia 2018 10/10/2017
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 RESUMEN GOLES HD [Goals-Highlights] Eliminatorias Rusia 2018 10/10/2017
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: F煤tbol Latino
PERU  1- 1 COLOMBIA  (SEGUNDO TIEMPO )
PERU 1- 1 COLOMBIA (SEGUNDO TIEMPO )
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: RUDY C. Adriano
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 Declaraciones de Aldo Corzo Eliminatorias Rusia 2018 10/10/2017 HD
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 Declaraciones de Aldo Corzo Eliminatorias Rusia 2018 10/10/2017 HD
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: ANE 2K02
Peru Travel: How Expensive is LIMA? (Capital of Peru)
Peru Travel: How Expensive is LIMA? (Capital of Peru)
Published: 2015/10/05
Channel: Gabriel Traveler
Chile! se burlaban de peru cuando perd铆a y gol de guerrero a llorar
Chile! se burlaban de peru cuando perd铆a y gol de guerrero a llorar
Published: 2017/10/18
Channel: EDER
LO ULTIMO! SELECCION NACIONAL realiza reconocimiento de Campo para PERU vs COLOMBIA
LO ULTIMO! SELECCION NACIONAL realiza reconocimiento de Campo para PERU vs COLOMBIA
Published: 2017/10/09
Channel: Noticias NTV1
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 Declaraciones James Rodriguez "Per煤 Merece ir al Mundial" Eliminatorias Rusia
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 Declaraciones James Rodriguez "Per煤 Merece ir al Mundial" Eliminatorias Rusia
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: F煤tbol Latino
Show de youtubers en Comas Venezolanos en Peru
Show de youtubers en Comas Venezolanos en Peru
Published: 2017/10/21
Channel: Jose Angel en Peru
CONFERENCIA DE RICARDO GARECA TRAS EL EMPATE DE PERU vs COLOMBIA PERU EN REPECHAJE
CONFERENCIA DE RICARDO GARECA TRAS EL EMPATE DE PERU vs COLOMBIA PERU EN REPECHAJE
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: Noticias NTV1
FIFA ACEPTO DEMANDA POR SUPUESTO ARREGLO ENTRE COLOMBIA Y PERU  ANALISIS  20/10/2017
FIFA ACEPTO DEMANDA POR SUPUESTO ARREGLO ENTRE COLOMBIA Y PERU ANALISIS 20/10/2017
Published: 2017/10/20
Channel: spor tv
GUERRERO LESIONADO ? | HABRA FOX SPORT PERU | COLOMBIA VA POR GARECA|LIBERMAN QUIERO A PERU EN RUSIA
GUERRERO LESIONADO ? | HABRA FOX SPORT PERU | COLOMBIA VA POR GARECA|LIBERMAN QUIERO A PERU EN RUSIA
Published: 2017/10/20
Channel: UNIDOS POR EL FUTBOL
Al Angulo | Gareca Habl贸 de Claudio Pizarro | Convocatorio Peru vs Nueva Zelanda 20/10/17
Al Angulo | Gareca Habl贸 de Claudio Pizarro | Convocatorio Peru vs Nueva Zelanda 20/10/17
Published: 2017/10/21
Channel: FutbolPoder
Peru 8K HDR 60FPS (FUHD)
Peru 8K HDR 60FPS (FUHD)
Published: 2017/04/09
Channel: Jacob + Katie Schwarz
PERU VS COLOMBIA - 1-1 - Resumen & Todos Los Goles Eliminatorias Rusia 2018 10/10/2017 HD
PERU VS COLOMBIA - 1-1 - Resumen & Todos Los Goles Eliminatorias Rusia 2018 10/10/2017 HD
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: ANE 2K02
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 Declaraciones de Paolo Guerrero Eliminatorias Rusia 2018 10/10/2017 HD
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 Declaraciones de Paolo Guerrero Eliminatorias Rusia 2018 10/10/2017 HD
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: ANE 2K02
ARGENTINA VS PERU PROMO 05/10/2017
ARGENTINA VS PERU PROMO 05/10/2017
Published: 2017/09/12
Channel: THE DRAGON KUN
Ecuador vs Peru 1-2 [Partido Completo HD] | ANE 2K02
Ecuador vs Peru 1-2 [Partido Completo HD] | ANE 2K02
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: ANE 2K02
CONTIGO PERU 鉂 Version 2017 (Peredo,Aldo, Franco, Cachito, In茅s, Mateo, Victor Hugo, Ximena, Yidda)
CONTIGO PERU 鉂 Version 2017 (Peredo,Aldo, Franco, Cachito, In茅s, Mateo, Victor Hugo, Ximena, Yidda)
Published: 2017/10/03
Channel: De Todo Un Poco
Radamel Falcao accused of fixing Peru v Colombia 1-1| World Cup Qualification
Radamel Falcao accused of fixing Peru v Colombia 1-1| World Cup Qualification
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: Transfer News
LIBERMAN DEFIENDE A PERU Y DICE QUE LE GANARA A NUEVA ZELANDA
LIBERMAN DEFIENDE A PERU Y DICE QUE LE GANARA A NUEVA ZELANDA
Published: 2017/10/19
Channel: MrJhonCN
!PERU JUEGAN MUY BIEN隆隆BIEN MERECIDO隆FUERON LAS PALABRAS DEL POLLO VIGNOLO PERU AL REPECHAJE
!PERU JUEGAN MUY BIEN隆隆BIEN MERECIDO隆FUERON LAS PALABRAS DEL POLLO VIGNOLO PERU AL REPECHAJE
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: PER-ARG-RIVER
Mira Como PERU PODR脥A GANARLE a NUEVA ZELANDA | New Zealand vs. Peru World Cup playoff
Mira Como PERU PODR脥A GANARLE a NUEVA ZELANDA | New Zealand vs. Peru World Cup playoff
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: TubeClaro
Argentina vs Peru 0-0 - Highlights & Goals - 05 October 2017
Argentina vs Peru 0-0 - Highlights & Goals - 05 October 2017
Published: 2017/10/06
Channel: FOOTBALL SPOTLIGHT
CONFERENCIA DE PRENSA DE RICARDO GARECA PREVIO AL PARTIDO PERU VS NUEVA ZELANDA
CONFERENCIA DE PRENSA DE RICARDO GARECA PREVIO AL PARTIDO PERU VS NUEVA ZELANDA
Published: 2017/10/20
Channel: Series XD
EXCITING ANNOUNCEMENT FROM PERU // VAGABROTHERS MERCH!!!
EXCITING ANNOUNCEMENT FROM PERU // VAGABROTHERS MERCH!!!
Published: 2017/10/21
Channel: vagabrothers
隆FUERZA VENEZUELA! LA RUTA DE LOS VENEZOLANOS PARA LLEGAR AL PERU
隆FUERZA VENEZUELA! LA RUTA DE LOS VENEZOLANOS PARA LLEGAR AL PERU
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: Series XD
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 Per煤 Celebra con lagrimas Repechaje 5to Lugar Eliminatorias Rusia 2018
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 Per煤 Celebra con lagrimas Repechaje 5to Lugar Eliminatorias Rusia 2018
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: Previas Del F煤tbol Peruano
Incre铆ble lo que Piensan en Nueva Zelanda sobre PERU - Mira lo que dice el Hincha Neozelandes
Incre铆ble lo que Piensan en Nueva Zelanda sobre PERU - Mira lo que dice el Hincha Neozelandes
Published: 2017/10/19
Channel: TubeClaro
PERU, a new major power in LATIN AMERICA? - VisualPolitik EN
PERU, a new major power in LATIN AMERICA? - VisualPolitik EN
Published: 2017/02/06
Channel: VisualPolitik EN
PERU VS NUEVA ZELANDA - PARTIDO EN LIMA , CLASIFICACION PARA EL MUNDIAL RUSSIA 2018 PES 18 PS4 PRO
PERU VS NUEVA ZELANDA - PARTIDO EN LIMA , CLASIFICACION PARA EL MUNDIAL RUSSIA 2018 PES 18 PS4 PRO
Published: 2017/10/17
Channel: Deivy H
Argentina vs Peru (TRAILER) Eliminatorias Rusia 2018
Argentina vs Peru (TRAILER) Eliminatorias Rusia 2018
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: RAXXOO
Phillip Butters desde ARGENTINA analiza el partido PERU vs ARGENTINA GALLESE, TAPIA y ARAUJO
Phillip Butters desde ARGENTINA analiza el partido PERU vs ARGENTINA GALLESE, TAPIA y ARAUJO
Published: 2017/10/06
Channel: Noticias NTV1
Peru vs Colombia ESPECTACULAR Trailer Video motivacional
Peru vs Colombia ESPECTACULAR Trailer Video motivacional
Published: 2017/10/07
Channel: RAXXOO
Comentaristas Colombianos: Esperabamos otro Per煤 ante Colombia
Comentaristas Colombianos: Esperabamos otro Per煤 ante Colombia
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Histenigmas
隆隆CELEBRACION!! PERU EN ZONA DE REPECHAJE RUMBO AL MUNDIAL RUSIA 2018
隆隆CELEBRACION!! PERU EN ZONA DE REPECHAJE RUMBO AL MUNDIAL RUSIA 2018
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: SERIES XD
PERU VS COLOMBIA - Lima - Futbol reacci贸n
PERU VS COLOMBIA - Lima - Futbol reacci贸n
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: Chef Timour
Peru vs Argentina: Seleccion COMPLETA, Hinchas Peruanos realizaron "BANDERAZO" en Buenos Aires
Peru vs Argentina: Seleccion COMPLETA, Hinchas Peruanos realizaron "BANDERAZO" en Buenos Aires
Published: 2017/10/02
Channel: Noticias NTV1
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 |  Narraci贸n Colombiano |   Eliminatorias Rusia 2018
Peru vs Colombia 1-1 | Narraci贸n Colombiano | Eliminatorias Rusia 2018
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: Abelz football
PERU VS COLOMBIA | 10-10-17 | REACCIONES ELIMINATORIAS RUSIA 2018
PERU VS COLOMBIA | 10-10-17 | REACCIONES ELIMINATORIAS RUSIA 2018
Published: 2017/10/12
Channel: Los convocados
Final del partido Argentina 0 Peru 0
Final del partido Argentina 0 Peru 0
Published: 2017/10/06
Channel: Picadillo TV
MEMES CHILE NO CLASIFICA AL MUNDIAL | PERU VS COLOMBIA 1-1 | COLOMBIA AL MUNDIAL, PERU AL REPECHAJE
MEMES CHILE NO CLASIFICA AL MUNDIAL | PERU VS COLOMBIA 1-1 | COLOMBIA AL MUNDIAL, PERU AL REPECHAJE
Published: 2017/10/11
Channel: Gol de Oro
The Food of Peru 馃崐
The Food of Peru 馃崐
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: Kelley Ferro
Peru vs Nueva Zelanda : Informe de TVPeru
Peru vs Nueva Zelanda : Informe de TVPeru
Published: 2017/10/15
Channel: PERU DEPORTIVO CHANNEL
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 10掳S 76掳W锘 / 锘10掳S 76掳W锘 / -10; -76

