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Petrol (Gasoline) Engine vs Diesel Engine
Petrol (Gasoline) Engine vs Diesel Engine
Published: 2015/05/18
Channel: Learn Engineering
The Differences Between Petrol and Diesel Engines
The Differences Between Petrol and Diesel Engines
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: Car Throttle
How Gasoline Engine Works
How Gasoline Engine Works
Published: 2012/06/20
Channel: Automotive Basics
2 stroke petrol engine working animation hd
2 stroke petrol engine working animation hd
Published: 2017/04/10
Channel: Physics and animation
How Four Stroke Petrol Engine Works
How Four Stroke Petrol Engine Works
Published: 2017/09/05
Channel: Engineering Girlfriend
Model 4stroke petrol engine
Model 4stroke petrol engine
Published: 2011/04/01
Channel: diyengines
Petrol Engine Animation.
Petrol Engine Animation.
Published: 2011/06/30
Channel: Ibnul Hossain
How an engine works - comprehensive tutorial animation featuring Toyota engine technologies
How an engine works - comprehensive tutorial animation featuring Toyota engine technologies
Published: 2011/11/08
Channel: allegroracing
What
What's the Difference Between Petrol & Diesel? - Bang Goes The The Theory - Brit Lab - BBC
Published: 2015/05/16
Channel: BBC Earth Lab
Putting Petrol Into A Diesel Car #TBT - Fifth Gear
Putting Petrol Into A Diesel Car #TBT - Fifth Gear
Published: 2015/12/17
Channel: Fifth Gear
Four Stroke Engine How it Works
Four Stroke Engine How it Works
Published: 2013/03/16
Channel: 3D_Guy_2008
Starting 850 H.P. 8 cyl, 4 carbs, 32 spark plugs, gasoline engine
Starting 850 H.P. 8 cyl, 4 carbs, 32 spark plugs, gasoline engine
Published: 2009/01/03
Channel: pileofiron
Petrol engine Vs Diesel engine
Petrol engine Vs Diesel engine
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: PR Play
10 Of The Smallest Petrol Engines In The World
10 Of The Smallest Petrol Engines In The World
Published: 2017/06/04
Channel: VisioRacer
Homemade 4 stroke petrol engine
Homemade 4 stroke petrol engine
Published: 2010/12/15
Channel: Bradley Francis
Mini car made using 135cc petrol engine
Mini car made using 135cc petrol engine
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: sai krishna prasad gazula
Four Stroke Petrol Engine by Sanjeev Sir । Study Channel
Four Stroke Petrol Engine by Sanjeev Sir । Study Channel
Published: 2016/11/24
Channel: Study Channel
Four Strock Petrol Engine Working Principle.flv
Four Strock Petrol Engine Working Principle.flv
Published: 2011/12/30
Channel: Biju Nair
Raleigh RSW16 petrol engine bike RSW 16
Raleigh RSW16 petrol engine bike RSW 16
Published: 2016/05/18
Channel: Graham Innes
Electric cars vs Petrol cars
Electric cars vs Petrol cars
Published: 2017/07/31
Channel: Learn Engineering
#25cc# Petrol Engine
#25cc# Petrol Engine
Published: 2013/02/10
Channel: jojomcc1000
How the new Ford EcoBoost 1.0-litre petrol engine works
How the new Ford EcoBoost 1.0-litre petrol engine works
Published: 2012/10/15
Channel: TestDriven
Best Sounding Diesel Engines That Sounds Better Than Petrol Engines
Best Sounding Diesel Engines That Sounds Better Than Petrol Engines
Published: 2017/08/25
Channel: Car News Central
How 4 stroke petrol engine  works?(hindi)
How 4 stroke petrol engine works?(hindi)
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: FREE EDUCATION ON AUTOMOBILE
Working of four stroke petrol engine
Working of four stroke petrol engine
Published: 2013/03/03
Channel: vimarsh vadalia
FOUR STROKE PETROL ENGINE (WORKING) हिन्दी ! LEARN AND GROW
FOUR STROKE PETROL ENGINE (WORKING) हिन्दी ! LEARN AND GROW
Published: 2017/03/14
Channel: LEARN AND GROW
How 4-Stroke Gasoline Engines Work! (Otto cycle)
How 4-Stroke Gasoline Engines Work! (Otto cycle)
Published: 2013/09/23
Channel: Thomas Schwenke