Republic of Peru
Rep煤blica del Per煤  (Spanish)[a]
Motto: "Firme y feliz por la uni贸n" (Spanish)
"Firm and Happy for the Union"
Anthem: Himno Nacional del Per煤  (Spanish)
National Anthem of Peru
National seal:
Gran Sello de la Rep煤blica del Per煤.svg
Gran Sello del Estado  (Spanish)
Great Seal of the State
Location of Peru
Capital
and largest city
Lima
12掳2.6鈥睸 77掳1.7鈥瞁锘 / 锘12.0433掳S 77.0283掳W锘 / -12.0433; -77.0283
Official language Spanish
Co-official languages[a]
Ethnic groups (2013)
Demonym Peruvian
Government Unitary semi-presidential republic[2][3]
Pedro Pablo Kuczynski
Mart铆n Vizcarra
Mercedes Ar谩oz
Mercedes Ar谩oz
Legislature Congress of the Republic
Independence from the Kingdom of Spain
28 July 1821
9 December 1824
鈥 Recognized
14 August 1879
Area
鈥 Total
1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi) (19th)
鈥 Water (%)
0.41
Population
鈥 2017 estimate
31,826,018 (43rd)
鈥 2007 census
28,220,764
鈥 Density
23/km2 (59.6/sq mi)
GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate
鈥 Total
$429.711 billion[4] (46th)
鈥 Per capita
$13,501[4]
GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate
鈥 Total
$207.072 billion[4] (49th)
鈥 Per capita
$6,506[4]
Gini (2014) Positive decrease 44.1[5]
medium
HDI (2015) Increase 0.740[6]
high 路 87th
Currency Sol (PEN)
Time zone PET (UTC鈭5)
Date format dd.mm.yyyy (CE)
Drives on the right
Calling code +51
ISO 3166 code PE
Internet TLD .pe
  1. ^ Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages are co-official in the areas where they predominate.

Peru (/pru藧/; Spanish: Per煤 [pe藞删u]; Quechua: Piruw [p拾瑟删蕣w];[7] Aymara: Piruw [p瑟删蕣w]), officially the Republic of Peru (Spanish: About this sound Rep煤blica del Per煤 ), is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, and in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is an extremely biodiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river.[8]

Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures, ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas, to the Inca Empire, the largest and most sophisticated state in pre-Columbian America. The Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima. Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, and following the military campaigns of Jos茅 de San Mart铆n and Sim贸n Bol铆var, and the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, coups, social unrest, and internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing.

Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is a developing country with a high Human Development Index score and a poverty level around 25.8 percent.[9] Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing, agriculture and fishing.

The Peruvian population, estimated at 31.2 million in 2015,[10] is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Europeans, Africans and Asians. The main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine, literature, and music.

Etymology

The name of the country may be derived from Bir煤, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama, in the early 16th century.[11] When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans.[12] Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Bir煤 or Per煤.[13]

An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilasco de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador. He said the name Bir煤 was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de 脕vila, and went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language.[14]

The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulaci贸n de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru.[15] Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence.

History

Prehistory and pre-Columbian period

Sculpted Chavin head embedded in one of the walls of the temple of Chav铆n de Huantar
A Moche ceramic vessel from the 5th century depicting a man's head

The earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to approximately 9,000 BC.[16] Andean societies were based on agriculture, using techniques such as irrigation and terracing; camelid husbandry and fishing were also important. Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.[17] The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC.[18] These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC[19] along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture. The Chav铆n culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was probably more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavin de Huantar.[20] After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the Christian millennium, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell, both on the coast and in the highlands, during the next thousand years. On the coast, these included the civilizations of the Paracas, Nazca, Wari, and the more outstanding Chimu and Mochica. The Mochica, who reached their apogee in the first millennium AD, were renowned for their irrigation system which fertilized their arid terrain, their sophisticated ceramic pottery, their lofty buildings, and clever metalwork. The Chimu were the great city builders of pre-Inca civilization; as loose confederation of cities scattered along the coast of northern Peru and southern Ecuador, the Chimu flourished from about 1150 to 1450. Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo. In the highlands, both the Tiahuanaco culture, near Lake Titicaca in both Peru and Bolivia, and the Wari culture, near the present-day city of Ayacucho, developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between 500 and 1000 AD.[21]

The citadel of Machu Picchu, an iconic symbol of pre-Columbian Peru

In the 15th century, the Incas emerged as a powerful state which, in the span of a century, formed the largest empire in pre-Columbian America with their capital in Cusco.[22] The Incas of Cusco originally represented one of the small and relatively minor ethnic groups, the Quechuas. Gradually, as early as the thirteenth century, they began to expand and incorporate their neighbors. Inca expansion was slow until about the middle of the fifteenth century, when the pace of conquest began to accelerate, particularly under the rule of the great emperor Pachacuti. Under his rule and that of his son, Topa Inca Yupanqui, the Incas came to control most of the Andean region, with a population of 9 to 16 million inhabitants under their rule. Pachacuti also promulgated a comprehensive code of laws to govern his far-flung empire, while consolidating his absolute temporal and spiritual authority as the God of the Sun who ruled from a magnificently rebuilt Cusco.[23] From 1438 to 1533, the Incas used a variety of methods, from conquest to peaceful assimilation, to incorporate a large portion of western South America, centered on the Andean mountain ranges, from southern Colombia to Chile, between the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Amazon rainforest in the east. The official language of the empire was Quechua, although hundreds of local languages and dialects were spoken. The Inca referred to their empire as Tawantinsuyu which can be translated as "The Four Regions" or "The Four United Provinces." Many local forms of worship persisted in the empire, most of them concerning local sacred Huacas, but the Inca leadership encouraged the worship of Inti, the sun god and imposed its sovereignty above other cults such as that of Pachamama.[24] The Incas considered their King, the Sapa Inca, to be the "child of the sun."[25]

Conquest and colonial period

Lima in the early 19th century, near the Monastery of San Francisco
Main fa莽ade of the Cathedral of Lima and the Archbishop's palace

Atahualpa, the last Sapa Inca became emperor when he defeated and executed his older half-brother Huascar in a civil war sparked by the death of their father, Inca Huayna Capac. In December 1532, a party of conquistadors led by Francisco Pizarro defeated and captured the Inca Emperor Atahualpa in the Battle of Cajamarca. The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. After years of preliminary exploration and military conflicts, it was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory and colonization of the region known as the Viceroyalty of Peru with its capital at Lima, which became known as "The City of Kings". The conquest of the Inca Empire led to spin-off campaigns throughout the viceroyalty as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin as in the case of Spanish efforts to quell Amerindian resistance. The last Inca resistance was suppressed when the Spaniards annihilated the Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba in 1572.

The indigenous population dramatically collapsed due to exploitation, socioeconomic change and epidemic diseases introduced by the Spanish.[26] Exploitation and socioeconomic change also contributed to the collapse. Viceroy Francisco de Toledo reorganized the country in the 1570s with gold and silver mining as its main economic activity and Amerindian forced labor as its primary workforce.[27] With the discovery of the great silver and gold lodes at Potos铆 (present-day Bolivia) and Huancavelica, the viceroyalty flourished as an important provider of mineral resources. Peruvian bullion provided revenue for the Spanish Crown and fueled a complex trade network that extended as far as Europe and the Philippines.[28] Because of lack of available work force, African slaves were added to the labor population. The expansion of a colonial administrative apparatus and bureaucracy paralleled the economic reorganization. With the conquest started the spread of Christianity in South America; most people were forcefully converted to Catholicism, taking only a generation to convert the population. They built churches in every city and replaced some of the Inca temples with churches, such as the Coricancha in the city of Cusco. The church employed the Inquisition, making use of torture to ensure that newly converted Catholics did not stray to other religions or beliefs. Peruvian Catholicism follows the syncretism found in many Latin American countries, in which religious native rituals have been integrated with Christian celebrations.[29] In this endeavor, the church came to play an important role in the acculturation of the natives, drawing them into the cultural orbit of the Spanish settlers.

By the 18th century, declining silver production and economic diversification greatly diminished royal income.[30] In response, the Crown enacted the Bourbon Reforms, a series of edicts that increased taxes and partitioned the Viceroyalty.[31] The new laws provoked T煤pac Amaru II's rebellion and other revolts, all of which were suppressed.[32] As a result of these and other changes, the Spaniards and their creole successors came to monopolize control over the land, seizing many of the best lands abandoned by the massive native depopulation. However, the Spanish did not resist the Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian. The Treaty of Tordesillas was rendered meaningless between 1580 and 1640 while Spain controlled Portugal. The need to ease communication and trade with Spain led to the split of the viceroyalty and the creation of new viceroyalties of New Granada and Rio de la Plata at the expense of the territories that formed the viceroyalty of Peru; this reduced the power, prominence and importance of Lima as the viceroyal capital and shifted the lucrative Andean trade to Buenos Aires and Bogot谩, while the fall of the mining and textile production accelerated the progressive decay of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Eventually, the viceroyalty would dissolve, as with much of the Spanish empire, when challenged by national independence movements at the beginning of the nineteenth century. These movements led to the formation of the majority of modern-day countries of South America in the territories that at one point or another had constituted the Viceroyalty of Peru.[33] The conquest and colony brought a mix of cultures and ethnicities that did not exist before the Spanish conquered the Peruvian territory. Even though many of the Inca traditions were lost or diluted, new customs, traditions and knowledge were added, creating a rich mixed Peruvian culture.[29]

Independence

The Battle of Ayacucho was decisive in ensuring Peruvian independence.

In the early 19th century, while most of South America was swept by wars of independence, Peru remained a royalist stronghold. As the elite vacillated between emancipation and loyalty to the Spanish Monarchy, independence was achieved only after the occupation by military campaigns of Jos茅 de San Mart铆n and Sim贸n Bol铆var.

The economic crises, the loss of power of Spain in Europe, the war of independence in North America and native uprisings all contributed to a favorable climate to the development of emancipating ideas among the criollo population in South America. However, the criollo oligarchy in Peru enjoyed privileges and remained loyal to the Spanish Crown. The liberation movement started in Argentina where autonomous juntas were created as a result of the loss of authority of the Spanish government over its colonies.

After fighting for the independence of the Viceroyalty of Rio de la Plata, Jos茅 de San Mart铆n created the Army of the Andes and crossed the Andes in 21 days, a great accomplishment in military history. Once in Chile he joined forces with Chilean army General Bernardo O鈥橦iggins and liberated the country in the battles of Chacabuco and Maip煤 in 1818. On 7 September 1820, a fleet of eight warships arrived in the port of Paracas under the command of general Jose de San Martin and Thomas Cochrane, who was serving in the Chilean Navy. Immediately on 26 October they took control of the town of Pisco. San Martin settled in Huacho on 12 November, where he established his headquarters while Cochrane sailed north blockading the port of Callao in Lima. At the same time in the north, Guayaquil was occupied by rebel forces under the command of Gregorio Escobedo. Because Peru was the stronghold of the Spanish government in South America, San Martin鈥檚 strategy to liberate Peru was to use diplomacy. He sent representatives to Lima urging the Viceroy that Peru be granted independence, however all negotiations proved unsuccessful.

San Mart铆n proclaiming the independence of Peru. Painting by Juan Lepiani

The Viceroy of Peru, Joaquin de la Pazuela named Jose de la Serna commander-in-chief of the loyalist army to protect Lima from the threatened invasion of San Martin. On 29 January, de la Serna organized a coup against de la Pazuela which was recognized by Spain and he was named Viceroy of Peru. This internal power struggle contributed to the success of the liberating army. In order to avoid a military confrontation San Martin met the newly appointed viceroy, Jose de la Serna, and proposed to create a constitutional monarchy, a proposal that was turned down. De la Serna abandoned the city and on 12 July 1821 San Martin occupied Lima and declared Peruvian independence on 28 July 1821. He created the first Peruvian flag. Alto Peru (Bolivia) remained as a Spanish stronghold until the army of Sim贸n Bol铆var liberated it three years later. Jose de San Martin was declared Protector of Peru. Peruvian national identity was forged during this period, as Bolivarian projects for a Latin American Confederation floundered and a union with Bolivia proved ephemeral.[34]

Simon Bolivar launched his campaign from the north liberating the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the Battles of Carabobo in 1821 and Pichincha a year later. In July 1822 Bolivar and San Martin gathered in the Guayaquil Conference. Bolivar was left in charge of fully liberating Peru while San Martin retired from politics after the first parliament was assembled. The newly founded Peruvian Congress named Bolivar dictator of Peru giving him the power to organize the military.