How Diesel Engines Work - Part - 1 (Four Stroke Combustion Cycle)
How Diesel Engines Work - Part - 1 (Four Stroke Combustion Cycle)
Published: 2014/04/16
Channel: Automotive Basics
TOYOTA | 1.2T direct injection turbocharged petrol engine
TOYOTA | 1.2T direct injection turbocharged petrol engine
Published: 2015/06/26
Channel: Toyota Europe
How four stroke petrol engine works in HINDI
How four stroke petrol engine works in HINDI
Published: 2017/09/13
Channel: Engineering Girlfriend
102 year old Kerosene-petrol engine start-up - Deutz-Otto motor
102 year old Kerosene-petrol engine start-up - Deutz-Otto motor
Published: 2014/04/02
Channel: Sebastian Nils
Working of four stroke petrol engine in Hindi
Working of four stroke petrol engine in Hindi
Published: 2017/07/23
Channel: Mechgineer's Classroom
Difference Between Diesel Engine And Petrol Engine Explained In  Tamil
Difference Between Diesel Engine And Petrol Engine Explained In Tamil
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING TAMIL
Working of  Carburetor in Petrol Engine- Motorcycle(4 stroke)-Practically.
Working of Carburetor in Petrol Engine- Motorcycle(4 stroke)-Practically.
Published: 2015/03/27
Channel: Pawankumar Gurav
Diesel Vs Petrol Engine: Which one is right for you? | Auto Expert John Cadogan | Australia
Diesel Vs Petrol Engine: Which one is right for you? | Auto Expert John Cadogan | Australia
Published: 2017/04/23
Channel: AutoExpertTV
How to Check Petrol Engine Properly ? Clutch | Gear | Used Cars
How to Check Petrol Engine Properly ? Clutch | Gear | Used Cars
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: THE SECOND HAND GARAGE
Gasoline -  How a Petrol Engine Works - Internal Combustion Animation 1930s
Gasoline - How a Petrol Engine Works - Internal Combustion Animation 1930s
Published: 2014/09/26
Channel: Historia - Bel99TV
How 2-Stroke Petrol Engine Works?
How 2-Stroke Petrol Engine Works?
Published: 2016/06/12
Channel: FREE EDUCATION ON AUTOMOBILE
2 stroke petrol engine.3gp
2 stroke petrol engine.3gp
Published: 2011/07/11
Channel: Nikhil Asudani
How to decarbonise a Petrol Engine
How to decarbonise a Petrol Engine
Published: 2014/06/22
Channel: BMAC VAGS
Titan ZG23SL Rc Plane petrol engine
Titan ZG23SL Rc Plane petrol engine
Published: 2016/07/03
Channel: Rob Tomlin
Diesel vs Petrol engine COLD start! Which starts better?
Diesel vs Petrol engine COLD start! Which starts better?
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: SoulTrain
Two stroke petrol Engine ,in Hindi टू स्ट्रोक पेट्रोल इंजन
Two stroke petrol Engine ,in Hindi टू स्ट्रोक पेट्रोल इंजन
Published: 2017/03/10
Channel: DESI ENGINEERING
Liqui-Moly Petrol Engine Intake Decarb
Liqui-Moly Petrol Engine Intake Decarb
Published: 2015/03/22
Channel: Supercheap Auto
petrol engine 4 in-line
petrol engine 4 in-line
Published: 2009/02/07
Channel: azbee enterprise ruby
SKYACTIV-G Petrol Engine   A Technical Explanation by one of Mazda
SKYACTIV-G Petrol Engine A Technical Explanation by one of Mazda's Engineers
Published: 2014/03/18
Channel: Mazda New Zealand
NISSAN LAUNCHES ZEOD
NISSAN LAUNCHES ZEOD'S PETROL ENGINE
Published: 2014/01/28
Channel: Nissan Middle East
Scratchbuild 10cc RC Boat  Water Cooled Petrol Engine
Scratchbuild 10cc RC Boat Water Cooled Petrol Engine
Published: 2011/02/19
Channel: dimitrios maheras
Volvo to End the Petrol Engine - Only Make Electric & Hybrid
Volvo to End the Petrol Engine - Only Make Electric & Hybrid
Published: 2017/07/05
Channel: Climate State
Evolution - EVO-System Petrol Engine & 3" Dirty Water Pump
Evolution - EVO-System Petrol Engine & 3" Dirty Water Pump
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: Machine Mart
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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W16 petrol engine of the Bugatti Veyron

A petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine in American English) is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels.

In most petrol engines, the fuel and air are usually pre-mixed before compression (although some modern petrol engines now use cylinder-direct petrol injection). The pre-mixing was formerly done in a carburetor, but now it is done by electronically controlled fuel injection, except in small engines where the cost/complication of electronics does not justify the added engine efficiency. The process differs from a diesel engine in the method of mixing the fuel and air, and in using spark plugs to initiate the combustion process. In a diesel engine, only air is compressed (and therefore heated), and the fuel is injected into very hot air at the end of the compression stroke, and self-ignites.

History[edit]

The first practical petrol engine was built in 1876 in Germany by Nikolaus August Otto, although there had been earlier attempts by Étienne Lenoir, Siegfried Marcus, Julius Hock and George Brayton.[1] The first petrol combustion engine (one cylinder, 121.6 cm3 displacement) was prototyped in 1882 in Italy by Enrico Bernardi. British engineer Edward Butler constructed the first petrol (gasoline) internal combustion engine. Butler invented the spark plug, ignition magneto, coil ignition and spray jet carburetor, and was the first to use the word petrol.[2]

Compression ratio[edit]

With both air and fuel in a closed cylinder, compressing the mixture too much poses the danger of auto-ignition — or behaving like a diesel engine. Because of the difference in burn rates between the two different fuels, petrol engines are mechanically designed with different timing than diesels, so to auto-ignite a petrol engine causes the expansion of gas inside the cylinder to reach its greatest point before the cylinder has reached the "top dead center" (T.D.C) position. Spark plugs are typically set statically or at idle at a minimum of 10 degrees or so of crankshaft rotation before the piston reaches T.D.C, but at much higher values at higher engine speeds to allow time for the fuel-air charge to substantially complete combustion before too much expansion has occurred - gas expansion occurring with the piston moving down in the power stroke. Higher octane petrol burns slower, therefore it has a lower propensity to auto-ignite and its rate of expansion is lower. Thus, engines designed to run high-octane fuel exclusively can achieve higher compression ratios.

Most modern automobile petrol engines generally have a compression ratio of 10.0:1 to 13.5:1.[3] Engines with a knock sensor can and usually have C.R higher than 11.1:1 and approaches 14.0:1 (for high octane fuel and usually with direct fuel injection) and engines without a knock sensor generally have C.R of 8.0:1 to 10.5:1.[4][5]

Speed and efficiency[edit]

Petrol engines run at higher rotation speeds than diesels, partially due to their lighter pistons, connecting rods and crankshaft (a design efficiency made possible by lower compression ratios) and due to petrol burning more quickly than diesel.

Because pistons in petrol engines tend to have much shorter strokes than pistons in diesel engines, typically it takes less time for a piston in a petrol engine to complete its stroke than a piston in a diesel engine. However the lower compression ratios of petrol engines give petrol engines lower efficiency than diesel engines.

Typically, most petrol engines have approximately 20%(avg.) thermal efficiency, which is nearly half of diesel engines. However some newer engines are reported to be much efficient(thermal efficiency up to 38%) than previous spark-ignition engines.[6]

Applications[edit]

Current[edit]

Petrol engines have many applications, including:

Historical[edit]

Before the use of diesel engines became widespread, petrol engines were used in buses, lorries (trucks) and a few railway locomotives. Examples:

Design[edit]

Working cycles[edit]

Four-stroke petrol engine

Petrol engines may run on the four-stroke cycle or the two-stroke cycle. For details of working cycles see:

Cylinder arrangement[edit]

Common cylinder arrangements are from 1 to 6 cylinders in-line or from 2 to 16 cylinders in V-formation. Flat engines – like a V design flattened out – are common in small airplanes and motorcycles and were a hallmark of Volkswagen automobiles into the 1990s. Flat 6s are still used in many modern Porsches, as well as Subarus. Many flat engines are air-cooled. Less common, but notable in vehicles designed for high speeds is the W formation, similar to having 2 V engines side by side. Alternatives include rotary and radial engines the latter typically have 7 or 9 cylinders in a single ring, or 10 or 14 cylinders in two rings.

Cooling[edit]

Petrol engines may be air-cooled, with fins (to increase the surface area on the cylinders and cylinder head); or liquid-cooled, by a water jacket and radiator. The coolant was formerly water, but is now usually a mixture of water and either ethylene glycol or propylene glycol. These mixtures have lower freezing points and higher boiling points than pure water and also prevent corrosion, with modern antifreezes also containing lubricants and other additives to protect water pump seals and bearings. The cooling system is usually slightly pressurized to further raise the boiling point of the coolant.

Ignition[edit]

Petrol engines use spark ignition and high voltage current for the spark may be provided by a magneto or an ignition coil. In modern car engines the ignition timing is managed by an electronic Engine Control Unit.

Power measurement[edit]

The most common way of engine rating is what is known as the brake power, measured at the flywheel, and given in kilowatts (metric) or horsepower (Imperial/USA). This is the actual mechanical power output of the engine in a usable and complete form. The term "brake" comes from the use of a brake in a dynamometer test to load the engine. For accuracy, it is important to understand what is meant by usable and complete. For example, for a car engine, apart from friction and thermodynamic losses inside the engine, power is absorbed by the water pump, alternator, and radiator fan, thus reducing the power available at the flywheel to move the car along. Power is also absorbed by the power steering pump and air conditioner (if fitted), but these are not installed for a power output test or calculation. Power output varies slightly according to the energy value of the fuel, the ambient air temperature and humidity, and the altitude. Therefore, there are agreed standards in the USA and Europe on the fuel to use when testing, and engines are rated at 25 ⁰C (Europe), and 64 ⁰F (USA)[7] at sea level, 50% humidity. Marine engines, as supplied, usually have no radiator fan, and often no alternator. In such cases the quoted power rating does not allow for losses in the radiator fan and alternator. The SAE in USA, and the ISO in Europe publish standards on exact procedures, and how to apply corrections for deviating conditions like high altitude.

Car testers are most familiar with the chassis dynamometer or "rolling road" installed in many workshops. This measures drive wheel brake horsepower, which is generally 15-20% less than the brake horsepower measured at the crankshaft or flywheel on an engine dynamometer. A YouTube video shows workshop measurement of a car's power. The measured power curve in kW is shown at 3:39.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Who Invented the Car?". 
  2. ^ "Hiram Maxim and Edward Butler:Two local inventors". Bexley. Bexley. Retrieved 11 April 2016. 
  3. ^ "Compression Ratio Theory in Petrol and Diesel Engines explained with Diagram -". CrankIT. 2014-04-03. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  4. ^ "Energy efficiency of vehicles". www.hk-phy.org. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  5. ^ "Direct Fuel Injection - What It Is and How It Works". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  6. ^ "Toyota Gasoline Engine Achieves Thermal Efficiency Of 38 Percent". Green Car Reports. Retrieved 2017-10-07. 
  7. ^ "Regulations and Standards". EPA. EPA. Retrieved 11 April 2016. 


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