With the help of Antonio Jos茅 de Sucre they defeated the larger Spanish army in the Battle of Jun铆n on 6 August 1824 and the decisive Battle of Ayacucho on 9 December of the same year, consolidating the independence of Peru and Alto Peru. Alto Peru was later established as Bolivia. During the early years of the Republic, endemic struggles for power between military leaders caused political instability.[35]

19th century to present

From the 1840s to the 1860s, Peru enjoyed a period of stability under the presidency of Ram贸n Castilla, through increased state revenues from guano exports.[36] However, by the 1870s, these resources had been depleted, the country was heavily indebted, and political in-fighting was again on the rise.[37] Peru embarked on a railroad-building program that helped but also bankrupted the country. In 1879, Peru entered the War of the Pacific which lasted until 1884. Bolivia invoked its alliance with Peru against Chile. The Peruvian Government tried to mediate the dispute by sending a diplomatic team to negotiate with the Chilean government, but the committee concluded that war was inevitable. Chile declared war on 5 April 1879. Almost five years of war ended with the loss of the department of Tarapac谩 and the provinces of Tacna and Arica, in the Atacama region. Two outstanding military leaders throughout the war were Francisco Bolognesi and Miguel Grau. Originally Chile committed to a referendum for the cities of Arica and Tacna to be held years later, in order to self determine their national affiliation. However, Chile refused to apply the Treaty, and neither of the countries could determine the statutory framework. After the War of the Pacific, an extraordinary effort of rebuilding began. The government started to initiate a number of social and economic reforms in order to recover from the damage of the war. Political stability was achieved only in the early 1900s.

Internal struggles after the war were followed by a period of stability under the Civilista Party, which lasted until the onset of the authoritarian regime of Augusto B. Legu铆a. The Great Depression caused the downfall of Legu铆a, renewed political turmoil, and the emergence of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (APRA).[38] The rivalry between this organization and a coalition of the elite and the military defined Peruvian politics for the following three decades. A final peace treaty in 1929, signed between Peru and Chile called the Treaty of Lima, returned Tacna to Peru. Between 1932 and 1933, Peru was engulfed in a year-long war with Colombia over a territorial dispute involving the Amazonas department and its capital Leticia. Later, in 1941, Peru became involved in the Ecuadorian-Peruvian War, after which the Rio Protocol sought to formalize the boundary between those two countries. In a military coup on 29 October 1948, Gen. Manuel A. Odria became president. Odr铆a's presidency was known as the Ochenio. Momentarily pleasing the oligarchy and all others on the right, but followed a populist course that won him great favor with the poor and lower classes. A thriving economy allowed him to indulge in expensive but crowd-pleasing social policies. At the same time, however, civil rights were severely restricted and corruption was rampant throughout his r茅gime. Odr铆a was succeeded by Manuel Prado Ugarteche. However, widespread allegations of fraud prompted the Peruvian military to depose Prado and install a military junta, led by Ricardo P茅rez Godoy. Godoy ran a short transitional government and held new elections in 1963, which were won by Fernando Bela煤nde Terry who assumed presidency until 1968. Bela煤nde was recognized for his commitment to the democratic process. In 1968, the Armed Forces, led by General Juan Velasco Alvarado, staged a coup against Bela煤nde. Alvarado's regime undertook radical reforms aimed at fostering development, but failed to gain widespread support. In 1975, General Francisco Morales Berm煤dez forcefully replaced Velasco, paralyzed reforms, and oversaw the reestablishment of democracy.

Areas where the Shining Path was active in Peru

Peru engaged in a brief successful conflict with Ecuador in the Paquisha War as a result of territorial dispute between the two countries. After the country experienced chronic inflation, the Peruvian currency, the sol, was replaced by the Inti in mid-1985, which itself was replaced by the nuevo sol in July 1991, at which time the new sol had a cumulative value of one billion old soles. The per capita annual income of Peruvians fell to $720 (below the level of 1960) and Peru's GDP dropped 20% at which national reserves were a negative $900 million. The economic turbulence of the time acerbated social tensions in Peru and partly contributed to the rise of violent rebel rural insurgent movements, like Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) and MRTA, which caused great havoc throughout the country. Concerned about the economy, the increasing terrorist threat from Sendero Luminoso and MRTA, and allegations of official corruption, Alberto Fujimori assumed presidency in 1990. Fujimori implemented drastic measures that caused inflation to drop from 7,650% in 1990 to 139% in 1991. Faced with opposition to his reform efforts, Fujimori dissolved Congress in the auto-golpe ("self-coup") of 5 April 1992. He then revised the constitution; called new congressional elections; and implemented substantial economic reform, including privatization of numerous state-owned companies, creation of an investment-friendly climate, and sound management of the economy. Fujimori's administration was dogged by insurgent groups, most notably the Sendero Luminoso, who carried out terrorist campaigns across the country throughout the 1980s and 1990s. Fujimori cracked down on the insurgents and was successful in largely quelling them by the late 1990s, but the fight was marred by atrocities committed by both the Peruvian security forces and the insurgents: the Barrios Altos massacre and La Cantuta massacre by Government paramilitary groups, and the bombings of Tarata and Frecuencia Latina by Sendero Luminoso. Those incidents subsequently came to symbolize the human rights violations committed in the last years of violence.

Lima, 2009

During early 1995, once again Peru and Ecuador clashed in the Cenepa War, but in 1998 the governments of both nations signed a peace treaty that clearly demarcated the international boundary between them. In November 2000, Fujimori resigned from office and went into a self-imposed exile, avoiding prosecution for human rights violations and corruption charges by the new Peruvian authorities. Since the end of the Fujimori regime, Peru has tried to fight corruption while sustaining economic growth.[39] In spite of human rights progress since the time of insurgency, many problems are still visible and show the continued marginalization of those who suffered through the violence of the Peruvian conflict.[40]

A caretaker government presided over by Valent铆n Paniagua took on the responsibility of conducting new presidential and congressional elections. Afterwards Alejandro Toledo became president in 2001 to 2006.

On 28 July 2006 former president Alan Garc铆a became President of Peru after winning the 2006 elections. In May 2008, Peru became a member of the Union of South American Nations.

On 5 June 2011, Ollanta Humala was elected President. During his presidency, Prime Minister Ana Jara and her cabinet were successfully censored, which was the first time in 50 years that a cabinet had been forced to resign from the Peruvian legislature.[41]

Government and politics

Congress sits in the Palacio Legislativo in Lima.

Government

Peru is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic with a multi-party system.[2][3] Under the current constitution, the President is both head of state and government; he or she is elected for five years and cannot serve consecutive terms.[42] The President designates the Prime Minister and, on his or her advice, the rest of the Council of Ministers.[43] The Congress of the Republic is unicameral with 130 members elected for five-year terms.[44] Bills may be proposed by either the executive or the legislative branch; they become law after being passed by Congress and promulgated by the President.[45] The judiciary is nominally independent,[46] though political intervention into judicial matters has been common throughout history and arguably continues in modern day.[47]

The Peruvian government is directly elected, and voting is compulsory for all citizens aged 18 to 70.[48] Congress is currently composed of Fuerza Popular (72 seats), Peruanos Por el Kambio (17 seats), Frente Amplio (20 seats), Alianza para el Progreso (9 seats), Acci贸n Popular (5 seats) and APRA (5 seats).[49]

Foreign relations

The VI Summit of the Pacific Alliance: President of Peru, Ollanta Humala is first from the right.

Peruvian foreign relations have historically been dominated by border conflicts with neighboring countries, most of which were settled during the 20th century.[50] Recently, Peru disputed its maritime limits with Chile in the Pacific Ocean.[51] Peru is an active member of several regional blocs and one of the founders of the Andean Community of Nations. It is also a participant in international organizations such as the Organization of American States and the United Nations. Javier P茅rez de Cu茅llar served as UN Secretary General from 1981 to 1991. Former President Fujimori鈥檚 tainted re-election to a third term in June 2000 strained Peru's relations with the United States and with many Latin American and European countries, but relations improved with the installation of an interim government in November 2000 and the inauguration of Alejandro Toledo in July 2001 after free and fair elections.

Peru is planning full integration into the Andean Free Trade Area. In addition, Peru is a standing member of APEC and the World Trade Organization, and is an active participant in negotiations toward a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA).

Military and law enforcement

The Peruvian Armed Forces are the military services of Peru, comprising independent Army, Navy and Air Force components. Their primary mission is to safeguard the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of the country. As a secondary mission they participate in economic and social development as well as in civil defense tasks.[52] Conscription was abolished in 1999 and replaced by voluntary military service.[53] The armed forces are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense and to the President as Commander-in-Chief.

The National Police of Peru is often classified as a part of the armed forces. Although in fact it has a different organization and a wholly civil mission, its training and activities over more than two decades as an anti-terrorist force have produced markedly military characteristics, giving it the appearance of a virtual fourth military service with significant land, sea and air capabilities and approximately 140,000 personnel. The Peruvian armed forces report through the Ministry of Defense, while the National Police of Peru reports through the Ministry of Interior.

Administrative divisions

Peru is divided into 25 regions and the province of Lima. Each region has an elected government composed of a president and council that serve four-year terms.[54] These governments plan regional development, execute public investment projects, promote economic activities, and manage public property.[55] The province of Lima is administered by a city council.[56] The goal of devolving power to regional and municipal governments was among others to improve popular participation. NGOs played an important role in the decentralization process and still influence local politics.[57]

Regions

Province

Metropolitan areas

Several metropolitan areas are defined for Peru - these overlap the district areas, and have limited authority. The largest of them, the Lima Metropolitan Area, is the seventh largest metropolis in the Americas.

Geography

Peru map of K枚ppen climate classification

Peru covers 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi) of western South America. It borders Ecuador and Colombia to the north, Brazil to the east, Bolivia to the southeast, Chile to the south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west. The Andes mountains run parallel to the Pacific Ocean; they define the three regions traditionally used to describe the country geographically. The costa (coast), to the west, is a narrow plain, largely arid except for valleys created by seasonal rivers. The sierra (highlands) is the region of the Andes; it includes the Altiplano plateau as well as the highest peak of the country, the 6,768 m (22,205 ft) Huascar谩n.[58] The third region is the selva (jungle), a wide expanse of flat terrain covered by the Amazon rainforest that extends east. Almost 60 percent of the country's area is located within this region.[59]

Most Peruvian rivers originate in the peaks of the Andes and drain into one of three basins. Those that drain toward the Pacific Ocean are steep and short, flowing only intermittently. Tributaries of the Amazon River have a much larger flow, and are longer and less steep once they exit the sierra. Rivers that drain into Lake Titicaca are generally short and have a large flow.[60] Peru's longest rivers are the Ucayali, the Mara帽贸n, the Putumayo, the Yavar铆, the Huallaga, the Urubamba, the Mantaro, and the Amazon.[61]

The largest lake in Peru, Lake Titicaca between Peru and Bolivia high in the Andes, is also the largest of South America.[62] The largest reservoirs, all in the coastal region of Peru, are the Poechos, Tinajones, San Lorenzo, and El Fraile reservoirs.[63]

Climate

The combination of tropical latitude, mountain ranges, topography variations, and two ocean currents (Humboldt and El Ni帽o) gives Peru a large diversity of climates. The coastal region has moderate temperatures, low precipitations, and high humidity, except for its warmer, wetter northern reaches.[64] In the mountain region, rain is frequent in summer, and temperature and humidity diminish with altitude up to the frozen peaks of the Andes.[65] The Peruvian Amazon is characterized by heavy rainfall and high temperatures, except for its southernmost part, which has cold winters and seasonal rainfall.[66]

Wildlife

Puya raimondii flowering in Ayacucho, Peru

Because of its varied geography and climate, Peru has a high biodiversity with 21,462 species of plants and animals reported as of 2003, 5,855 of them endemic.[67] Peru has over 1,800 species of birds (120 endemic), and 500 species of mammals and over 300 species of reptiles.[68] The hundreds of mammals include rare species like the puma, jaguar and spectacled bear. The Birds of Peru produce large amounts of guano, an economically important export. The Pacific holds large quantities of sea bass, flounder, anchovies, tuna, crustaceans, and shellfish, and is home to many sharks, sperm whales, and whales.[69]

Peru also has an equally diverse flora. The coastal deserts produce little more than cacti, apart from hilly fog oases and river valleys that contain unique plant life.[70] The Highlands above the tree-line known as puna is home to bushes, cactus, drought-resistant plants such as ichu, and the largest species of bromeliad - the spectacular Puya raimondii.

The cloud-forest slopes of the Andes sustain moss, orchids, and bromeliads, and the Amazon rainforest is known for its variety of trees and canopy plants.[69]

Economy and infrastructure

Buildings in Lima's financial district of San Isidro, and the Callao seaport, Peru's main export outlet

The economy of Peru is classified as upper middle income by the World Bank[71] and is the 39th largest in the world.[72] Peru is, as of 2011, one of the world's fastest-growing economies owing to the economic boom experienced during the 2000s.[73] It has a high Human Development Index of .752 based on 2011 data. Historically, the country's economic performance has been tied to exports, which provide hard currency to finance imports and external debt payments.[74] Although they have provided substantial revenue, self-sustained growth and a more egalitarian distribution of income have proven elusive.[75] According to 2010 data, 31.3% of its total population is poor, including 9.8% that lives in extreme poverty.[76] Inflation in 2012 was the lowest in Latin America at only 1.8%, but increased in 2013 as oil and commodity prices rose; as of 2014 it stands at 2.5%.[77] The unemployment rate has fallen steadily in recent years, and as of 2012 stands at 3.6%.

Peruvian economic policy has varied widely over the past decades. The 1968鈥1975 government of Juan Velasco Alvarado introduced radical reforms, which included agrarian reform, the expropriation of foreign companies, the introduction of an economic planning system, and the creation of a large state-owned sector. These measures failed to achieve their objectives of income redistribution and the end of economic dependence on developed nations.[78]

Despite these results, most reforms were not reversed until the 1990s, when the liberalizing government of Alberto Fujimori ended price controls, protectionism, restrictions on foreign direct investment, and most state ownership of companies.[79] Reforms have permitted sustained economic growth since 1993, except for a slump after the 1997 Asian financial crisis.[80]

Services account for 53% of Peruvian gross domestic product, followed by manufacturing (22.3%), extractive industries (15%), and taxes (9.7%).[81] Recent economic growth has been fueled by macroeconomic stability, improved terms of trade, and rising investment and consumption.[82] Trade is expected to increase further after the implementation of a free trade agreement with the United States signed on 12 April 2006.[83] Peru's main exports are copper, gold, zinc, textiles, and fish meal; its major trade partners are the United States, China, Brazil, and Chile.[84]

Water supply and sanitation

The water and sanitation sector in Peru has made important advances in the last two decades, including the increase of water coverage from 30% to 85% between 1980 and 2010. Sanitation coverage has also increased from 9% to 37% from 1985 to 2010 in rural areas.[85] Advances have also been achieved concerning the disinfection of drinking water and in sewage treatment. Nevertheless, many challenges remain, such as:

  • Insufficient service coverage;
  • Poor service quality which puts the population鈥檚 health at risk;
  • Deficient sustainability of built systems;
  • Tariffs that do not cover the investment and operational costs, as well as the maintenance of services;
  • Institutional and financial weakness; and,
  • Excess of human resources, poorly qualified, and high staff turnover.

Demographics

Urbanization

Ethnic groups

Lima's main square, c. 1843. Throughout its history, Peruvian society has been diverse.

Peru is a multiethnic nation formed by the combination of different groups over five centuries. Amerindians inhabited Peruvian territory for several millennia before Spanish Conquest in the 16th century; according to historian Noble David Cook their population decreased from nearly 5鈥9 million in the 1520s to around 600,000 in 1620 mainly because of infectious diseases.[87] Spaniards and Africans arrived in large numbers under colonial rule, mixing widely with each other and with indigenous peoples. After independence, there has been gradual immigration from England, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.[88] Chinese and Japanese arrived in the 1850s as a replacement for slave workers and have since become a major influence in Peruvian society.[89]

Population

A Peruvian family at the food market

With about 31.2 million inhabitants, Peru is the fifth most populous country in South America.[10] Its demographic growth rate declined from 2.6% to 1.6% between 1950 and 2000; population is expected to reach approximately 42 million in 2050.[90] As of 2007, 75.9% lived in urban areas and 24.1% in rural areas.[91] Major cities include the Lima Metropolitan Area (home to over 9.8 million people), Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Piura, Iquitos, Cusco, Chimbote, and Huancayo; all reported more than 250,000 inhabitants in the 2007 census.[92] There are 15 uncontacted Amerindian tribes in Peru.[93]

Language

Casa de Osambela, headquarters of the Academia Peruana de la Lengua (APL) in Lima

According to the Peruvian Constitution of 1993, Peru's official languages are Spanish and Quechua, Aymara and other indigenous languages in areas where they predominate. Spanish is spoken by 84.1% of the population and Quechua by 13%, Aymara by 1.7% while other languages make up the remaining 1.2%.[72]

Spanish is used by the government and is the mainstream language of the country, which is used by the media and in educational systems and commerce. Amerindians who live in the Andean highlands speak Quechua and Aymara and are ethnically distinct from the diverse indigenous groups who live on the eastern side of the Andes and in the tropical lowlands adjacent to the Amazon basin. Peru's distinct geographical regions are mirrored in a language divide between the coast where Spanish is more predominant over the Amerindian languages, and the more diverse traditional Andean cultures of the mountains and highlands. The indigenous populations east of the Andes speak various languages and dialects. Some of these groups still adhere to traditional indigenous languages, while others have been almost completely assimilated into the Spanish language. There has been an increasing and organized effort to teach Quechua in public schools in the areas where Quechua is spoken. In the Peruvian Amazon, numerous indigenous languages are spoken, including Ash谩ninka, Bora, and Aguaruna.[94]

Religion

In the 2007 census, 81.3% of the population over 12 years old described themselves as Catholic, 12.5% as Evangelical Protestant, 3.3% as other Protestant, Judaism, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), and Jehovah's Witness, and 2.9% as non-religious.[95] Literacy was estimated at 92.9% in 2007; this rate is lower in rural areas (80.3%) than in urban areas (96.3%).[96] Primary and secondary education are compulsory and free in public schools.[72][97]

Amerindian religious traditions also play a major role in the beliefs of Peruvians. Catholic festivities like Corpus Christi, holy week and Christmas sometimes blend with Amerindian traditions. Amerindian festivities which were celebrated since pre-Columbian times are also widespread throughout the nation. Inti Raymi, which is an old Inca festival, is still celebrated.

The majority of towns, cities and villages have their own official church or cathedral and patron saint.

Toponyms

Many of the Peruvian toponyms have indigenous sources. In the Andes communities of Ancash, Cusco and Puno Quechua or Aymara names are overwhelmingly predominat. Their Spanish-based orthography, however, is in conflict with the normalized alphabets of these languages. According to Article 20 of Decreto Supremo No 004-2016-MC (Supreme Decree) which approves the Regulations to Law 29735, published in the official newspaper El Peruano on July 22, 2016, adequate spellings of the toponyms in the normalized alphabets of the indigenous languages must progressively be proposed with the aim of standardizing the namings used by the National Geographic Institute (Instituto Geogr谩fico Nacional, IGN) The National Geographic Institute realizes the necessary changes in the official maps of Peru.[98]

Culture

Anonymous Cuzco School painting, 18th century

Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions,[99] though it has also been influenced by various Asian, African, and other European ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu. Baroque dominated colonial art, though modified by native traditions.[100]

During this period, most art focused on religious subjects; the numerous churches of the era and the paintings of the Cuzco School are representative.[101] Arts stagnated after independence until the emergence of Indigenismo in the early 20th century.[102] Since the 1950s, Peruvian art has been eclectic and shaped by both foreign and local art currents.[103]

Peruvian literature is rooted in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century; colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature. After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma.[104] The early 20th century's Indigenismo movement was led by such writers as Ciro Alegr铆a[105] and Jos茅 Mar铆a Arguedas.[106] C茅sar Vallejo wrote modernist and often politically engaged verse. Modern Peruvian literature is recognized thanks to authors such as Nobel laureate Mario Vargas Llosa, a leading member of the Latin American Boom.[107]

Ceviche is a popular lime marinated seafood dish which originated in Peru

Peruvian cuisine blends Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from Chinese, African, Arab, Italian, and Japanese cooking.[108] Common dishes include anticuchos, ceviche, and pachamanca. Peru's varied climate allows the growth of diverse plants and animals good for cooking.[109] Peru's diversity of ingredients and cooking techniques is receiving worldwide acclaim.[110]

Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish, and African roots.[111] In pre-Hispanic times, musical expressions varied widely in each region; the quena and the tinya were two common instruments.[112] Spaniards introduced new instruments, such as the guitar and the harp, which led to the development of crossbred instruments like the charango.[113] African contributions to Peruvian music include its rhythms and the caj贸n, a percussion instrument. Peruvian folk dances include marinera, tondero, zamacueca, diablada and huayno.[114]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ In Peru, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages. In each of these, Peru's official name (Spanish: Rep煤blica de Per煤, pronounced: [re藞pu尾lika 冒el pe藞删u]) is as follows:
  1. ^ "Ethnic groups of Per煤". CIA Factbook. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  2. ^ a b Shugart, Matthew S酶berg (September 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive and Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). Graduate School of International Relations and Pacific Studies. United States: University of California, San Diego. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2017. 
  3. ^ a b Shugart, Matthew S酶berg (December 2005). "Semi-Presidential Systems: Dual Executive And Mixed Authority Patterns" (PDF). French Politics. Palgrave Macmillan UK. 3 (3): 323鈥351. ISSN 1476-3427. OCLC 6895745903. doi:10.1057/palgrave.fp.8200087Freely accessible. Retrieved 31 August 2017. Only in Latin America have all new democracies retained a pure presidential form, except for Peru (president-parliamentary) and Bolivia (assembly-independent). 
  4. ^ a b c d "Peru". International Monetary Fund. 
  5. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  6. ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 23 March 2017. 
  7. ^ Quechua name used by government of Peru is Per煤 (see Quechua-language version of Peru Parliament website Archived 30 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine. and Quechua-language version of Peru Constitution [1]), but common Quechua name is Piruw
  8. ^ Servicio Nacional de 脕reas Naturales Protegidas (ed.):Per煤: Pa铆s megaviverso Archived 22 June 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
  9. ^ UN: Peru Posts One of Region鈥檚 Best Reductions in Poverty in 2011 Archived 18 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Andean Air Mail and Peruvian Times, 28 November 2012.
  10. ^ a b "PER脷: ESTIMACIONES Y PROYECCIONES DE LA POBLACION TOTAL POR A脩OS CALENDARIO Y EDADES SIMPLES, 1995-2025". Per煤: Estimaciones y Proyecciones de Poblaci贸n Departamental, por A帽os Calendario y Edades Simples, 1995-2025. INEI. November 2010. Retrieved 22 December 2015. 
  11. ^ Porras Barrenechea, Ra煤l. El nombre del Per煤. Lima: Talleres Gr谩ficos P.L. Villanueva, 1968, p. 83.
  12. ^ Ra煤l Porras Barrenechea, El nombre del Per煤, p. 84.
  13. ^ Ra煤l Porras Barrenechea, El nombre del Per煤, p. 86.
  14. ^ Vega, Garcilasco, Commentarios Reales de los Incas, Editorial Mantaro, Lima, ed. 1998. pp. 14-15. First published in Lisbon in 1609.
  15. ^ Ra煤l Porras Barrenechea, El nombre del Per煤, p. 87.
  16. ^ Dillehay, Tom, Duccio Bonavia and Peter Kaulicke (2004). "The first settlers". In Helaine Silverman (ed.), Andean archaeology. Malden: Blackwell, ISBN 0631234012, p. 20.
  17. ^ Mayer, Enrique (2002). The articulated peasant: household economies in the Andes. Boulder: Westview, ISBN 081333716X, pp. 47鈥68
  18. ^ Haas, Jonathan, Creamer, Winifred and Ruiz, Alvaro (2004). "Dating the Late Archaic occupation of the Norte Chico region in Peru". Nature. 432: 1020鈥1023. PMID 15616561. doi:10.1038/nature03146. 
  19. ^ Cordy-Collins, Alana (1992). "Archaism or Tradition?: The Decapitation Theme in Cupisnique and Moche Iconography". Latin American Antiquity. 3 (3): 206鈥220. JSTOR 971715. doi:10.2307/971715. 
  20. ^ UNESCO Chavin (Archaeological Site) Archived 8 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 27 July 2014
  21. ^ Pre-Inca Cultures Archived 3 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. countrystudies.us.
  22. ^ D'Altroy, Terence (2002). The Incas. Malden: Blackwell, ISBN 1405116765, pp. 2鈥3.
  23. ^ Peru The Incas Archived 3 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ The Inca 鈥 All Empires Archived 20 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ "The Inca" at the Wayback Machine (archived 10 November 2009) The National Foreign Language Center at the University of Maryland. 29 May 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
  26. ^ Lovell, W. George (1992). "'Heavy Shadows and Black Night': Disease and Depopulation in Colonial Spanish America". Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 82 (3): 426鈥443. JSTOR 2563354. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8306.1992.tb01968.x. 
  27. ^ Bakewell, Peter (1984). Miners of the Red Mountain: Indian labor in Potosi 1545鈥1650. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, ISBN 0826307698, p. 181.
  28. ^ (in Spanish) Su谩rez, Margarita. Desaf铆os transatl谩nticos[permanent dead link]. Lima: FCE/IFEA/PUCP, 2001, pp. 252鈥253.
  29. ^ a b Conquest and Colony of Peru."Archived copy". Archived from the original on 18 August 2016. Retrieved 28 July 2014. . Retrieved 28 July 2014
  30. ^ Andrien, Kenneth (1985). Crisis and decline: the Viceroyalty of Peru in the seventeenth century. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, ISBN 1597403237, pp. 200鈥202.
  31. ^ Burkholder, Mark (1977). From impotence to authority: the Spanish Crown and the American audiencias, 1687鈥1808. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, ISBN 0826202195, pp. 83鈥87.
  32. ^ O'Phelan, Scarlett (1985). Rebellions and revolts in eighteenth century Peru and Upper Peru. Cologne: B枚hlau, ISBN 3412010855, 9783412010850, p. 276.
  33. ^ Peru Peru Archived 3 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
  34. ^ Gootenberg (1991) p. 12.
  35. ^ Discover Peru (Peru cultural society). War of Independence Archived 21 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 28 July 2014
  36. ^ Gootenberg (1993) pp. 5鈥6.
  37. ^ Gootenberg (1993) p. 9.
  38. ^ Klar茅n, Peter (2000). Peru: society and nationhood in the Andes. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 262鈥276, ISBN 0195069285.
  39. ^ The Economist (17 October 2007), Peru.
  40. ^ White, Gavin David (2009). "Displacement, decentralisation and reparation in post-conflict Peru". Forced Migration Review. 
  41. ^ Staff writer (31 March 2015). "Peru's Prime Minister Ana Jara deposed over spy row". BBC. BBC News. Retrieved 19 August 2017. 
  42. ^ Constituci贸n Pol铆tica del Per煤, Article No. 112.
  43. ^ Constituci贸n Pol铆tica del Per煤, Article No. 122.
  44. ^ Constituci贸n Pol铆tica del Per煤, Article No. 90.
  45. ^ Constituci贸n Pol铆tica del Per煤, Articles No. 107鈥108.
  46. ^ Constituci贸n Pol铆tica del Per煤, Article No. 146.
  47. ^ Clark, Jeffrey. Building on quicksand. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
  48. ^ Constituci贸n Pol铆tica del Per煤, Article No. 31.
  49. ^ (in Spanish) Congreso de la Rep煤blica del Per煤, Grupos Parlamentarios Archived 29 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 27 August 2011.
  50. ^ St John, Ronald Bruce (1992). The foreign policy of Peru. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, ISBN 1555873049, pp. 223鈥224.
  51. ^ BBC News (4 November 2005), Peru鈥揅hile border row escalates Archived 15 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 16 May 2007.
  52. ^ Ministerio de Defensa, Libro Blanco de la Defensa Nacional. Ministerio de Defensa, 2005, 90.
  53. ^ Ley N掳 27178, Ley del Servicio Militar, Articles No. 29, 42 and 45.
  54. ^ Ley N掳 27867, Ley Org谩nica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article No. 11.
  55. ^ Ley N掳 27867, Ley Org谩nica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article No. 10.
  56. ^ Ley N掳 27867, Ley Org谩nica de Gobiernos Regionales, Article No. 66.
  57. ^ Monika Huber; Wolfgang Kaiser (February 2013). "Mixed Feelings". dandc.eu. 
  58. ^ Andes Handbook, Huascar谩n Archived 8 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. 2 June 2002.
  59. ^ Instituto de Estudios Hist贸rico鈥揗ar铆timos del Per煤, El Per煤 y sus recursos: Atlas geogr谩fico y econ贸mico, p. 16.
  60. ^ Instituto de Estudios Hist贸rico鈥揗ar铆timos del Per煤, El Per煤 y sus recursos: Atlas geogr谩fico y econ贸mico, p. 31.
  61. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica, Per煤: Compendio Estad铆stico 2005, p. 21.
  62. ^ "Application of Strontium Isotopes to Understanding the Hydrology and Paleohydrology of the Altiplano, Bolivia-Peru". Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. 194: 281鈥297. 2003. doi:10.1016/S0031-0182(03)00282-7. 
  63. ^ Oficina nacional de evaluaci贸n de recursos naturales (previous INRENA). "Inventario nacional de lagunas y represamientos" (PDF). INRENA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 June 2007. Retrieved 3 March 2008. 
  64. ^ Instituto de Estudios Hist贸rico鈥揗ar铆timos del Per煤, El Per煤 y sus recursos: Atlas geogr谩fico y econ贸mico, pp. 24鈥25.
  65. ^ Instituto de Estudios Hist贸rico鈥揗ar铆timos del Per煤, El Per煤 y sus recursos: Atlas geogr谩fico y econ贸mico, pp. 25鈥26.
  66. ^ Instituto de Estudios Hist贸rico鈥揗ar铆timos del Per煤, El Per煤 y sus recursos: Atlas geogr谩fico y econ贸mico, pp. 26鈥27.
  67. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica, Per煤: Compendio Estad铆stico 2005, p. 50.
  68. ^ "Peru Wildlife Information". 
  69. ^ a b "Peru: Wildlife". Select Latin America. Archived from the original on 26 February 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 
  70. ^ Dillon, Michael O. "The solanaceae of the lomas formations of coastal peru and chile" (PDF). sacha.org. Retrieved 28 November 2016. 
  71. ^ The World Bank, Data by country: Peru Archived 8 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved on 1 October 2011.
  72. ^ a b c Peru Archived 5 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. CIA, The World Factbook
  73. ^ BBC (31 July 2012), Peru country profile Archived 5 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine..
  74. ^ Thorp, p. 4.
  75. ^ Thorp, p. 321.
  76. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica, Evoluci贸n de la Pobreza en el Per煤 al 2010, p. 38.
  77. ^ "Peru and the IMF". International Monetary Fund. 
  78. ^ Thorp, pp. 318鈥319.
  79. ^ Sheahan, John. Searching for a better society: the Peruvian economy from 1950. University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999, ISBN 0271018720, p. 157.
  80. ^ (in Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva, Producto bruto interno por sectores productivos 1951鈥2006 Archived 9 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  81. ^ 2006 figures. (in Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva, Memoria 2006 Archived 9 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine., p. 204. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  82. ^ (in Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva, Memoria 2006 Archived 9 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine., pp. 15, 203. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  83. ^ Office of the U.S. Trade Representative, United States and Peru Sign Trade Promotion Agreement, 12 April 2006. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  84. ^ 2006 figures. (in Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva, Memoria 2006 Archived 9 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine., pp. 60鈥61. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  85. ^ [http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2017/launch-version-report-jmp-water-sanitation-hygiene.pdf?ua=1 Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene 2017] {{|date=May 2017}}
  86. ^ INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE ESTADISTICA E INFORMATICA. "PER脷: ESTIMACIONES Y PROYECCIONES DE POBLACI脫N TOTAL POR SEXO DE LAS PRINCIPALES CIUDADES" (in Spanish). 
  87. ^ Cook, Noble David (1982) Demographic collapse: Indian Peru, 1520鈥1620. Cambridge University Press. p. 114. ISBN 0521239958.
  88. ^ V谩zquez, Mario (1970) "Immigration and mestizaje in nineteenth-century Peru", pp. 79鈥81 in Race and class in Latin America. Columbia Univ. Press. ISBN 0-231-03295-1
  89. ^ M枚rner, Magnus (1967), Race mixture in the history of Latin America, p. 131.
  90. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica, Per煤: Estimaciones y Proyecciones de Poblaci贸n, 1950鈥2050, pp. 37鈥38, 40.
  91. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica, Perfil sociodemogr谩fico del Per煤, p. 13.
  92. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica, Perfil sociodemogr谩fico del Per煤, p. 24.
  93. ^ "Isolated Peru tribe threatened by outsiders Archived 5 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine.". USATODAY.com. 31 January 2012
  94. ^ (in Spanish) Resonancias.org Archived 7 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine. 鈥 Aboriginal languages of Peru
  95. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica, Perfil sociodemogr谩fico del Per煤, p. 132.
  96. ^ Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica, Perfil sociodemogr谩fico del Per煤, p. 93.
  97. ^ Constituci贸n Pol铆tica del Per煤, Article No. 17.
  98. ^ "Decreto Supremo que aprueba el Reglamento de la Ley N掳 29735, Ley que regula el uso, preservaci贸n, desarrollo, recuperaci贸n, fomento y difusi贸n de las lenguas originarias del Per煤, Decreto Supremo N掳 004-2016-MC". Retrieved July 10, 2017. 
  99. ^ Belaunde, V铆ctor Andr茅s (1983). Peruanidad. Lima: BCR, p. 472.
  100. ^ Bailey, pp. 72鈥74.
  101. ^ Bailey, p. 263.
  102. ^ Lucie-Smith, Edward (1993). Latin American art of the 20th century Archived 20 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. London: Thames and Hudson, ISBN 0500203563, pp. 76鈥77, 145鈥146.
  103. ^ Bay贸n, Dami谩n (1998). "Art, c. 1920鈥揷. 1980". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, ISBN 0521626269, pp. 425鈥428.
  104. ^ Martin, "Literature, music and the visual arts, c. 1820鈥1870", pp. 37鈥39.
  105. ^ Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 151鈥152.
  106. ^ Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 178鈥179.
  107. ^ Martin, "Narrative since c. 1920", pp. 186鈥188.
  108. ^ Custer, pp. 17鈥22.
  109. ^ Custer, pp. 25鈥38.
  110. ^ Embassy of Peru in the United States, The Peruvian Gastronomy.peruvianembassy.us.
  111. ^ Romero, Ra煤l (1999). "Andean Peru". In: John Schechter (ed.), Music in Latin American culture: regional tradition. New York: Schirmer Books, pp. 385鈥386.
  112. ^ Olsen, Dale (2002). Music of El Dorado: the ethnomusicology of ancient South American cultures. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, ISBN 0813029201, pp. 17鈥22.
  113. ^ Turino, Thomas (1993). "Charango". In: Stanley Sadie (ed.), The New Grove Dictionary of Musical Instruments. New York: MacMillan Press Limited, vol. I, ISBN 0333378784, p. 340.
  114. ^ Romero, Ra煤l (1985). "La m煤sica tradicional y popular". In: Patronato Popular y Porvenir, La m煤sica en el Per煤. Lima: Industrial Gr谩fica, pp. pp. 243鈥245, 261鈥265.

Bibliography

  • Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Art of colonial Latin America. London: Phaidon, 2005, ISBN 0714841579.
  • Constituci贸n Pol铆tica del Per煤. 29 December 1993.
  • Custer, Tony. The Art of Peruvian Cuisine. Lima: Ediciones Ganesha, 2003, ISBN 9972920305.
  • Garland, Gonzalo. "Per煤 Siglo XXI", series of 11 working papers describing sectorial long-term forecasts, Grade, Lima, Peru, 1986-1987.
  • Garland, Gonzalo. Peru in the 21st Century: Challenges and Possibilities in Futures: the Journal of Forecasting, Planning and Policy, Volume 22, N潞 4, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, England, May 1990.
  • Gootenberg, Paul. (1991) Between silver and guano: commercial policy and the state in postindependence Peru. Princeton: Princeton University Press ISBN 0691023425.
  • Gootenberg, Paul. (1993) Imagining development: economic ideas in Peru's "fictitious prosperity" of Guano, 1840鈥1880. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993, 0520082907.
  • Higgins, James (editor). The Emancipation of Peru: British Eyewitness Accounts, 2014. Online at https://sites.google.com/site/jhemanperu
  • Instituto de Estudios Hist贸rico鈥揗ar铆timos del Per煤. El Per煤 y sus recursos: Atlas geogr谩fico y econ贸mico. Lima: Auge, 1996.
  • Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica. "Per煤: Compendio Estad铆stico 2005" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2007.  (8.31 MB). Lima: INEI, 2005.
  • Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica. Perfil sociodemogr谩fico del Per煤. Lima: INEI, 2008.
  • Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica. Per煤: Estimaciones y Proyecciones de Poblaci贸n, 1950鈥2050. Lima: INEI, 2001.
  • Ley N掳 27178, Ley del Servicio Militar Nuvola-inspired File Icons for MediaWiki-fileicon-doc.pngDOC. 28 September 1999.
  • Ley N掳 27867, Ley Ley Org谩nica de Gobiernos Regionales. 16 November 2002.
  • Martin, Gerald. "Literature, music and the visual arts, c. 1820鈥1870". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 3鈥45.
  • Martin, Gerald. "Narrative since c. 1920". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 133鈥225.
  • Porras Barrenechea, Ra煤l. El nombre del Per煤. Lima: Talleres Gr谩ficos P.L. Villanueva, 1968.
  • Thorp, Rosemary and Geoffrey Bertram. Peru 1890鈥1977: growth and policy in an open economy. New York: Columbia University Press, 1978, ISBN 0231034334

Further reading

Economy
  • (in Spanish) Banco Central de Reserva. Cuadros Anuales Hist贸ricos.
  • (in Spanish) Instituto Nacional de Estad铆stica e Inform谩tica. Per煤: Perfil de la pobreza por departamentos, 2004鈥2008. Lima: INEI, 2009.
  • Concha, Jaime. "Poetry, c. 1920鈥1950". In: Leslie Bethell (ed.), A cultural history of Latin America. Cambridge: University of Cambridge, 1998, pp. 227鈥260.

External links

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license